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LIST OF FIGURES.

Fig. 1.-Showing in diagrammatic form some of the figures given

in Table I.

Fig. 2.-Showing figures given in Table II.

Fig. 3.-Showing from Pumping returns at Atalanta that a large

increase of water was lifted with a small increase of coal burnt.

Fig. 4.—Showing for London from 1886-1900 the population sup

plied, the water delivered, and the annual cost of maintenance and management. Attention is directed to the high amount of water supplied in 1895 due to the exceptional quantity used during a period of severe frost. The pumping expenses for the year do not rise in the same proportion, showing that pumping expenses are not necessarily in proportion to the quantity of water lifted.

Fig. 5.-Showing in gallons per head per diem the water consumed

in trade, municipal, domestic purposes and waste. Where there is a water carriage sewage system a certain amount of " domestic” must be allocated to sanitary," leaving only a small proportion of the total consumption under the control of the consumer.

Fig. 6.-Showing water consumption before and after inspection for

detection of waste water.

Fig. 7.-Showing water "used” as area above night line and water

" wasted as area below night line.

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English Tarn Johannesburg London
VaR)

New River)
Water Aating Day 9.11. HERDH AN

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By F A. HURLEY, F.C.H., A.M.I.C.E.

So much has been written of late years about Egypt and the Nile, that it is safe to assume that it is now a matter of common knowledge that the Nile has been the creative agency by which the land of the Pharoahs has been evolved, and is almost the sole means by which life is sustained in a country that, without it, would be as barren and uninhabitable as the surrounding desert.

Since the overthrow of the Khalifa at the battle of Omdurman in 1899, much has been learnt about the basin of the Upper Nile that was previously unknown, and any thorough description of the irrigation question in Egypt at the present day, involves a consideration of the whole river from its sources at the Great Lakes in Central Africa and Abyssinia to the sea.

Even the most meagre description of the river would, however, require much more space than is usually considered ample for a single paper. The historical development of irrigation in Egypt, moreover, took place in Egypt proper ; that which depends on the Upper Nile is only in the course of development at the present day.

It is proposed to describe the irrigation system of the country and its development more from the aspect of the political economist than from that of the Engineer, and therefore no attempt is made here to deal with the general questions of the Nile.

The present paper deals only with irrigation in Egypt proper, that is, that part of the Nile basin between the first cataract at Assouan and the Mediterranean Sea. In writing it, the author has drawn liberally and sometimes verbatim on most of the literature that has appeared on the subject, notably :

The Delta Barrage, by Sir H. Brown.
England in Egypt, by Lord Milner.
Egyptian Irrigation, by Sir W. Willcocks.
Administration Reports of the Egyptian

the Egyptian Public Works Department.

From Assouan to Cairo the Nile flows in a narrow valley, flanked, north of Luxor (the ancient Thebes), by high cliffs of white limestone, from the tops of which the true desert extends east and west. Between the foot of the cliffs and the actual channel of the river lie, first, a narrow strip of desert, and then a belt of cultivated soil which has been deposited by the overflowing of the Nile during many thousands of years.

At Cairo the cliffs recede from the river, and the valley opens out into the broad deltaic formation of Lower Egypt; the country between Cairo and Assouan being known as Upper Egypt. A few miles north of Cairo the Nile bifurcates into two main branches, called, from the names of the towns at their mouths, the Damietta and Rosetta branches.

It is almost needless to say that, as the cultivable land of Egypt has been formed by a continuous deposit from the Nile as it slopes away from the river to the foot of the desert hills.

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