View of the State of Europe During the Middle Ages, Том 2

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J. Murray, 1853

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Стр. 169 - It was a breach of faith to divulge the lord's counsel, to conceal from him the machinations of others, to injure his person or fortune, or to violate the sanctity of his roof and the honour of his family. In battle he was bound to lend his horse to his lord when dismounted ; to adhere to his side while fighting, and to go into captivity as a hostage for him when taken. His attendance was due to the lord's courts, sometimes to witness and sometimes to bear a part in the administration of justice.
Стр. 422 - ... popolo, and one of 250, called consiglio di commune, into which the nobles might enter. These were changed by the same rotation as the magistracies, every four months.* A parliament, or general assembly of the Florentine people, was rarely convoked ; but the leading principle of a democratical republic, the ultimate sovereignty of the multitude, was not forgotten. This constitution of 1324 was fixed by the citizens at large in a parliament ; and the same sanction was given to those temporary...
Стр. 434 - Let no one," says Machiavel in this place, " who begins an innovation in a state, expect that he shall stop it at his pleasure, or regulate it according to his intention.
Стр. 334 - Parisius mallo pubplico et ipsa legere fecisset coram illis scabineis. quod ita et fecit. Et omnes in uno consenserunt, quod ipsi voluissent omni tempore observare usque in posterum. etiam omnes scabinei, episcopi, abbatis, comitis manu propria subter firmaverunt.
Стр. 208 - A series of alternate persecution and tolerance was borne by this extraordinary people with an invincible perseverance, and a talent of accumulating riches which kept pace with their plunderers ; till new schemes of finance supplying the turn, they were finally expelled under Charles VI.
Стр. 189 - ... out of the feudal system. Every possessor of a fief was a gentleman, though he owned but a few acres of land, and furnished his slender contribution towards the equipment of a knight. In the Libri Feudorum, indeed, those who were three degrees removed from the emperor in order of tenancy are considered as ignoble ; but this is restrained to modern investitures ; and in France, where sub-infeudation was carried the farthest, no such distinction has met my observation.
Стр. 91 - Liberty never wore a more unamiable countenance than among these burghers, who abused the strength she gave them by cruelty and insolence."— Hallara.
Стр. 265 - IV. assembled a great force by publishing the arriere-ban, or feudal summons, for his unhappy expedition against the Flemings. A small and more disciplined body of troops would not, probably, have met with the discomfiture of Courtray. Edward I. and Edward II. frequently called upon those who owed military service, in their invasions of Scotland. But in the French wars of Edward III., the whole, I think, of his army served for pay, and was raised by contract with men of rank and influence, who received...
Стр. 200 - Cap. 6. The state of servitude of the?e villeins was not absolute, like that of the negroes in the West Indies ; for as Hallam (Middle Ages, vol. ip 149.) observes : " It was only in respect of his lord, that the villein, at least in England, was without rights ; he might inherit, purchase, sue in the courts of law ; though, as defendant in a real action or suit, wherein land was claimed, he might shelter himself under the plea of villenage.
Стр. 357 - Romans were republican. Amidst the darkness of the tenth century, which no contemporary historian dissipates, we faintly distinguish the awful names of senate, consuls, and tribunes, the domestic magistracy of Rome. These shadows of past glory strike us at first with surprise...

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