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I am talking about understand what I mean. Doubtless it can be argued that by a little activity of imagination, and a slight exercise of metaphysical ingenuity, it may be shown that the weakest link in the chain of circumstances making up the history of a country, has been essential to the whole order of subsequent events. But when I speak of the causations that have enabled Argentina to assume her position of proud pre-eminence in pastoral wealth, I speak of the obvious and important agency of one factor upon another, and not of remote and infinitesimal influences. The sequence of causes I have endeavoured to emphasise is threefold. First, a vast stretch of level country with a soil of marvellous fertility; secondly, the favourable environment for the economical production of the most necessary cereals; thirdly, the prodigious worth of the alfalfa plant. In these three causes we recognise the design of the Designer; and in the great prosperity of the country the deserved recompense of an industrious, thrifty, and intellectual people.

Since writing this paper "The Statesman's Year Book" gives the official returns of exports and imports for Argentina in 1905 as: Exports, £64,568,500; Imports, £41,030,800.



The following birds were described, and their relation to locust destruction, and the movement of locust swarms, pointed out :

Glareola melanogaster.
Glareola fusca.

Dilophus carunculator.

Hirundo albigulator.

White stork.

White bellied stork.

Blue crane.

White egrot.


Hawks and others.

Published in the Journal of the South African Ornithological






This paper discussed the life history, destructiveness and methods of combating the following insect pests :

The Orange tree butterfly (Papilio demoleus.)
The lucerne caterpillar (Colias electra.)

The pigweed caterpillar (Caradrina exigna.)
Bagrada Bug (Bagrada hilaris.)

These accounts have been written up in more detail, and published in the "Transvaal Agricultural Journal."


The separating line between horticulture and agriculture is difficult to define. Certain crops, like grapes, cabbages, and potatoes, belong to the former when cultivated on a small scale, and to the latter when cultivated on a large scale. Other crops, like mealies and beetroot, belong to the former when certain varieties are grown for household use, and to the latter when other varieties are grown for stock-feed or milling. The two terms really overlap, and what is pure horticulture in one country or district, like plum or strawberry culture, may be as pure agriculture in another, through variation in extent, methods, and uses. In South Africa, as elsewhere, the local limitations of horticulture are somewhat arbitrary, landscape work and floriculture, as well as extensive farming operations in fruit and vegetables, being included thereunder, while agriculture covers rather the raising of crops intended for stock-feed or for milling. Garden culture as against field culture hardly applies, since the garden may be up to any size, while the field may be very small indeed, and in either case the nature of the work may be either intensive or extensive. For the purposes of the present paper, fruit, flowers, vegetables, decorative trees and shrubs, ornamental plants, and landscape art are considered under horticulture, whatever the scale on which operations are carried on.


In the early history of South Africa horticulture evidently played a proportionately larger part in the domestic economy than it does to-day, the first settlement at the Cape having been established in 1652 by the Netherlands East India Company for the express purpose of supplying fresh vegetables, etc., and water, to its passing ships. Within a year from that date vines were imported from Europe, and during the succeeding years propagation and further importation of the vine took place largely, the stand of vine plants 35 years afterwards (i.e., before the arrival of the Huguenots) being more than half a million, though the population was then still under 500. Winemaking began before the settlement was eight years old, and brandymaking before it was 30 years old. The interest taken in the gardens at that time is shown by some of the earliest Dutch placaats, No. 5, dated December 21st, 1653, fixing the penalty for robbing the gardens at two years in chains, while No. 52, dated February 21st, 1660, fixes the penalty for injuring fruit trees at 12 months' hard labour. Even at that early date the Company imported European fruit trees, as well as oaks, pines, poplars, etc., and planted them in its own gardens, while by Placaat No. 48, 1659, "All the freemen on the other side of the river Liesbeek were ordered to enclose their lands with pega-pegas, and to plant them with wild almonds."

The early Dutch Governors appear to have missed no opportunity to import useful plants, alike from Europe and from the East Indies, and as soon as settlements were made in other parts of South Africa, Cape Town formed the centre of horticultural distribution, each pioneer family treking out into the unknown regions beyond, taking with it what was considered necessary to start a garden.

Perhaps the greatest advance ever made in South African horticulture began with the arrival of the Huguenots in 1688.

Coming from a part of Europe where horticulture formed even then a large portion of the industrial wealth, and at a time when considerable advancement had already been made in securing improved varieties, it was only to be expected, as has happened, that they brought with them stocks of the best kinds Europe had at that time, and were very careful to propagate these in the land of their adoption. This and subsequent importation during the next hundred and fifty years accounts for the good kinds of peaches, apples and pears to be found as very old trees in the oldest gardens, and variation from these occurred through using seed as well as scions to increase the number, clingstone peaches especially retaining the general characters of the old Pavie class, though varying somewhat in local seedlings from which local varieties sprang. One reason why the Huguenot families were selected or encouraged to come to South Africa was because of their knowledge of viticulture and wine-making, the fact that the vine grows well at the Cape having previously been demonstrated. The number of vines increased about six-fold during the first 20 years of their residence, and the export of Cape wines dates from that period (say 1707). The old oak trees in the Avenue, Cape Town, are probably among the oldest horticultural specimens now extant in South Africa, dating from Simon van der Stel's time (1679-1699), as also does the well-known estate of Constantia. From that time onward introductions continued to dribble in slowly, no notable boom in importation having occurred till quite recently, though few really good and suitable European novelties failed to be represented in some South African collection, and to be distributed in accordance with merit and adaptability.


From 1770 to 1820, however, the flow of plants took the opposite direction, the extraordinary wealth of South Africa in certain floral lines having attracted attention and brought numerous and ardent collectors both of living plants and of dried specimens, to these shores. Besides private collectors, the Royal Gardens, Kew, and the Royal Horticultural Society, several nursery firms were represented, and the material sent home, including as it did many species of Pelargonium, Proteaceæ, Mesembryanthemum, Oxalis, Helichrysum, Gladiolus, Ixia, Crinum, Agapanthus, Clivia, Kniphofia, Bulbine, Gloriosa, Aloe, Asparagus, etc., created quite a tion, and brought into existence a very miscellaneous and meritorious


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