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and compelledit toemploysuch mea- ty; and they charged their gene-
sures as the important and extraor- rals to give affittance to such peo-
dinary circumstances of the country ple, and to defend such citizens
appeared to demand: that, at length, as have fuffered, or are now suffer-
however, France, disdaining to con- ing, in the cauic of liberty.” This
tinue its base and artiul deligns decree, which was ordered to be
against the conftitution and go- printed and translated in all the
vernment of Great-Britain, or de- languages of Europe, contained a
fpairing of any final advantage be- formal declaration to extend uni-
ing reaped from them, lad risen at versally the new and diftruti ive prin-
once into an avowed intention of ciples of government adopted in
provoking it to war, and that in this France, and to encourage revolt in
view,, among others, it was deter- all other countries; even in those
mined, by the executive power of which poflefled the exclusive lanc-
France, to set aside the law of na tions of a neutral character.
tions, and to trample on treaties, The alarm of danger which had
by declaring not only its design, been spread throughout this king-
but its right, to open the navigadom, not only to th: public peace,
tion of the Scheldt. It was added, but the constitution itself, began to
that the French had already obtain- yield to the means which were now
ed potlefion of the Belgic Pro- employed to unfold and controul
vinces by force of arms, and were those practices by which it had
impelled by their mad ambition to been produced. It was faid to
encroach on Holland, with a view have arisen from the pernicious
to a fimilar fubjugation of that principles of the rights of man,
country: that the Convention, there- firii propagated by the French, and
fore, as a preparatory ttep to this lince diffeminated through this
continuation of their aggrandizing country: that under various pre-
project,had made known in Novem- tences, but particularly that of par-
ber 1792, their design of opening liamentary reform, clubs and socie.
the Scheldt, in direct opposition to ties were cliablished, which met in
treatics of which England was a various parts of the kingdom, and
guarantee, and to the manifest dit- circulated the abominable doc-
advantage of the commerce of the trines of the French Convention,
United Provinces, who were the among the iniddle and lower claties
allies of England, to whom they of the people, to make them dil-
naturally looked for that protec- contented with the government be-
tion, which they had a righi to de- neath which they lived, and thoie

who administered it: that thus they It was further declared, that hoped to prepare their minds for the French Convention allo, as any attempt that might be hereafa kind of general declaration against ter made to overturn the governiall fubjišting guvernments, bot, on- ment of the country: that in some the 19th of November, illued a of these works, which traiterous ardecree in the name of the French tifice contrived to convey into the Repliblie, “that they would grant Jowett cottage, the confiitution was fraternity and ailistance to all those mentioned with fome degree of people who wish to procure liber- tant respect, but repretented as loft

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amid the abuses of those whose instituted at the Crown and Ana, duty it was to administer its bene- chor-tavern, in the Strand. This. fits: while others defcribed the measure was firit, we believe, conftitution of Great-Britain,which suggeited, we know it was first has so long been the admiration entered upon by a Mr. Reeves, for and envy of Europe, and afforded the avowed purpose of protecting fich unrivalled happiness to those liberty and property against the who have lived beneath it, as an daring attempts of republicans and invafion of those rights, to which levellers, which immediately enevery one had an equal claim, creased into a very numerous body and of which the wealthy and the of subscribers, among whom were powerful affumed the power of dif- many of the most wealthy persons pohing

, under the pretence of anci- and refpe&able characters in the enteuftom and hereditary privilege. kingdom. The merchants of Lon

That such proceedings required don followed the example; and to be checked, controuled and pu- associations, for the support of the mithed, could not be denied by any constitution, fprung up, not only in ubo poffets just notions of the na- different quarters of the metropolis, ture of man in his social state ; and but in every part of the kingdom. therefore government employed The effects of these associations fach measures as appeared to be were such as might be expected the beft calculated to correct this from the spirit and zeal with which growing and threatening mischief. they were conducted and mainHis Majesty's proclamation, and tained; but we muft defer a prethe vigilant attention of ministers, cise description of them till we checked its career. But though come to that period of our history the arm of law is sufficiently which will particularly require it. trong to keep the open invader It was, however, deemed neceitary of the constitution in awe, it to take fome general notice of these was not altogether enabled to fift establithments as being preliminary out the secret arts which were to, and co-operative with, thote working under ground, and by measures of government which the hidden approaches were under- circumstances of the moment apmining the fabric of public hap- peared to demand, and these pages pinefs. It became necessary there are about to ditplay. fore to aid the more unweildy There circumítances were of such eforts of law in counteracting the a nature, that the King availed arations of thele secret enemies, himself of the power he poflefled by employing their own weapons by law, to embody the militia, to againt them; and as their hofti- convene parliament before the time, lities were carried on by focieties, to which it was prorogued, and to clubs, and familiar publications, call on the reprefentative wisdom fuited to the meanest capacity, it of the people for aid and council in became a public duty to establish such an important crisis. alsociations, and prepare books to From the memorable roth of oppose them. Accordingly, in No- Augatt, when Louis XVI. loft the vember last, an affociation was poor remains of furryer power, 10

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the period when he was about to diabolic designs as an unanimous lose his life, the interior govern- and determined spirit of resistance. ment of France offered nothing to Such was the general state of public the view of mankind but scenes of affairs at the meeting of parliament atrocity and horror, that make hu- which took place on the 13th of manity shudder in the recollection December, 1792. This meeting of of them. But though republican parliament, therefore, will be diffanaticism might triumph in these tinguished by two extraordinary proceedings; though it might de- circumftances. Some of those memlight in the murder of one sove- bers of both houses who had been reign, and applaud the menaces for years the opponents of governwhich were uttered against every ment, will be seen to support its other, the wise, the good, and the measures, not only with their votes humane of all countries, could not but their eloquence; and the prime but execrate the conduct of the minister will not poilers a feat in it. French government, and consider Mr. Pitt having accepted the office with horror the mischief it por- of warden of the Cinque Ports, tended to surrounding nations.- was obliged to wait for the forms Visionary men, whose heated fan- of re-election ; so that the very cies can work up imaginary good important debates, of which some from the blackett scenes of human account will be iminediately given, distress; or those who, ruined by did not receive the advantage of their excefles, may hope to derive his superior talents and fplendid individual advantage from general eloquence. confusion; or mischievous spirits, The speech from the throne dewho consider evil as their good, clared, that his Majesty having could alone delight in the view of judged it neceffary to embody a those pictures which France pre- part of the militia, he had called sented, to satisfy their frantic hopes, the parliament together within the or their diabolic malignity. time limited for that purpose. It

Among the circumstances of this attributed these measures to sedieventful period, we cannot omit tious pra&tices that had already noticing the change which took been discovered, and a spirit of place in the state of the opposition tumult and disarder that had thewn party. Some of its most diftin- itself in such ads of riot and insurguished supporters imagining that rection, as to require the interthis was a time of alarm and dan- position of a military force to fupger, when all party spirit should port the civil magistrate. It consubside, when all party contentions tinued to mention, that the infhould cease, and when all men of duttry employed to excite disconall parties should unite to support tent, on various pretexts, and in the government of the country, different parts of the kingdom, considered our external as well appeared to procecd from a design as internal enemies, to be of a to attempt the destruction of our species which had never yet been happy constitution, and the subencountered; and that no weapon vertion of all order and governcould so effectually oppose their ment į and that this design has


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evidently been pursued in con- and honourable peace; and which, nection and concert with perfons from their tendency, promised to in foreign countries.

secure the future tranquillity of His Majesty declared, that he the British dominions in that part had observed a striet neutrality in of the world. After directing the the present war, on the Continent, attention of parliament to such and uniformly abftained from any measures as may appear necessary interference with respect to the in- for the future government of those ternal affairs of France; but that valuable poffeffions, and to secure it was impossible for him to see, the important advantages which without the most serious uneasiness, may be derived from thence to the the ftrong and encreasing indica- commerce and revenue of this tions which appeared there, of an country. intention to excite disturbances in The speech concluded with reother countries, to disregard the commending to parliament to adopt rights of neutral nations, and to such measures as may be neceffary, pursue views of conquest and ag- under the present circumstances, grandisement, as well as to adopt, of enforcing obedience to the laws, towards his allies, the States-Ge- and for reprefling every attempt neral, measures which are neither to disturb the peace and tranconformable to the law of nations, quillity of these kingdoms. nor to the positive ftipulations of “ In endeavouring (added his exifting treaties. Under all those Majesty) to preserve and to tranfcircumstances, he felt it to be his mit to pofterity, the inestimable indispensable duty to have recourse blessings which, under the favour to those means of prevention and of Providence, you have yourselves internal defence with which he experienced, you may be assured of was entrufied by law; and that he my zealous and cordial co-opehad also thought it right to take ration; and our joint efforts will, steps for making some augmen- I doubt not, be rendered comtation of his naval and military pletely effectual, by the decided force, being perfuaded that these support of a free and loyal people." exertions were necessary in the pre The address was moved by fir fent ftate of affairs, and are best James Saunderson, the lord-mayor calculated both to maintain in- of London. terual tranquillity, and to render a In his speech, the right hon, brm and temperate conduct effec- magistrate particularly stated, that tuad for preserving the bleslings of the feditious practices which had prace,

been considerably checked by his la the conclusion of the speech, Majesty's proclamation at the close bis Majesty expressed the great of the lait session, were renewed pleasure he felt in mentioning the with augmented force. That nubrilliant fuccefles of the British merous focieties being established arms in India, under the able within the city of London, correconduc of Marquis Cornwallis, fponding and confederating with which had led to the termination other societies in different parts of of the war, by an advantageous the united kingdoms, all formed


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under specious pretences, but ac- ternal danger. He then mention. tually tending to subvert the con- ed the situation of our ancient ally, ftitution of the country. These the States General of the United societies, fo connected, concerted Provinces ; for, added he, if meaand executed the means of circu- sures have been, or are to be, purlating with great activity and in- sued, as respecting them, repugdustry, and free from all cost to nant to the law of nations, and the receivers, a great variety of positive treaties, approved by parpernicious pamphlets and publi- liament and the country; it apcations, accommodated to the pe- peared evident to bin that we rufal of the meanest capacity, and ought to interpose ; and that we manifeftly tending to create doubt are, by these preparations, the bet. and discontent in the minds of the ter able to do it with effect. . lower claties of his fellow-fubjects; Mr. Wallace, after enlarging on and, by a flow but fure means, to the several topics of the speech, alienate, their minds from their seconded the address. allegiance to the King, and from Lord Fielding thought it the their attachment to the consti- duty of every man who was a friend tution, as established by law, to the constitution in church and Under these circumstances, and state, to hazard every thing, at this recollecting also the fatal confe- alarming period, in support of it. quences of insurrection, and want For his part, he added, if minif-of timely cxertion, some years ago, ters required extraordinary powers, in the capital; and recollecting on the present occasion, he was likewise the calamities which have ready to vote them. more recently overwhelmed the Lord Wycombe founded his opmetropolis of a neighbouring king- position to the address, on its being, dom, írom an apparent want of in a great measure, unintelligible precaution, he felt himicif bound to him; though he should not hein duty to put his fellow-citizens sitate to fay, that the speech caon their guard, and the decided lumniated the people of England; Inanner in which they had fecond- who, inftead of discovering any ed him, had given vigour to his fymptoms of insurrection, vere, at feeble efforts. Their loyal, fea- that moment, overflowing with sonable, and determined caduct, loyalty. He believed, that with at this important crifis, aided by respect to forms of government, the firm and temperate measures there might be different opinions of prevention adopted by govern- held in England ;--but they were ment, had restored tranquillity to merely speculative; and ought pot the city, and awed the societies to to occafion any alarm to the minir. which he had alluded into a ters of the crown, unless they were change of conduct. He obierved, called forth inio action, and made that beneficial as the preparations the ground-work of active meaof government had been relveli- sures. - He spoke, with great coning internal commotion, they cern, of ibat part of his majesty's might be found till more useful fpeech which adverted to the pofand provident, if applied to ex- libility of a foreigu var: he could


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