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that the only way of mending it was by ending it. The suggestions for mending the Cape University by ending it only accentuated the need for its existence. Do what they liked, and suggest what they liked, the question of the private student, the question of how to deal with the sparsely-populated districts of the country, would still trouble them. It would not do to set up a few Colleges and expect parents in remote localities to send their sons to those institutions. Their policy should be directed towards bringing University education within the reach of even the humblest person in South Africa. This, as the facts before them shewed, had been adequately done by the Cape University. The increase in the number of degrees shewn upon the chart before them was very striking. Nor had that been done by retarding the growth of any of the Colleges. The speaker concluded by reiterating that they in the Orange River Colony thought that the best interests of education in South Africa would be served, for the next twenty or thirty years, by a whole-hearted devotion on their part to the Cape University.

Professor Bohle (Cape Town) asked what provision was going to be made by the Cape University in regard to engineering. At present, mining engineering was the only branch of the subject in which examinations were held. Engineering was, and would continue to be, one of the most important professions for which provision could be made in this country. With the exception of Mining, the Cape University had made no provision, and, so far as the mining classes were concerned, he did not think that the examinations held were at all satisfactory. They had, at the end of a complete course, an examination lasting three or four hours. That was not at all satisfactory. They could not examine an engineer in three or four hours. After a complete course, he should be able to write out a proper thesis on special work. So far as he was aware, they appointed for the mining examinations an outside examiner. The outside examiner was usually a specialist in some particular subject, and a specialist was not the proper person to test the general knowledge of the student. It was only a professor, and preferably a professor of some other College, who was able to examine a student properly. A specialist would content himself with putting questions in the subject with which he was best acquainted. Apart from this, he (the speaker) was anxious to know what the Cape University intended to do with regard to other branches of engineering. The South African College had started an engineering department, and he would like to hear from Dr. Kolbe what was the intention of the Cape University with regard to electrical, civil, and mechanical engineering

Professor Wilkinson (Johannesburg) laid stress on the fact that a University was not merely a teaching institution, but embodied the spirit of research. He pointed out that if Professor Lehfeldt's idea of federating selected Colleges were carried out, they would have a teaching University side by side with the present examining body, and if it became a struggle for supremacy between these two, there was not the slightest doubt as to which would emerge triumphant. What they wanted was not merely an examining body, but a teaching University, and one in which the staff would not be merely on the plane of ordinary schoolmasters, but would be able to devote a considerable proportion of their time to the advancement of research.

The Chairman asked if any other gentleman present wished to express his views. There being no response, the Chairman went on to say that he would like to make a few remarks himself.

His point of view would be the same as Mr. Muirhead's—that of the man who had to pay—or, rather, who had to solicit other people to find the money. South Africa had a population, roughly speaking, of a million white inhabitants, and about six million blacks. It could be taken as a fact that the average white inhabitant of South Africa received a larger income than the average inhabitant of England or Germany. Roughly speaking, a population of a million people in South Africa would about correspond, in feepaying capacity, to a population of two millions in Germany or England. Now, if they considered the number of Universities in those countries, they would find that a million inhabitants could support a University. It therefore seemed to him to be within the range of possibility that South Africa could support two Universities. That was the first point they needed to arrive at. Secondly, there was the question of the conditions under which their University was going to be constituted, and here it seemed to him to be of the highest importance that the personal staff should represent the highest possible standard, and should exemplify that attractive personal magnetism which made the student learn in spite of himself, and inspired him with that ardent desire for research, to stimulate which appeared to him to be the true function of a University.

He did not wish to trench upon the province of those who had devoted their lives to the furtherance of education, but his own personal feeling was that in carrying out any scheme for the creation of a University, the test of the work actually done should be of. equal, if not of more importance, than the results of the examinations. With regard to the question of ways and means, he was afraid they would need many discussions such as had been held to-day before they would be in a position to carry their ideas into effect. The present discussion, however, would no doubt be helpful, in view of the conference which was to be held, approximately, within the next two months. He had been glad to observe that the discussion had proceeded on the broad plane of an amiable desire to find out what would be best in the interests of South Africa as a whole, and that the speakers had not merely set themselves to advance the interests of the particular institutions with which they happened to be connected.

Professor Lyster Jameson then replied on some of the points raised. He was afraid that in certain respects one or two of the speakers had not quite grasped his ideas. He pointed out that he

did not lose sight of the fact emphasised by Dr. Kolbe, that the Cape University might evolve slowly in the direction they desired, and he disclaimed any intention to advocate that they should mend the Cape University by ending it. In fact, in every one of the possible schemes which he brought forward he tried to avoid taking the Cape University into account, either in its present capacity, or modified as the centre of an affiliation scheme, or alongside of the teaching University. Professor Crawford seemed to imply that he had suggested that the multiplication of Colleges in the United States was a disadvantage. He would not like to say that. He did not know what public opinion was on the subject, and rather hoped the Chairman would have been able to tell them. He believed that one per cent. of the population in America had received a University training, and that this one per cent. held 40 per cent. of all the leading positions of trust and responsibility.

It was probably owing very largely to the multiplication of Colleges that there was such a large percentage of College-trained men holding these positions of trust.



IO a.m.

The following is an epitome of the programme of the Fourth Annual Meeting, held at Kimberley, July 9th-14th, 1906 : MONDAY, JULY 9TH.

3 p.m.-Meeting of Council.

8.30 p.m.—The President's Address at the Town Hall. TUESDAY, JULY 10TH. 9.30 a.m.—Meetings of Sectional Committees.

-Meetings of Sections. 2.30 p.m.—Tour of De Beers' Mines, Crushing Mill and

Pulsator. 8.30 p.m.-Lecture at the Town Hall by Professor R. A.

Lehfeldt, B.A., D.Sc. Subject : “ The Elec

trical Aspect of Chemistry.” WEDNESDAY, JULY UITH.

9.30 a.m.-Meetings of Sectional Committees.

10 a.m.-Meetings of Sections. 2.30 p.m.-Meetings of Sections. 8.30 p.m.-Reception and Dance at the Town Hall, by

invitation of the Mayor and Town Council of

Kimberley. THURSDAY, JULY 12TH. 10 a.m.–Visit to Wesselton Diamond Mine to view a blast,

and to Kenilworth Village, by invitation of

the De Beers Company. 1.30 p.m.—Luncheon at the Kenilworth Club, by invitation

of the De Beers Company. 4 p.m.-Meeting of Council. 4.30 p.m.---Annual General Meeting of Members. 8.30 p.m.—Lecture at the Town Hall by W. C. C. Pakes,

L.R.C.P., M.R.C.S., D.P.H., F.I.C. Subject : The Immunization against disease of Micro-organic Origin.” (A resume of modern methods of combating certain preventable

diseases). FRIDAY, JULY 13TH.

9.30 a.m.-Meetings of Sectional Committees.

10 a.in.—Meetings of Sections. 2.30 p.m.-Meeting of Members to discuss the question of

University Education in South Africa.

SATURDAY, JULY 14TH. 5 p.m.-Departure of special train conveying party of

Members to the Victoria Falls.

At the Sectional Meetings the following papers were read :


President's Address, by J. R. Sutton, M.A.
On the Observation of Earthquakes and other Earth Move-

ments.—Prof. John Milne, F.R.S.
New Monthly Cloudiness Chart of the United States.

Kenneth S. Johnson.
A New Solvent for Gold.—James Moir, D.Sc., M.A., F.C.S.
Anticyclones and their Influence on South African Weather.-

Col. H. R. Rawson, C.B., R.E.
The Barometer in South Africa.—R. T. A. Innes, F.R.A.S.
The Manurial Needs and Resources of the Transvaal.-

Herbert Ingle, F.I.C.
On Predicting Times of High Water at Durban, Natal.-R. F.

Rendell, B.A., F.R.A.S.
Recent Cometary Observations.—R. F. Rendell, B.A.,

Some Meteorological Conditions in Bulawayo.--Rev. E. Goetz.
Magnetic Observations in South Africa.-Prof. J. C. Beattie,

D.Sc., F.R.S.E.
Temperature Variability in South Africa.-J. R. Sutton, M.A.
The Acceleration of Gravity at Johannesburg.-Prof. R. A.

Lehfeldt, D.Sc., B.A.

Geography as a Factor in Higher Education.-Frank Flowers,

The Glacial Beds in the Griquatown Series.—Arthur W.

Rogers, M.A., F.G.S.
The Negro in America.-T. Lane Carter.
Witchcraft and its Customs.—Rev. H. A. Junod.
A Contribution to our Knowledge of the Stone Age in South

Africa.-J. P. Johnson.
The Distribution and Variation of the Tortoises of South

Africa.-Prof. J. E. Duerden, Ph.D., A.R.C.S.

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