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means whereof we might have better defended them, and with more ease encroached upon the rest of the Indies, than the king of Spain could have aided or succoured them."*

To which it might have been replied, "If we could not support the little colony of Virginia, unmolested by an enemy of any description, how should we have been able to support three or four populous districts, every human being in bitter hostility against us, not merely national and political but religious hostility, regarding us from the highest to the lowest with a hatred incapable of conciliation, and by the whole priesthood with an odium plusquam theologicum ?"

True policy, at the time in question, would rather incline us to agree with what Queen Elizabeth said to her Parliament, than with Sir William Monson's

suggestion on this head. "It may be thought
simplicity in me, that, all this time of my reign,
I have not sought to advance my territories, and
enlarge my dominions; for opportunity hath served
me to do it. I acknowledge my womanhood and
weakness in that respect; but though it hath not
been hard to obtain, yet I doubted how to keep the
things so obtained: and I must say, my mind was
never to invade my neighbours, or to usurp over
any;
I am contented to reign over my own, and
to rule as a just Princess."t

*Monson's Tracts.

Harleian Miscellany.

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"But," continues Sir William, "now we see, and find by experience, that those places which were then weak and unfortified, are since so fortified that it is to no purpose to us to annoy the king of Spain in his West Indies. And though this voyage proved both fortunate and victorious, yet considering it was rather an awakening than a weakening of him, it had been far better to have wholly declined than to have undertaken it upon such slender grounds, and with so inconsiderable forces."*

VI

The real cause of failure appears to be the unfortunate landing of 1000 men at St. Jago, the delay there of fourteen days, and the fever they caught at this most filthy and miserable of all places; the subsequent delay at Dominica and St. Christopher, making it full thirteen weeks before they appeared at St. Domingo, and by which the Spaniards had ample time to prepare for them, and were prepared accordingly at Nombre de Dios, Panama, and other places, where the gold and silver of Peru and Mexico are usually deposited.

"About this time returned into England Sir Francis Drake, a man of rare knowledge in navigation, and verie fortunat in the event of his enterprises, after manie feats of good service accomplished in forren countries (as at Baióne, Hispaniola, St. Domingo, Carthagena, &c.), to the admiration of all people amongest whom he came,

* Monson's Tracts.

and contrarie to the expectation of the Spaniards, upon supposal of places impregnable, grew so confident that they seemed lightly to esteeme anie proposed force of the enemie, and therefore doubted no kind of annoiance. Howbeit they were as safe as he that hangeth by the leaves of a tree in the end of autumne, when the leaves begin to fall. For they were so terrified at the sight of sacke and spoile, as also doubting a totall wast by fire and swoord, that they were glad to yeeld to composition."*

*Holinshed.

CHAPTER VII.

EXPEDITION то CADIZ.

1587.

Designs of Spain discovered-Insolence of Philip's Ambassador-The Queen's reply-Her knowledge of languagesDrake appointed to command an expedition-Letter of Sir F. Drake-Arrives at Cadiz; burns, sinks, and carries away about 100 sail of ships-Dispatches Capt. Cross with letters -Leaves Cadiz-Destroys a number of ships in the Tagus under the Marquis of Santa-Cruz-Dismisses Capt. Burroughs, whose ship mutinies, and leaves the squadron-Drake stands over to Terceira and captures a large and rich carrack-Her value in the estimation of government-Case of Burroughs.

In the course of the present year, 1587, the intentions of Spain with regard to England could no longer be concealed. Under the guise of an earnest desire of Philip, to come to an amicable adjustment of the differences that had too long subsisted between the two nations, every preparation was secretly making for an invasion of England, with an overwhelming force. In the mean time Catholic priests were employed as spies, both in Great Britain and the continent, to ascertain the feelings of the Queen and her ministers and of foreign powers regarding war; and also as to the extent and state of the warlike preparations of England. They had besides what they called

seminary priests in England, whose business was to seduce the people from their allegiance to the Queen and the established religion, and to entice them into the body of the Catholic church. The Queen, on her part, was well informed of the designs of Spain, and measures were taken to counteract them. These designs, as to the invasion of England, are said to have been first discovered in consequence of a letter written by Philip to the Pope, asking the blessing of his Holiness on the intended project, a copy of which Mr. Secretary Walsingham procured from a Venetian priest, whom he retained at Rome as a spy. It was obtained in this manner: the original letter was stolen out of the Pope's cabinet by a gentleman of the bed-chamber, who took the keys out of the pocket of his Holiness while he slept.

One favourite object of Philip was to get possession of the person of Queen Elizabeth, and to deliver her into the hands of the Pope, who would no doubt consign her over to the inquisition.* This he conceived would give a death-blow to heresy in England, and be the means of establishing universal orthodoxy. As the power and protection of Elizabeth were the chief safeguards of the Protestants, "he hoped," says Hume, "by the destruction of that power, if he could subdue that Princess, to acquire the eternal renown of re-uniting the * Strype.

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