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up, and to have laid the weathermost ship of the Spanish fleete aboord, and fired his ship, in hope therewith to have set on fire the Spanish fleete. He said if he had done so he had done well. With this, night came on. Our Generall commanded the Minion, for safegard of her masts, to be brought under the Jesus of Lubeck's lee: he willed M. Francis Drake to come in with the Judith, and to lay the Minion aboord, to take in men and other things needefull, and to goe out; and so he did.

"At night, when the wind came off the shore, wee set sayle, and went out in despite of the Spanyards and their shot, where we ankered with two ankers under the iland, the wind being northerly, which was wonderfull dangerous, and wee feared every houre to be driven with the lee shore. In the end, when the wind came larger, we waied anker and set saile, seeking the river of Panuco for water, whereof we had very little; and victuals were so scarce that we were driven to eate hides, cats, rats, parrats, munkies, and dogges. Wherefore our Generall was forced to divide his company into two parts, for there was a mutinie among them for want of victuals; and some said that they had rather be on the shore to shift for themselves amongst the enemies, than to starve on ship-boord.

"He asked them who would go on shore, and who would tarry on ship-boord? Those that would goe on shore, he willed to goe on fore mast, and those

that would tarrie, on baft mast: fourescore and sixteene of us were willing to depart.

“Our Generall gave unto every one of us five yards of Roane cloth, and money to them that demanded it. When we were landed, he came unto us, where, friendly embracing every one of us, he was greatly grieved that he was forced to leave us behind him; he counselled us to serve God, and to love one another; and thus courteously he gave us a sorrowfull farewell, and promised if God sent him safe home he would do what he could, that so many of us as lived should by some means be brought into England (and so he did)."

Miles Philips says, "Through the providence of Almighty God, after sixteen years' absence, having sustained many and great troubles and miseries, as by this discourse appeareth, I came home to this my native countrey of England in the year 1582, in the month of February, in the ship called the Landrer, and arrived at Poole."

Job Hortop was landed at Portsmouth, from the Dudley, on the 2nd day of December, 1590; was sent by the Lieutenant of Portsmouth to the Right Hon. the Earle of Sussex, and examined, &c.; and he concludes, "Thus having truly set down unto you my travels, misery, and dangers, endured the space of twenty-three years, I ende."*

* Hakluyt.





State of England and Spain-Revised Relation of this Voyage by Drake himself—Arrive at Port Pheasant-Symerons—Transactions at Nombre de Dios-The Treasury and Governor's house-Drake wounded-Return to their ships at the Isle of Pinos-Cartagena--Capture a great ship of Seville-Drake destroys his little ship the Swan-Takes several vessels-Arrives at Port Plenty-Drake leaps on shore at Cartagena---Sickness in the crew-Death of Joseph Drake—John Drake slain-Attempt to reach Panama by land-Disappointed— Is led to a great tree-Discovers the South Sea, and makes a vow-Vasco de Balboa-Various Adventures, and return to England-Sir Wm. Davenant's Drama.

THE treacherous and unjust conduct of the Spaniards towards the unfortunate adventurers in the late voyages, and to other traders to the West Indies and the coasts of the Spanish Main, roused such a flame of indignation, more especially in the mercantile and seafaring community, that the cry of vengeance and retribution was loudly expressed against these tyrants of the New World. Elizabeth was well disposed to encourage adventurers desirous

*So called by Sir F. Drake (nephew), but is in fact the Fifth of Drake to the West Indies.



of sharing in the riches extorted by Spain from the unfortunate princes of Mexico and Peru and their native subjects, from whom, by most unjust and tyrannical means, she obtained that wealth, which enabled her to domineer over a large portion of Europe. She was equally well disposed to break a lance with Philip, who was employing every discreditable means to seduce her subjects from their religion and allegiance; but the times made it inexpedient to commit the nation to anything that could be construed into a direct act of aggression. The two sovereigns were to each other in a state of peaceable antipathy, each "willing to wound," but each "afraid to strike." Elizabeth was a staunch Protestant; Philip the slave of the Pope and the tool of priests, Jesuits and inquisitors. But it was not just then the policy of England to risk hostilities at home or abroad. The power of Spain was besides too colossal, though weak, to provoke a war by attacking her vast kingdom or her colonies. At home, it embraced a sea-coast extending from the Mediterranean to the Netherlands, except that portion which belonged to France. Abroad, the West India Islands, and two-thirds of the vast continent of America, were under her control; and her galleons traded even to the East Indies.

What was at that time the state of England? Her naval and military forces were small, in comparison with those of Spain, both of them inferior


in point of numbers; and her ships greatly inferior in point of magnitude; her mercantile marine too limited and insignificant to be of much use as an arm of power. The want of colonies, the great and constant source of commerce and of shipping, necessarily crippled the supply of seamen; but notwithstanding all these drawbacks, the inferiority in numbers and strength, when once "the youth of England are on fire," then may we exclaim:

"O England! model to thy inward greatness,

Like little body with a mighty heart!

What might'st thou do, that honour bids thee do.” When the spirit of adventure is afloat, the seamen of England, in particular, are never found wanting where honour or glory calls, or the nation requires their services-witness our brave fellows in the early periods of foreign navigation, proceeding in their miserable little barks of 40, 30, or even 20 tons, to encounter the frozen seas of the polar regions; the more recent discoveries made in the same quarter, and even that foolish, fatal, and expensive expedition up the swampy, sultry Niger! They require but a leader such as Ross now is, or Drake was, in whom they can confide.

The general narrative of this voyage of Drake to the West Indies, and to the very spot, Nombre de Dios, from whence the immense quantities of gold and silver, the produce of Peru and

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