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paper, pinned on the blackboard, conventional relief of various leaf, flower, and fruit forms. Once the pupils grasp the principles, they may be given the opportunity of original modelling. This links modelling on to nature-study, and does away with the old-time system of drawing from cards, which were more often than not inartistic. After having briefly sketched a general idea of Manual Training Modelling, may I just briefly sketch out how in two or three short lessons a beginner may be taught several geometrical facts concretely? The first cardboard exercise in Standard I. will most likely be to cut out a square and bind it. The corresponding exercise in Modelling will be to make a square tile. A convenient size would be a 4in. square. This would be drawn freehand and tested by rule. On completing the square by cutting along a diagonal, we would get two triangles, similar to a 45° set-square. Placing the triangles together again, the pupil could demonstrate for himself that a square figure 4in. x 4in. contains sixteen square inches. Now, if the tile has been made in. in thickness, by cutting it into four squares of zin. sides, and placing these one upon another a 2in. cube is formed. By cutting off the four corners of the cube an octagonal prism is obtained. Further trimming of the corners and afterwards smoothing with the fingers brings a cylinder. The pupil would probably contrast this method with the way he made a cylinder in the Kindergarten by rolling the plastic material between his hands, or between his hand and the desk. Later in his school life, when in the woodwork room, he makes a round ruler out of a piece of wood, by first making it square in section, next octagonal, and finally planing it round, he will think of his early modelling in plasticine. Let a chile model a hexagonal nut, how
he will notice the nuts on bicycles, wagons, and machinery. An intelligent and sympathetic observation has been aroused in the child for practical outside things. Working in this way through the first 3 or 4 standards, combining freehand and mechanical drawing with cardboard work and modelling, a pupil will have acquired sufficient dexterity in the use of instruments of precision in drawing, a knowledge of measurement and its application, a freedom of sketching, and a love of work for work's sake that will enable him to obtain the full advantage of wood and metal work courses. Woodwork courses, with the corresponding set of working drawings, followed by, as circumstances permit, examples in metal work, complete the “Hand and Eye ” side of school life, and I am sure you will agree with me that a youth who, before leaving school, can execute models such as these, and turn out similar drawings, is fairly well equipped for the battle of life, and has a fair chance of giving satisfaction to an employer. Too many people think Manual Training an extra, a thing apart from the ordinary school life, whereas, if it be worked on proper lines, it makes school life real and earnest by linking up the Theoretical with the Practical. Nature study should teach enough Botany to enable pupils to understand the growth and formation of timber. Arithmetic should teach enough mensuration which could be applied in the woodwork. The
commonsense geometry and the handling of instruments taught in the various branches of Manual Training will soon prove that everyone can be taught to draw. Drawing is as easy to teach as writing. We are nearing the day when Professor Huxley's remark will be fulfilled : "That to every well-equipped school a Laboratory should be attached, and to each Laboratory a workshop.” Great interest is added to the science studies when the pupils are able to make scientific apparatus to illustrate their work. May I, in conclusion, while thanking you for your courteous attention, solicit your earnest interest for, and your best efforts towards, the extension of practical education, remembering that
“When eye and hand you deftly train,
Firm grows the will and keen the brain."
So that in course of time all over this sub-continent our schools will be turning out as well equipped products as the schools of Europe or America.
By B. L. DYER.
Some few weeks ago it was suggested to me by the President of this section that it would be of interest to this meeting if I would say something about the desirability and the practicability of keeping the teachers on farm schools in touch with the libraries of this country.
Life in the larger centres of population has certain advantages, and your educationist has found it within the region of practical politics to make education compulsory in such centres. But when he comes to deal with the people dwelling in the scantily populated districts he finds much more difficulty in making education compulsory--and he has to adopt the expedients of farm schools. In these schools he wishes to have an educated man or woman in charge—and he sees the difficulty of expecting men and women to keep in touch with education, or to keep up to the desired level of culture if they are out of touch with books and libraries.
But this is a part of a larger question—for how can one expect to settle an educated population in the areas which will only support a limited population if they are out of touch with books ?
Educationists recognise the right of the children widely separated farms to a participation in the state provision of education, and I would advance a plea that the people resident on these farms are as actually entitled to a share in the library provision of this country as are their children to a share in its educational provision. The model community is one that has community of ideal, of interest and purpose—“likeminded persons who know and enjoy their likemindedness and are therefore able to work together for ends."
We have a partially state-aided voluntary system of libraries in this country, and I would enter a plea that the farmer who desires books to read is as much entitled to the use of the public library as the town dweller, and that the library system of this country will not be satisfactory so long as the residents in the scantily peopled districts, whether farmers, teachers, or miners, are entirely out of touch with it.
If the communal or public library is necessary in the town, how much the more necessary is it to the scantily peopled district where people have less opportunity for exchange of thought. The state aids the library by grants on the pound for pound principle, and wherever it has been found possible to establish libraries the groups of people who are in touch with them have been so assisted. But if an educated man is dropped down into a district without a library, the whole system of state aid breaks down, and he can only borrow books from the nearest library at a cost of 8d. per pound on the journey to and from the library—unless he lives near a railway line, when the railway authorities very kindly carry his books to and from the library at single rates for the double journey!
The extension of this concession to the methods of communication to the outlying districts away from the railways were most desirable—and the great need of the moment is some method by which town and country may be linked together for library purposes.
The library system of this country has on the whole worked fairly well—and I would suggest that with a very little more state help it might be possible to so develop it as to cover all the needs of the present and future.
In another direction we have recently seen how a voluntary but state-aided system of primary schools is being developed into a state-aided compulsory system of education. The old school committees of this country had done excellent and pioneer work, but Parliament in its wisdom has welded these local and volunteer school committees into school boards that cover much wider areas, and link up town and country. Similarly the library committees should be welded together, and the larger libraries of the towns should be welded with the little libraries of the country villages and something should be done so that no man who desires books should be out of touch with a library any more than a child should be out of touch with a school.
If not—of what use educating the children in the scantily populated districts—of what use trying to settle educated men on the land?
Do educationists wish the knowledge of and the custom and use of books which is inoculated in the schools to be cast aside with the school satchel when a boy or girl leaves the primary school, or do they desire that the custom and the use and the influence of the best books of the world should remain with the children who have passed through the schools ?
If we turn for a moment to other countries we see that the provision of books for the people in scantily populated districts has engaged the serious attention of the authorities. In the United States of America, and in Germany, countries to which our educationists so often turn their eyes to see what pioneer work has been done, the various states have grappled with this problem of books for the dweller in the scantily peopled places, and have granted specially cheap rates of carriage on all parcels of library books going out to, or coming back from country residents. In America an effort is being made to make a general law of only one cent per pound postage applicable to library books—while Canada has similar proposals now before it.
What individual states are doing to extend the usefulness of their libraries to country residents were a tale too long to tell here to-dav. Library boards controlling whole states or districts are frequently found and these work in the closest harmony with the school boards.
What one little state has done may be told in a few words. Washington County, Maryland, has an area of only 500 square miles, and has a population mainly agricultural. It has only one town of any size Hagerstown, and when the country decided to establish libraries it determined that town and county alike should benefit. In each of the county's twenty-six polling districts it was decided to establish some sort of book depôt, so that every man who wished it could borrow books. The library board caused travelling book boxes to be made, and little travelling libraries were sent out to wherever they were asked for—and in the post office, the school, or the store—wherever people needed them was set up a library of frequently changed books. The cost of transport of these boxes was made a general charge against library income, and the people in the most remote polling district had their books at the same cost as the people in the county town. Twenty-three districts were supplied the first year-and in the fourth year no less than 66 depôts for books had been set up—whilst Boonsboro' and Williamsport, places of 800 and 1,000 inhabitants, had so grown to use their little libraries that news-rooms have been fitted up, and libraries of two and three hundred volumes, of which some 40 are changed monthly from the central depôt, are in good use here.
Thirty-three of these book depôts are along the lines of railway communication and are easily served, but no less than 30 are away from it, and for these a travelling book wagon has been established, which drives up to the farm-house doors, through the county lanes," gathering up the books that have been read, and replacing them with those that have been asked for. With a total population of 45,000 souls, it is interesting to note that in 1905 the library issued some 50,000 books to the town readers, and nearly half as many to the residents in scantily populated districts.
This is not a solitary instance of the good work that America is doing, but it must be remembered that the system of libraries is not a voluntary state-aided one, but a compulsory rate or tax supported one-as in Australia where the system of travelling book boxes has been brought to a most perfect one, and here the state in addition to making a fixed grant for library work carries all library books to and from the libraries entirely without charge. In at least one West Indian Island a similar system and concession has worked well.
In South Africa little has yet been done in the way of travelling boxes, because the costs of transit have hitherto been heavy. A few subscribers resident along the railway lines have had out parcels of books-but nothing systematic has been done, except perhaps at Maritzbuhg, and at the Victoria Memorial Library, Salisbury, Rhodesia. At the latter place a special feature is made of the lending of agricultural books to farmers.
By private effort a system of travelling libraries was instituted, for an account of which I am indebted to Miss Neuman-Thomas. And this was the Markham Libraries presented by Miss Violet Markham and ine Victoria League. These consist of eleven boxes of books, each containing a well selected library on such topics as "India," "Canada," "Italy and Greece," etc., and they were intended to travel more especially among the women of this country.