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There is a disposition in conversation to 14. Of the powers of books and studies upon the soothe and please ; and a disposition contrary mind. to contradict and cross.

Is not the opinion of Aristotle worthy to be There is a disposition to take pleasure in regarded, wherein he saith, That young men the good of another.

are no fit auditors of moral philosophy, be5. This subject has been negligently inquired by mo- cause they are not setiled from the boiling heat

ralists, with some beauty by astrologers, and by of their affections, nor attempered with time words in relations.

and experience ?" History, poesy, and daily experience are as

But is it not true also, that much less young goodly fields where these observations grow ; men are fit auditors of matters of policy, till whereof we make a few posies to hold in our they have been thoroughly seasoned in religion hands, but no man bringeth them to the con- and morality; lest their judgments be corfectionary, that receipts might be made of rupted, and made apt to think that there are them for the use of life.

no true differences of things but according to 6. Natural and accidental impressions should be noted. utility and fortune ? ?

15. There should be caution lest moral instruction The Affections...... 225

make men too precise, arrogant, and incom7. Inquiry should be made of the affections.


.... 227 As the ancient politicians in popular states 16. The minds of all men are at some times in a more were wont to compare the people to the sea, perfect, and at other times in a more depraved and the orators to the winds, because, as the state. sea would of itself be calm and quiet, if the 17. The fixation of good times....

227 vinds did not move and trouble it ; 80 the 18. The obliteration of bad times.

227 people would be peaceable and tractable, if 19. The golden rule of life is to choose right ends of the seditious orators did not set them in work- life, and agreeing to virtue, and such as may ing and agitation : so it may be fitly said, be, in a reasonable sort, within our compass to that the mind in the nature thereof would be attain. temperate and stayed, if the affections, as As when a carver makes an image, he winds, did not put it into tumult and pertur- shapes only that part whereupon he worketh, bation.

(as if he be upon the face, that part which 8. This subject has been investigated by Aristotle, and shall be the body is but a rude stone still, till

by the Stoics, and in different scattered works; such time as he comes to it;) but, contraribut the poets and historians are the masters of wise, when nature makes a flower or living the passions..

225 creature, she formeth rudiments of all the parts 9. Of the opposition of passions to each other.

at one time : 80 in obtaining virtue by hatrit,

while a man practiseth temperance, he doth The Origin of the Mind ........ 226

not profit much to fortitude, nor the like ; but 10. Inquiries should be made of custom, exercise, when he dedicateth and applieth himself to habit, education, friendship, &c.

good ends, what virtue soever the pursuit and

passage towards those ends doth commend Of Custom and Habit.

unto him, he is invested of a precedent dispo11. Aristotle's error in stating too generally that those sition to conform himself thereunto.

things which are natural cannot be changed. 20. There is a sympathy between the good of the body 12. Virtues and vices consist in habits.

and of the mind. 13. Precepts for the formation of habits.'

As we divided the good of the body into 1. Beware that at the first a task be taken health, beauty, strength, and pleasure ; so the neither too high nor too weak.?

good of the mind, inquired in rational and 2. Practise all things at two seasons; when moral knowledges, tendeth to this, to make the

the mind is best disposed and when it is mind sound, and without perturbation; beauworst disposed.

tiful, and graced with decency; and strong By the one you may gain a great step; by and agile for all duties of life. the other you may work out the knots and stonds of the mind, and make the middle times

MAN IN SOCIETY. the more easy and pleasant.

1. Reasons why ethics are in some respects more dif3. Ever bear toward the contrary extreme of

ficult than politics......

.... 228 that to which you are inclined.

1. Morality relates to man segregate: poliLike unto the rowing against the stream,

tics to man congregate. or making a wand straight by bending him

Cało the censor said, that the Romans contrary to his natural crookedness.

were like sheep, for that a man might better 4. The mind is brought to anything with

drive a flock of them than one of them ; for more sweetness; if that whereunto we pretend in a ftock, if you could get but some few to go be not first in the intention, but tanquam aliud right, the rest would follow." agendo.

2. The object of morals is internal good;

for policy external sufficeth. · See Bacon's Essay “of Nature in Man,” and of Cus

3. States are not so suddenly subverted as tom and Education."

individuals. ......

228 * Bacon's Essay “or Nature in Man."

States, as great engines, move slowly, and He that seeketh victory over his nature, let him not

are not so soon put out of frame : for as in set himself too great, nor too small tasks; for the first will make him dejected by often failings; and the second

Egypt the seven good years sustained the seren will make him a small proceeder, though by often pre- • What says the morality of our universities to this opivarlings.


bad, so governments, for a time well grounded, The open declaration of this is impolitic, do bear out errors following:

being taken and used as spurs to industry, 2. Division of civil knowledge.

and not as stirrups to insolency, rather for re1. Conversation for comfort.

solution than for presumption or outward de2. Negotiation for use,

claration, have been ever thought sound and 3. Government for protection.

good; and are, no question, imprinted in the

greatest minds, who are so sensible of this CONVERSATION.............


opinion, as they can scarce contain it within. 3. Wisdom of conversation ought not to be too much 2. The knowledge of the advancement of life is deaffected, much less despised.


231 4. Of behaviour.

3. The investigation of this subject concerns learning, The sum of behaviour is to retain a man's both in honour and in substance. own dignity, without intruding upon the Pragmatical men should not go away with liberty of others.

an opinion that learning is like a lark, that Behaviour seemeth to me as a garment of can mount, and sing, and please herself, and the mind, and to have the conditions of a gar- nothing else; but may know that she holdeth ment. For it ought to be made in fashion ; as well of the hawk, that can soar aloft, und it ought not to be too curious; it ought to be can also descend and strike



prey. shaped so as to set forth any good making of It is the perfect law of inquiry of truth, the mind, and hide any deformity; and above " that nothing be in the globe of matter, which all, it ought not to be too strait, or restrained should not be likewise in the globe of crystal, for exercise or motion.

or form ;" that is, that there be not any thing 5. Evils of too much attention to behaviour.

in being and action, which should not be 1. The danger of affectation.

drawn and collected into contemplation and 2. Waste of time.

doctrine. 3. Waste of mind, and checking aspirings to 4. Learning esteems the architecture of fortune as of higher virtues.

an inferior work.. ...,

232 4. Retarding action.

5. This doctrine is reducible to science. 6. The knowledge of conversation is not deficient. 229 6. Precepts respecting this knowledge. NEGOTIATION.....

7. The fundamental precept is to acquire knowledge

of the particular motives by which those with 1. This knowledge, to the derogation of learning, hath

whom we have to deal are actuated..... 232 not been collected into writing.

Obtain that window which Momus did reof the three wisdoms which we have set down to pertain to civil life, for wisdom of

quire: who seeing in the frame of man's

heart such angles and recesses, found fault behaviour, it is by learned men for the most that there was not a window to look into them. part despised, as an inferior to virtue, and an

8. The sinews of wisdom are slowness of belief. enemy to meditation ; for wisdom of govern- 9. General modes of acquiring a knowledge of ment, they acquit themselves well when they


233 are called to it, but that happeneth to few;

1. A general acquaintance with knowbut for the wisdom of business, wherein man's

ing men. life is most conversant, there be no books of it,

2. A good mediocrity in liberty of except some few scattered advertisements, that

speech and secrecy: indulging have no proportion to the magnitude of this

rather in freedom of speech. subject.

3. A watchful and serene habit of ob2. This kno edge is reducible to precept, illustrated

serving when acting. by the proverbs of Solomon....

229 3. Ancient fables and parables contain information 10. Modes by which the knowledge of man is acquired.

1. By their faces. upon this subject.....


2. By words. 4. The proper form of writing upon this subject is dis

3. By deeds. course upon history or examples.

4. By their natures. 5. Of discourses upon history of times, and upon

5. By their ends. lives, and upon letters....


6. By the relations of others. KNOWLEDGE OF THE ADVANCEMENT OF LIFE.. 231 11. More trust is to be given to countenances and

deeds, than to words.....

232 1. Preliminary observations. 1. This is the wisdom of pressing a man's own

The Faces. fortune.

12. Much reliance cannot be placed upon the face at
This is the knowledgesibi sapere :sapere
is to move from the centre to the circumfer13. The face in motion cannot deceive a vigilant ob-
ence :-sibi sapere, from the circumference to
the centre.

It is animi janua.
2. Many are wise for themselves, yet weak
for the public.

Like ants, which are wise creatures for 14. They are full of flattery ::

232 themselves, but very hurtful for the garden.

15. Modes in which words disclose character.... 232 3. Faber quisque fortune propriæ.

1. When sudden. Livy attributelh it to Cato the first,in hoc viro tanto vis animi et ingenii inerat, ut

vino tortus et ira. quocunque loco natus esset, sibi ipse fortunam 2. From affections. facturus videretur."

3. From counter simulation.





31. The causes of the undervaluing merit. 16. They are not to be trusted without a diligent con

1. Self-obtrusion. sideration of their magnitude and nature.

2. Waste of ability.

3. Too sudden elation with applause. Natures and End of Men.

The Art of Covering Defects ...... 234 17. This is the surest key to unlock men's minds.

32. The art of covering defects is of as much import18. The weakest men are best interpreted by their na

ance as a dexterous ostentation of virtue.. 234 tures; the wisest by their ends.

33. Modes of concealing defects. It is an error frequent for men to shoot

1. Caution. over, and to suppose deeper ends, and more

2. Colour. compass-reaches than are.

3. Confidence, 19. Princes are best interpreted by their natures ; pri- 34. A man should not dismantle himself by showing vate persons by their ends.

too much dulceness, goodness, and facility of na20. The variety and predominancy of affections are

ture, without sparkles of liberty, spirit, and edge. to be estimated.

35. The mind should be pliant and obedient to occaReports of Others.


235 21. Modes by which our defects and virtues may be

Nothing is more politic than to make the estimated from report...


wheels of our mind concentric and voluble with

the wheels of fortune. Of the Knowledge of Ourselves ..... 233 36. Precepts for the architect of his own fortune. 22. A man ought to make an exact estimate of his

1. He should not engage in too arduous mat

merits and defects : accounting these with the
most, and those with the least.

Fatis accede deisque.
Though mien look oft in a glass, yet they do

2. He should be able to plan and to execute. suddenly forget themselves.

3. He should observe a good mediocrity in the

declaring or not declaring himself. 235 Particular Considerations respecting Self-Knowledge. 4. He should judge of the proportion or value 23. The consonance, or dissonance of his constitution

of things. and temper with the times.

We shall find the logical part, as I

may Tiberius was never seen in public. Au- term it, of some men's minds good, but the gustus lived ever in men's eyes.

mathematical part erroneous ; that is, they 24. The adaptation of his nature to the different pro- can well judge of consequences, but not of professions and courses of life.

portions and comparisons, preferring things 25. The competitors in different professions; that the of show and sense before things of substance course may be taken where there is most soli

and effect. tude.

5. He should consider the order in which obAs Julius Cæsar did, who at first was an

jects should be attained...

236 orator or pleader ; but when he saw the ex

1. The mind should be amended. cellency of Cicero, Hortensius, Catulus, and

2. Wealth and measure should be at. others, for eloquence, and saw there was no

tained.3 man of reputation for the wars but Pompeius,

3. Fame and reputation should be ac. upon whom the state was forced to rely, he

quired. forsook his course begun toward a civil and Because of the peremptory tides and cur. popular greatness, and transferred his designs rents it hath ; which, if they be not taken in to a martial greatness.

their due time, are seldom recovered, it being 26. In the choice of friends to consult similar nature. extreme hard to play an after-game of repu.

As we may see in Cæsar ; all whose friends tation. and followers were men active and effectual,

2 Men run after the satisfaction of their sottish appetites, but not solemn, or of reputation.

foolish as fishes pursuing a rollen worm that covers a deadly 27. Caution is not being misled by examples. hook: or like children with great noise pursuing a bubble In which error it seemeth Pompey was, of rising from a walnut shell.

B. J. Taylon. whom Cicero saith, that he was wont often to • Money brings honour, friends, conquest and realms : say, Sylla potuit, ego non potero ?

Therefore, if at great things thou wouldst arrive,

Get riches first, get wealth, and treasure heap.
The Art of Revealing a Man's Self.

Riches are mine, fortune is in my hand : 28. From not properly revealing a man's self, the

They whom I favour thrive in wealth amain, less able man is often esteemed before the more

While virtue, valour, wisdom, sit in want.

To whom, thus Jesus patiently replied : able.

Yet wealth, without these three, is impotent 29. The setting forth virtues, and covering defects is To gain dominion, or to keep it gained. advantageous...

234 Witness, &c. 30. Self-setting-forth requires art, lest it turn to arro- Bacon says, “God in the first day of creation made nogance.

thing but light, allowing one whole day to that work, without

creating any material thing therein: so the experiments of 'Neither give thou Æsop's cock a gem, who would be bet. light and not of profit should be first investigated.” ter pleased and happier if he had a barley-corn. The exam. • There are various sentiments similar to this in Shaksples of God teaches the lesson truly: “He sendeth his rain, peare. “There is a tide in the affairs of men,”' &c. So in and maketh his sun to shine, upon the just and unjust :” but Antony and Cleopatra. he doth not rain wealth, nor shine honour and virtues upon Who seeks and will not take when once 'tis offered, men equally: common benefits are to be communicated with Shall never find it more. all, but peculiar benefits with choice. --Bacon's Essay on Advancement of Learning was published in 1605. Goodness and Goodness of Nature.

Shakspeare died in 1616. There is a copy of the Advance



4. Honour should be sought.

the sands, as we see in M. Brutus, when he 6. He must not embrace matters which oc- brake forth into that speech, cupy too much time.

“ Te colui, virtus, ut rem ; at tu nomen inane es ;" Sed fugit interea : fugit irreparibile tempus.

yet the divine foundation is upon the rock. 7. He should imitate nature, which does no

WISDOM OF GOVERNMENT........ 238 thing in vain.......

236 If he cannot make any thing of it for the 1. Government is a part of knowledge, secret and re

tired. present, yet to make it as a seed of somewhat 2. In the governors towards the government all things in time to come. 8. He should reserve a power to retreat. 237

ought to be manifest. Following the wisdom in the ancient fable 3. Statesmen are the proper persons to write on uni

versal justice....

235 of the two frogs, which consulted when their plash was dry whither they should go ; and 4. Of universal justice. the one moved to go down into a pit, because

There are in nature certain fountains of it was not likely the water would dry there ;

justice, whence all civil laws are derived but but the other answered, True ; but if it do,

as streams; and like as waters do take tinchow shall we get out again ?.

tures and tastes from the soils through which 9. He should be cautious in his friendships

they run, so do civil laws vary according to and enmities.

the regions and governments where they are Et ama tanquam inimicus futurus, et odi

planted, though they proceed from the same tanquam amaturus."

fountains. 37. Fortunes may be obtained without precept.

5. Of the wisdom of a law maker............. 238 They come tumbling into some men's laps ,

6. Bacon intends a work in aphorisms upon universal and a number obtuin good fortunes by dili


239 7. Of the laws of England. ...... gence in a plain way, little intermeddling, and keeping themselves from gross errors.

The whole book is not much better than that 38. Of vicious precepts for self-advancement.... 237

noise or sound which musicians make while 39. The number of bad precepts for advancement in

they are tuning their instruments; which is life is greater than good.


nothing pleasant to hear, but yet is a cause It is in life as it is in ways, the shortest way

why the music is sweeter afterwards : so have is commonly the foulest, and surely the fairer

I been content to tune the instruments of the way is not much about.

muses, that they may play that have better 40. In the pursuit of fortune, man ought to set before

hands. his eyes the general map of the world... 237

8. Observations upon the prospects of the progress of All things are vanity and vexation of spirit.

knowledge. -Being without well-being is a curse ; and


239 the greater the being, the greater the curse. 1. It is the sabbath of all men's labours. 41. The incessant and sabbathless pursuit of fortune 2. The prerogative of God extends to man's reason, leaveth not the tribute which we owe to God

and to his will. of our time.

3. Sacred theology is grounded upon the oracle of God. It is to small purpose to have an erected face 4. The use of reason in matters spiritual is extentowards heaven, and a perpetual grovelling sive. spirit upon earth, eating dust, as doth the ser

The Christain Faith, as in all things so in pent.

this, deserveth to be highly magnified; hold42. The adopting vicious precepts cannot be tolerated

ing and preserving the golden mediocrity in by the intended good ends.

this point between the law of the heathen and 43. Fortune, like a woman, if too much wooed, is the

the law of Mahomet, which have embraced the further off.....

...... 238

two extremes. For the religion of the heathen 44. Divinity points upwards to the kingdom of God:

had no constant belief or confession, but left philosophy inwards to the goods

of the mind.

all to the liberty of argument ; and the reliThe human foundation hath somewhat of

gion of Mahomet, on the other side, inter

dicteth argument altogether : the one having ment of Learning in existence, with Shakspeare's autograph the very face of error, and the other of imin it. The same sentiment is expressed by Dryden.

posture. Heaven has to all allotted soon or late,

5. Uses of reason in spiritual matters....... 240 Some lucky revolution of their fate;

1. In the conception of revealed mysteries. Whose motions if we watch and guide with skill,

2. In inferences from revelation. For human good depends on human will.

6. A treatise on the limits of reason in spiritual matOur fortune rolls as from a smooth descent,

ters is wanting. And from the first impression takes the bent;

This would be an opiate to stay and bridle But if unseized! she glides away like wind,

not only the vanity of curious speculations, And leaves repenting folly far behind!

wherewith the schools labour, but the fury of The same sentiment is contained in the Essays. “It is usu- controversies, wherewith the church laboureth. ally said of Fortune that she has locks before, but none behind." 7. Parts of divinity. Fortune is like Time, if you do not take him by the fore

1. The matter revealed. lock; he turns his bald noddle to you;" or at least, turneth

2. The nature of the revelation.. 241 the handle of the bottle first to be received; and after the belly, which is hard to clasp.

See the Treatise "De Augmentis,” where some progress 1 Events are not in our power; but it always is to make a is made in this science, now nobly advanced, and advancing good use of the very worst. Minute Philosopher. by the labours of Bentham.-(See note V.)



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17. Divine knowledge beyond human reach.

1. The mysteries of the kingdom of glory. 1. Its limits.

The anagogical mode of exposition 242 2. Its sufficiency.

The philosophical mode.... 242 3. Its acquisition. 8. The points fundamental and of perfection ought to

To seek philosophy in divinity is to seek the be distinguished....

deud amongst the living: neither are the pots 241

or lavers, whose place was in the outward part We see Moses when he saw the Israelite and the Egyptian fight, he did not say, Why

of the temple, to be sought in the holiest place strive you? but drew his sword and slew the

of all, where the ark of the testimony was

seated. Egyptian : but when he saw the two Israel

2. The perfection of the laws of nature. ites fight, he said, You are brethren, why

3. The secrets of the heart of man..... 242

4. The future succession of all ages. The coat of our Saviour was entire without 18. The expositions of Scripture are not deficient. seam, and so is the doctrine of the Scriptures 19. A work is wanted of a sound collection of texts, in itself ; but the garment of the church was

not dilated into commonplaces, or hunting of divers colours.

after controversies, or methodized, but scattered. The Limits of the Information ..... 241

243 9. Considerations respecting the limits. 1. The inspiration of individuals.

20. Different sorts. 2. The inspiration of the church.

The one being as the internal soul of reli3. The proper use of reason.

gion, and the other as the external body.

1, Matter of belief. The Sufficiency of the Information.... 241

2. Matter of science. 10. Considerations respecting the sufficiency.

21. Emanations. 1. Fundamental and perfective points of reli

1. Faith. gion.

1. The nature of God. They ought to be piously and wisely distin

2. The attributes of God. guished to abate controversy.

3. The works of God. 2. The gradations of light for the generation 2. Manners ...

243 of belief.

Of the law, as to substance and style.
The Acquisition of the Information ... 241

It imposes restraint where God granteth

liberty, or in taking liberty where God im11. It rests upon the sound interpretation of Scrip

poseth restraint.
3. Liturgy


4. Government. They are the fountains of the waters of life. 12. Different inodes of interpreting Scripture.

1. Patrimony of the church.

2. The franchises of the church. 1. Methodical.

3. The jurisdiction of the church. 2. Solute or at large.

4. The laws of the church.
This divine water which excelleth so much 22. Deviations from religion.
that of Jacob's well, is drawn forth much in

the same kind as natural water useth to be out

Heresy. of wells and fountains ; either it is first

forced up into a cistern, and from thence

fetched and derived for use; or else it is 23. There is no deficience in divinity.
drawn and received in buckets and vessels im.
mediately where it springeth.

I can find no space or ground that lieth va

cant and unsown in the matter of divinity; 13. Methodical mode of interpretation. It seems to be more ready, but is more sub

80 diligent have men been, either in sowing of

good seed, or in sowing of tares. ject to corrupt. 14. Objects of methodical interpretation. 1. Summary brevity.

Thus have I made as it were a small Globe 2. Compacted strength.

of the Intellectual World, as truly and faith3. Complete perfection.

fully as I could discover ; with a note and de15. Solute method of interpretation............ 242 scription of those parts which seem to me not 16. There have been divers curious but unsafe constantly occupate, or not well converted by modes.

the labour of man.


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