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"1. Not a man in the gunner's roome that was of any skill or knowledge.

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"Answer. They weare suche as the master gunner provided and made choice of, and suche as Sir Francis lefte in the shippe."

"2. The company of the ship, fishermen and symple fellowes of small valew, and easily to be ledd.

"They were the same that Sir Francis caryed in that shipp with hym from Quinsborow, and suche other as he appointed to her at Plymouth, saving ten sufficient men that I brought with me and added to them."

"3. That Mr. Borowes was so afraid of the shot as he coold not tell where to ride with the ship.

"That I had no suche feare of the shott it maye apeare by the places where the Lyon roade in the baye of Caels, after our first anckoring the evening we came in, for at all times whensoever the Admirall and fleet removed from the shot of the shore and gallies, the Lyon anchored and remained betweene them and the shott, till at length when they had brought a piece of ordinance out of the towne and placed it upon a cliff against the ship, with which they strooke of the gunner's legge and hit the ship under water." (When he goes on to say that they warped off.)

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4. That if Sir Francis Drake had been advised by Mr. Borough, there had bin no service don, and they should have come home as they went forthe.

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Touchinge the attempt at Cales, I was never against it; but was all waies desirous that we might have had conference with suche as knew the place, &c. &c."

"5. That the most of the companye's sicknes of the Lyon came by feare they had of the galleis rather than otherwise.

"I never perceived any feare in the companye of the Lyon of the galleis, albeit it may be ther were some suche in corners which I sawe not, &c. &c."

“6. That the companye of the ship might have bin perswaded to have stayed, if Mr. Boroughs would have travailed in it."

He states that after that Captain Marchant and the master had done what they could, "he did reason with the company"-(see the other statement in full on this point, which is here briefly reported).

"7. That they were of opinion that the mutiny of the mariners grew by the devise of Mr. Boroughes, although he wold not be sene in it, rather then otherwise.

"That I was the worker of the mutinye, or

privye unto any part of their doings therein, before it burst out by the companye generallye, when I was upon the decke with Captaine Merchant, amongst them, it shall never be provid, or founde trewe; and this I saye farther, as no man can justlye chardge me with it, or with having any intelligence or knowledge thereof, till yt burst owt as aforesaid. So I protest before the Lorde God, who knoweth the secreats of all harts, and as I hope to be saved by the bloode of Christ, that I did neyther knowe, thincke, or imagine of any suche matter of theire mutiny, till it brake owt.

(Signed)

"W. BOROUGH."*

Whether any and what further steps were taken in this case, none of the collections examined, either in the British Museum or in the State Paper Office, could satisfy the enquiry. Perhaps the Burleigh Papers at Hatfield, as in the case of the Caracke, might supply the deficiency. It is indeed much to be regretted, that a nation like England should have no suitable building appropriated solely for the reception of her historical and other valuable documents, which, at present, in many cases, are so scattered and separated in different depositories, the British Museum, the State Paper Office, the Tower of London, and private collections, that a complete set of documents for the illustration of any particular question is rarely to be found in one place.

* Lansdowne MSS., British Museum.

CHAPTER VIII.

THE SPANISH ARMADA, CALLED THE INVINCIBLE.

1588.

Part First.

Pretext of treating for peace-Unworthy conduct of Spain -Predictions of triumph-Appointment of commanding officers-Naval and military forces, and comparison ofLord High Admiral puts to sea-The Queen disapprovesCorrespondence of Lord C. Howard and Sir F. Drake with the Queen, Sir Francis Walsingham, and Lords of the Council-Announces his intention of putting to sea a second

time.

THE effect of the last expedition, which Drake somewhat facetiously called "singeing the King of Spain's beard," was to defeat any attempt for the invasion of England, as had been intended that year, and for which they had considered themselves fully prepared, whilst England certainly was not. But the multitude of transport-shipping, of stores and provisions, and other necessaries and equipments, for the supply of a large naval and military force, that were collected in their ports, having been destroyed by Drake, it required another year to replace them. In the meantime, the Prince of Parma in behalf of Philip, and certain commissioners on the

part of Elizabeth, were continuing to discuss, in the Netherlands, the farce of negociating for a treaty of peace, generally considered as a mere pretence on both sides, begun, as was said, by a device of the Queen of England, to divert the hostile preparations of Spain, and continued by the Spaniard for the sake of concealment, in order to take England by surprise, unawares and unprovided. So says Camden, striving, as it seemed, on both sides, "to sew the Foxe's skin to the Lion's."*

But long before the commission was dissolved, there was neither concealment of intention nor diversion from preparations on the part of Spain. It was publicly known that, encouraged by the Pope, Philip had avowed his determination to make the conquest of England, by which the true church of God and the Roman Catholic religion would then be restored, and heresy abolished. That the cause was just and meritorious, the Queen being already excommunicate, and contumacious against the church of Rome; that she supported the King's rebel subjects in the Netherlands, annoyed the Spaniards by constant depredations, surprised and sacked their towns in Spain and America, and, not long before, had put to death the Queen of Scotland, violating thereby the Majesty of all Sovereign Princes.

But if any concealment were intended, the ac

* Camden.

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