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Mechanical Engineers by Mr. James M. Dodge to illustrate his address the “Money Value of Technical Training," in December, 1903), and then to publish this information as widely as possible. Secondly, we should organise a campaign in favour of compulsory education, and try to get the minimum age at which children are allowed to leave school gradually raised to 14 or 15, or a corresponding standard. At present only about one in five of all the children in our schools are above Standard IV. ; the remainder leave school at such an early age that they have barely learned to read and write, which accounts for the large number of illiterate persons returned by the census.

Educational questions are too often discussed as if they only concerned the children and the general public; but surely there is another class with whose welfare they are even more intimately and permanently connected. I mean, of course, the teachers. There are some 7,000 teachers in South Africa ; there ought to be 10,000. I may add, in passing, that I hope to live to see this

number enrolled not only on the books of the Education Departments, but in the membership list of your Association; or, what is more important, in some real way associated with us in our work. At the outset, however, it is necessary to draw a distinction between those who are teachers by vocation and those who have merely drifted into teaching. We must remind the latter class that competition is keen in erery walk of life, and that to deserve promotion they must be constantly working to keep themselves abreast of the times, and by reading, by study, by throwing their whole heart into their work, they must convince us that it is really their life-work, and then, I am sure, they will find the world not slow to recognise their merit. For, after all, what is there in life that an educated man looks back upon with more gratitude than to the first teachers who lighted the lamp of knowledge and attuned the youthful mind to sympathy with elevated thoughts? And when it happens that the debt we feel so keenly can no longer be repaid to those we owe it to, the most natural thing is to desire to pay it to the younger generation of teachers, whom we, in turn, can help by our sympathy, and in other more practical ways.

It is gratifying to all friends of education to know what good work the normal schools are doing in attracting to the teaching profession a number of young men and young women of South African birth, who in the absence of such facilities would probably have chosen some other career. No effort should be spared to render that profession, which we all theoretically admit to be one of the most honourable and arduous, more attractive still; and I believe the most effective way to do this is not so much in the direction of an increased scale of pay—though, no doubt, that, too, may be needed --as to enhance the dignity of the profession by providing for teachers some prizes commensurate with the prizes which allure the best brains into other professions. Why should there not be a few head-masterships in South Africa equal in emoluments to say, a chief-justiceship, and a few school inspectors as well paid as a surveyor-general ?

Then I would suggest offering what I may describe as a kind of glorified travelling scholarship. After the Lehrjahre come the Wanderjahre; after the training at the normal school should follow opportunities for travel. I wish it were possible, in the interest of education as much as in that of the teachers, for every deserving teacher of higher rank to have, say, six months' holiday every three years, with a travelling allowance and the necessary introductions to enable them to visit schools in other parts of the world. As things are at present, such visits by the very persons competent to benefit by them are very rarely practicable; for, naturally, when teachers have holidays in vacation time the schools are closed, and under any circumstances it would be unreasonable to expect regular holidays to be devoted to inspecting schools, which could only be done to advantage with a mind unbent from its ordinary work after rest and change. I believe such a scheme as I have outlined is really not half so Utopian as it may sound at the first hearing. I am convinced it would be welcomed with gratitude and enthusiasm, not in this country only, but by teachers in many older lands, and I do not think there is any insuperable financial difficulty about it. In the first place, the government railways in this and other countries would, doubtless, grant free passes, and probably the different steamship companies would issue tickets at reduced fares; for there is no question such a scheme would result in increased traffic by which they would ultimately benefit. The teachers on their return would, of course, deliver lectures on what they had seen, and many of their pupils would want to follow in their footsteps. And in what a different spirit, and with what added force and impressiveness, would these modern pilgrims to the ancient shrines of learning be able to instruct their classes ! What extra colour and vividness would they impart to their lessons in geography and history, in the literature and customs of the countries they had visited! I can conceive of nothing more likely to tend to an increase of brotherhood among the nations than such a scheme, by which all the great schools in the world would be united in a league of mutual help and friendly rivalry. Holding very ardently these views, which are, perhaps, not unnatural in the son of a teacher, I may be pardoned for confessing to the glow of delight with which I listened to Sir Richard Jebb's noble words of sympathy with all workers in the cause of education in all its grades, from the lowest to the highest. “ The sympathies which they carry with them,” said Sir Richard, “are world-wide. As we come to see, more and more clearly, that the highest education is not only a national, but an Imperial, concern, there is a growing desire for interchange of counsels and for active co-operation between the educational institutions of the Colonies and those of the Mother Country."

In one of the best-known English novels there is a memorable description of the havoc wrought in the homes of Anglo-Indians by the cruel necessity of having to send the children to Europe to escape the deadly effects of the climate. What Thackeray so pathetically described as one of the greatest drawbacks to life in India finds its counterpart in this country, though from a different cause. The climate of South Africa leaves little to be desired; yet owing to the natural desire of parents to give their children the best advantages, many homes are broken up here as soon as the children are old enough to enter an English public school, or in some cases much earlier than this, in order that they may first go to a preparatory school in England. The disintegrating effect of this stern course of action on family and social life has long been recognised as a serious obstacle to the natural steady progress of our towns and villages. It is also liable to permanently estrange many of the more prominent youth of both sexes from the country of their birth. On the other hand, there is much to be said in favour of children being educated in the country where their future career is likely to make them permanent residents. To escape from this dilemma, a middle way has been sought by establishing institutions of the English public school type in this country. The success so far achieved in this direction has encouraged a number of thoughtful and cautious people to recommend the adoption of the system on a more complete and extensive scale. This has naturally evoked the criticism : Even if


could bring Eton or Harrow or Winchester to South Africa, it would not be the same thing." Of course it would not be the same thing, and perhaps it would not be desirable, even if it were possible. For any institution that has its roots far back in the past is partly nourished by the soil from which it sprung, and cannot be transplanted without losing some of its pristine vigour and grace. The claims of secondary education, however, are so pressing that they must continue to engage the earnest attention of all who are concerned about the future of our children.

Perhaps it is not sufficiently recognised that the English public school has several different types. In addition to the very old schools, there are many of quite recent creation. “King's College of Our Lady of Eton was established in 1440 by Henry VI., the same monarch who, in the following year, founded King's College, Cambridge, famous for its glorious chapel, probably the most perfectly beautiful interior in the world, of which Wordsworth finely says:

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Winchester is half a century older than Eton, having been founded in 1387; whilst Harrow, as it is well known, dates from the spacious times of Queen Elizabeth—those times of which the educational zeal has been unjustly obscured by their more brilliant achievements in science, art, literature, and discovery. Indeed, the whole of the sixteenth century was remarkable for its enlightened generosity to education. No less than five hundred out of the seven hundred endowed schools that existed in England forty years ago date from the Tudor period. Henry VIII. founded ten grammar schools, Edward VI. twenty-seven, Mary and Elizabeth between them thirty. But, in addition to the famous old foundations, quite a number of very successful public schools have been founded in England within the last fifty or sixty years.

Marlborough, founded in 1843, may be cited as a type of these latter. So that in talking about the possibility of establishing schools in South Africa of the English public school pattern we are not simply proposing to copy what the scornful would call an effete type of the Middle Ages; we are proceeding on lines which, as a matter of fact, many of the most modern educationists still regard as the wisest and safest lines to follow.

Sometimes it is argued that the whole question of higher education should be left in abeyance until the elementary schools have been placed on a satisfactory basis. To those who hold this view it may be replied without much fear of contradiction that primary education is only efficient in countries where university education is widely developed. Thus Scotland, so long and honourably distinguished by its excellent schools, had four universities at a time when its population did not exceed the present European population of South Africa, and we have not yet got one; the University of the Cape of Good Hope being mainly an examining and degree-giving body. Forty years ago Prussia had seven teaching universities, when England had only three; and Germany has as many more to-day, in addition to the various kinds of technical and other high schools which promote teaching and research work of a university character. There are already several institutions in South Africa entitled to rank in this category, but nearly all of them are suffering from the backward condition of secondary education, and have to form special classes for students who have not yet passed the matriculation examination, and who, properly speaking, ought still to be attending a secondary school.

Should we, then, postpone the establishment of one or more teaching universities until secondary education has made greater progress? I am convinced that both undertakings should proceed simultaneously, and I believe the experience of other countries will be found to confirm the wisdom of this course. At the period of Prussia's history to which I have just referred, there were 65,000 pupils in the public higher schools, as against only 15,000 pupils receiving secondary education in England; but then the seven Prussian universities had long been established, and the prosperous condition of the secondary schools in that kingdom was directly attributable to the influence of the universities in setting a high standard of leaving examinations.

In making these comparisons with older countries, we must bear in mind the exceptional racial character of the population of South Africa. I had intended saying something upon the question of native education, but I have trespassed too long on your patience already. I will only remind you that in the State-aided schools of the Cape Colony more than half the children belong to the native and coloured classes ; and that the other Colonies must sooner or later-and the sooner the better-seriously consider what kind of education it is their duty, no less than their interest, to provide for the four millions of “ other than white” subjects living within their borders. The immediate point I wish to raise, however, is that owing to the large number of native and coloured servants in South Africa, the white population, taken as a whole, are on a higher plane than, for instance, the populations of England and Germany, and that, therefore, a larger proportion of the youth of this country will require to be provided with the higher and highest kinds of education. I believe this important point is sometimes overlooked in estimating the number of higher schools and colleges required for our boys and girls. We have seen there are 200,000 white children to be educated in South Africa. Of this total number probably one in ten, ultimately 20,000 children, would avail themselves of secondary education, if it were provided; though at the present time there are probably not 10,000 actually receiving this class of instruction. With 20,000 children to draw into secondary schools, and a total of 10,000 teachers required in all the schools (including those for coloured children) it is quite evident that provision must be made on a liberal scale for the increasing number of students who will require or demand a university training. It is a melancholy fact, but one which cannot be ignored, that of the six or seven thousand teachers in Government or Government aided schools in South Africa, nearly half are uncertificated, while only a minority of the remainder possess a university degree. should be most anxious about, however, is not the mere title of university, but the quality of the teaching. Whether this is given in a college of university rank, or in an institution having the power to confer degrees, is a matter of minor importance. considering the question,” said Sir Richard Jebb, “ of the higher education in South Africa, it is well to remember that the social intercourse of young students, under conditions such as a great residential University might provide, is an instrument of education which nothing else can replace. And it might be added that such social intercourse is also an excellent thing for the teachers.”

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In some minds the argument for delay takes a slightly different form, and it is asked: Why this untimely haste to provide the most expensive type of education for the rich when the education of the poor has not yet been satisfactorily provided for ? Surely, there is a serious fallacy underlying such an argument ! A rich man can send his son anywhere he likes in search of the best education the world can offer; the poor man's son must get it at home, or not at all. And who shall venture to say what we may not be losing by delaying to place the highest kind of education within reach of every boy and girl in the land? Nearly all the great men who have made their countries famous by their achievements or discoveries in art, literature, and science, have come from the people; seldom from the well-to-do classes. A hundred names could be cited to prove this; but to take one name only, think of

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