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something else altogether with your ground. Everyone who knows this country at all, knows that if artificial food could be obtained at a reasonably low price for some three or four months in the year, the amount of stock the country would carry could be easily doubled. Let any farmer now attempt to put on his farm as much stock as it will carry in the best part of the year, he will lose half of it by sheer starvation when the winter comes on or when the dry season is unusually prolonged ; find him fodder for a few months, and he might safely double the amount of his stock. I am not simply theorising, though I am no farmer, for the experience of England has proved this clearly enough—with the introduction of root crops for winter fodder, farms in England were enabled to carry a very much larger amount of stock than had previously been possible, and the same result would unquestionably follow in South Africa if artificial feeding for part of the year became practicable. Whether the crop to be raised on the irrigable lands I have advocated should be root or lucerne or what, is not for me to say—that is a question which would soon be solved. But that a market would be readily found for the produce is, I think, clear enough, while an enormous advantage to the whole country would accrue from the increased amount of live stock, which could be reared and maintained. The second difficulty is the cost.

" Sheer nonsense,” I can hear some people say,

" with the country verging on bankruptcy to even suggest such a thing—of course, it is impossible.” If I were seeking a seat in Parliament I should perhaps be ill-advised to put the suggestion in my election address, or to expatiate on it from the hustings, but I trust that an Association for the Advancement of Science is capable of taking a broader view of things than the average elector, and of looking farther ahead than the ordinary ratepayer. It is just when a country is at its worst that it is most important to take stock of its assets and see if the best is being made out of them that could be done. Are we making the best out of our waste land, out of our waste water, out of our waste labour—are we even making the best we can out of our grazing ground ? If we are not, should we not then seriously consider how we can use them to greater advantage? Suppose such a scheme as I have indicated did mean some increased taxation for a time, could we not possibly stand it, even hard up as we all are? A little less whiskey, a little less tobacco, a few less nights at the theatre, a star or two less on tour from England, a few less new dresses for our wives, our own dresssuits or tall hats a little less up to date—would any or all of these things be impossible to bear if we felt that the ultimate good of the whole country, and the immediate salvation of our destitute poor, demanded it of us ?

If we had to face a costly war to save our Colony or the Empire from danger, we should not hesitate about the cost ; can we not face the cost for such an object as I have indicated? Or was I right in my pessimistic suggestion that most wars were not philanthropic or patriotic, but commercial ? And even if I was right, surely if we can face the enormous expense of war for commercial reasons, we


should not shrink from the cost of a peaceful experiment which, if successful, would bring with it more blessings and more prosperity than the most successful war.

I have finished, because my time, not my subject, is exhausted. You may disagree with every word I have said, you may disprove almost every statement I have made, but you cannot get away from the fact that this problem of what to do with our unemployed is one of the most important, if not the most important, problem with which we have to deal. And as such I make no apology for thrusting it before you and saying think about it, look at it fairly and earnestly, and see if nothing can be done. The gold output, Chinese labour, the Customs tariff, the prospects of the share market, may be of extreme interest to some of us personally, but the problem of the unemployed is one which affects us all, and on the solution of which the prosperity or otherwise of unborn generations depends. Many of the greatest advances made in the last century, and particularly in the latter half of the century, have been due to the discovery of the means of utilising various waste products of industry. It is for this century to find the means of utilising that waste product of our industrial system as a whole,“ unemployed labour,” and so put an end to the misery and degradation, almost inevitable for those who

out of work," as well as to the present enormous Economic Waste.



By K. A. HOBART HOUGHTON, B.A. The subject of native higher education has been brought prominently before the public of South Africa through the movement to convince the Governments of the various Colonies that the natives of this country are anxious for the establishment of an inter-State Native College upon the lines of the recommendation of the interColonial Native Affairs Commission.

The need for some action on the part of Government to assist what, after all, is merely the natural development of century's educational work is receiving recognition in most quarters.

Once the duty of the State to foster higher education, and the principle of giving educational facilities to all who are able to take advantage of them-whatever their race or colour may be is admitted, it only remains to establish the necessity for an immediate advance, and the present proposals are fully justified.

The argument in their favour is based upon the pressing needs of the natives themselves and the welfare-intellectual, social, political and economic—of the whole country, both of which call for action in the not too distant future.

The better to realise how deep and widespread are the natives' actual wants in the direction of better or higher instruction, a brief outline of the progress and present position of native education may help.

The early years of last century saw the beginning of a school system for native children. It was the work of Christian missionaries, and has ever since been carried on by them. For fifty years the Church alone bore its cost before the Government assumed a share of the responsibility, and during the last thirty years the natives, the Governments and the Churches have contributed to its upkeep.

The initial difficulty of creating a demand for so unsubstantial a commodity as education gradually lessened and the number of schools grew beyond the control of the European teachers ; so that in 1841 the first school for the training of native teachers was established at Lovedale, and was soon followed by others belonging to the various religious bodies.

The object of these institutions was to further the more directly evangelistic efforts of the Church, and this intention, while perfectly natural and understandable in the circumstances, carried out in all native educational work, with its consequent tendency to subserve the interests of education to those of the Church's work, has had an effect not altogether beneficial to intellectual advance.

To Sir George Grey is due the honour of recognising the value of industrial training in the civilization of the Bantu-a discovery which the Moravian Missionaries had made years before and utilised in their work among the Hottentots. At his suggestion and with the help of his Government several of the missionary institutions opened industrial departments. Partly owing to lack of continuity in the Government policy towards this kind of work, partly to the disfavour with which the home supporters of missions regarded what seemingly had so little connection with spiritual work, but chiefly owing to the costly character of the work itself, many of these schools had to be abandoned. But in the one or two instances where the work has passed through its experimental stages and has established itself in the favour of natives and Europeans, its economic and educative value has been so fully demonstrated as to justify, in the opinion of those who have studied its results, the heavy expenditure it entails.

Thus it will be seen that there are three classes of mission school supported by Government, the elementary, the industrial and that for the training of pupil teachers.

But one of the natural results of all these years of labour has been the creation of a small and steadily increasing class of native students who aspire to, and are capable of, higher courses of instruction than these schools afford. Out of the hundred and fifty thousand pupils in school, one might expect that at least one in every thousand who start on the path of knowledge might like to pursue it past the sign-post known in this country as Standard VI. And Government makes no provision for them. One or two of the older institutions may attempt to meet the demand. Under present conditions, however, neither arrangements nor results can be called satisfactory; teacher and pupil labour under difficulties which only a re-modelling of the whole system can remove. Besides this, the expense of such classes

-no Government grant being obtainable—is out of proportion to the income of the institution, and were it not that their existence keeps open to natives the door to the higher branches of education, seems hardly justified by the results. To take one instance : In the College Department at Lovedale about fifty students are being prepared for the Matriculation and School Higher Examinations of the Cape University, at a cost of something like £750 a year, very little of which is covered by native fees.

That the desire on the part of a few for better education is more than a mere vague ambition to obtain something which they do not possess, is evidenced by the fact that a considerable number have already gone to Europe and to the Negro Colleges of America for that type of education they are unable to get here. No doubt many go to these Colleges who cannot possibly benefit from a genuine College course, and there may be a political significance attached to the movement. But the exodus to America is a fact, and, viewed from whatever point, can hardly be called desirable.

There is also a pressing need for better trained teachers to take charge of native schools. It is undoubtedly true that a difficulty is experienced in trying to keep pace with the rapid growth in the number of schools, with any kind of teacher, trained or untrained. But the best type of native youth is at present being lost to the teaching profession, though he may be trained for it. It is not sufficiently attractive. Interpreters and Clerks-even policemen and miners—are paid better than teachers. Nor are the majority turned out by the training institutions worth more than they get. The most pressing need of native education is not more teachers of the present type, but a few really educated and specially trained men. By attempting to meet it the status of the whole body of teachers would be raised, their career made more attractive, and the general supply increased. There are many acting teachers who would gladly enter a higher grade course, were such opened to them.

Behind all this there is the indefinite, but widespread, desire of the natives to obtain for the younger generation that knowledge” which they recognise has helped the white man to his present position of superiority. This leads one to point out briefly the intimate connection between the present movement in favour of a State-controlled Native College, and the future general welfare of the country.

A highly developed civilisation has come with the force and rapidity of an avalanche upon the Kafir living in his kraal. But it has not overwhelmed him. He is possessed of sufficient strength to assimilate it. But coming as it does, and finding him as he is, the period of assimilation is fraught with the greatest dangers. New forces have been released among the people. New hopes, new ambitions are stirring them. What the ultimate issue will be, it is difficult to say.

The points at which friction between Europeans and natives is possible are rapidly increasing. The two races are drawing nearer to one another before a mutual sympathy and understanding are sufficiently assured. It is therefore all important that the leaders of the native van should be men of wide sympathies, understanding European modes of thought, and recognising that the interests of either race are inextricably bound up with those of the other. The natives in recent years have given abundant proof that they intend advancing under the leadership of men of their

It will be the highest work of the proposed College to train such men who, by force of character and intellectual attain. ment, will worthily lead. Even the most enthusiastic negrophilist has little to say on behalf of the semi-educated native, whose bumptiousness and self-assertiveness are so much in evidence in our towns, except that he is a necessary evil of the present phase in the evolution of the Bantu. But unless something is done, this class, which must rapidly increase as time goes on, will continue in the ascendancy and provide leaders of the type that has already worked so much mischief. It is hardly an exaggeration to say that the proposed College will have opportunities of shaping the destinies of this country greater than were ever given to an educational insti. tution. Dr. Booker T. Washington, after twenty-five years work at Tuskegee has, in the opinion of American statesmen, pointed to the solution of the negro problem there. It remains for an interState Native College to do the same for South Africa, though the problem is different and more complicated.

In view, therefore, of the possible establishment in the near future of a native college under the control of the several Colonial Governments, it is important that educational thought should be focussed upon questions affecting the policy of the Institution. This will be seen to be all the more necessary when one remembers the

own race.

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