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calculate that this Colony benefited by immigration during the 13 years mentioned to the extent of about 90,000, or, roughly, 7,000 per

As to whether this will be continued is not a matter within the scope of this paper.

I feel, however, compelled to return to the appalling Coloured Death Rate, which has already been referred to. As pointed out, the Coloured Death Rate in the 34 principal towns of the Colony during 1904 was very nearly 3 times the European Death Rate; and were it not for the still higher Birth Rate every year, our Coloured population would be getting less. I was so much struck with this

I enormous Death Rate that I thought it would be a matter of interest to find out how it worked out in a place like Cape Town, and I find that during 1904, the year we have been basing most calculations on, the European Death Rate was 14.3, and the Coloured Death Rate 36.2, or, roughly, 2 per cent. less than the average for the 34 towns, but for the 4 years ended 30th June, 1905, it was 37.25. This enormous Coloured Death Rate is due largely to the Deaths of children under

I find that in Cape Town the percentage of Deaths of children under

year among Europeans is

22.70 per

and of Coloured 39.39 per

The general Death Rate for the whole Cape Colony of children under one year old is 34.92 per cent. Ceylon and British Guiana are both supposed to be very bad climates for children, but in British Guiana the Death Rate is 20.58 per cent., and in Ceylon 25.29 per cent., so that the Cape Colony Death Rate of 34.92 per cent. for children under one year old can only be described as appalling. I do not feel called upon to make deductions from the figures I have compiled to any great extent, though I must confess that it is a very interesting subject, but I may be pardoned in again pointing out the main feature that has been forcibly brought home to me in compiling this paper, and that is that owing to the exceedingly high Death Rate among the Coloured people there is no cause for alarm among Europeans as to the Coloured people becoming a danger through their largely increasing numbers. As to the moral right of tacitly permitting a state of affairs where the Death Rate is utterly unreasonable, that is another matter altogether.

cent.

one

year old.

one

cent.,

ANNEXURE “D."

POPULATION OF CAPE COLONY.

1691. 1807. 1865. 1891. 1904.

European. Other.

Total. Increase per cent.

European. Other. 922

405

1,325 26,720 46,943

73,663 181,592

314,789 496,381 376,987 1,150,237 1,527,224 569,973 1,548,560 2,118,533 51.19 34.63

Excluding Territories Annexed since 1891.

*

*

ANNEXURE “ E."

BIRTHS AND DEATHS OF CAPE COLONY FOR 3 YEARS.

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AVERAGE EXCESS OF BIRTHS OVER DEATHS FOR 3 YEARS.

European

Others.
2,250

Total.
8,032

5,782

ANNEXURE "B."

POPULATION IN THE UNITED STATES AND INCREASE IN EACH

Decade DURING THE NINETEENTH CENTURY.

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*

* This does not include population of Indian reservations, etc., now included in the official census for the first time.

ANNEXURE “C.”

POPULATION OF AUSTRALASIA AT DIFFERENT DATES, WITH ANNUAL

INCREASE PER CENT. IN EACH DECADE.

35.6

5.88

8.34

Population. Annual Increase per cent.

Thousands. Since previous date. 1801.

6.5
1811.
11.5

11.94
1821.
1831.

79.3
1841.
2111

10.28
1851.

7.36
1861.
1253.0

11.30
1871.

4.39
1881.
2742.5

3.60
1891.
3809.9

3.34
1901. (Approx.) 5000.0

3.13

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430.6

1924.8

Average 6.95

ANNEXURE “D."

POPULATION OF CAPE COLONY.

1691. 1807. 1865. 1891. 1904.

European. Other.

Total. Increase per cent.

European. Other. 922

405

1,325 26,720

46,943 73,663 181,592

314,789 496,381 376,987 1,150,237 1,527,224 569,973

1,548,560 2,118,533 51.19 34.63 Excluding Territories Annexed since 1891.

*

*

ANNEXURE “E.

BIRTHS AND DEATHS OF CAPE COLONY FOR

3

YEARS.

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AVERAGE Excess of Births Over DEATHS FOR 3 YEARS.

European.

Others.
2,250

Total.
8,032

5,782

By S. SCHONLAND, Hon. M.A. Oxon., Ph.D., PROFESSOR OF

BOTANY, RHODES UNIVERSITY COLLEGE, AND DIRECTOR OF THE
ALBANY MUSEUM, GRAHAM's Town.

The attitude of the general public (including the majority of socalled educated people) out here towards the teaching of Botany is very curious, and would be amusing, if it did not concern a matter which I, for one, consider of some importance, both with reference to general education, and even as regards the welfare and prosperity of the country, as I hope to show later on. As a rule, people have an idea that Botany consists in collecting and drying plants, and putting them neatly on sheets of paper, or in counting stamens and such like things; that the greatest Botanists are those who succeed in getting together the biggest collections, and remember the greatest majority of horrible names, that Botany may therefore be made a hobby for people who have not much else to do, and that as a means of training the minds of young people it is valueless. I need scarcely say that these and similar opinions, current in South Africa, and, I believe, also in England, are based on absolute ignorance of the subject. It is very peculiar that such views should be generally current amongst British people, since the British possess the finest botanical establishment in the world, kept up at an enormous cost. I refer, of course, to Kew Gardens, with its Museums, Herbarium Research Laboratory, and Library, and since also the researches of the British Botanists of the present day do not suffer in comparison with the work of the Botanists of any other nation ; and, if we go back in the history of Science amongst European nations, we find that ever since the revival of true scientific work, the English Botanists have to a remarkable extent contributed towards the development of their Science, just as in other Sciences the work of Englishmen also can be traced as sign-posts in their development.

A few examples, taken at random, will prove my statement as regards Botany. Shortly after Francis Bacon, about the beginning of the 17th Century, had pointed out that the only true way of studying nature consists in going straight to nature and asking her questions by means of observation and experiments, we find that the Oxford Botanic Garden was established (1632), one of the earliest establishments of its kind. Several of the earlier Professors, notably Morrison and Dillenius, left their mark on the science of Botany. Robert Hooke, who lived from 1635-1703, made considerable improvement in the construction of the compound microscope, and became incidentally the father of Vegetable Anatomy, which, during his lifetime, had a distinguished exponent in the person of Nehemiah Grew. In the 17th century England could also boast of John Ray, who first attempted a natural classification of plants, previous attempts in this direction having been of the crudest. He also made valuable investigations into the nutrition of plants and the movement of sap, and these were followed up by Stephen Hales (1677-1761); but Sachs states, in his History of Botany, published in 1875, that

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