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ADVANCEMENT OF LEARNING.

2. Civil. 189. S.. Memorials

. 189.

Sl. By divines. 162. ri. Objections to Learning. 162. 2. By politicians. 164. 1. THE EXCELLENCE OF

23. From faulls of learned men. 166. AND OF DISSEMINATING LEARNING. 162. (2. Advantages of Learninr 174.

1. Divine proofs. 174. 2. Human proofs. 176.

1. History of creatures. 187. 1. Universities. 184.

ri. Natural. 187. 2. History of marvels. 188. (1. Preliminary considerations. 184.2. Libraries. 185.

3. History of arts. 188. -3. The persons of the learned. 185.

ri. Simple. 189. 2. Biography. 1. Different histories. 187.

2. Antiquities. 189.

3. Perfect history. 189. 2. WHAT HAS BEEN

2. Mixed. 191.
DONE FOR LEARN-

1. History,
ING, AND WHAT
relating to the memory.

1. History of the church. 191,

3. Ecclesiastical. 191. 2. History of prophecy. 191. LEFT UNDONE.

(3. History of providence. 192. 51. Memorials.

(2. Appendices. 192. 2. Epistles. 2. Division of

(3. Apophthegms. 2. Poetry, learning. 187.

S1. Narrative. relating to the ima- 2. Representative. gination. 192. (3. Parabolical.

1. Natural Religion. 194. 1. Revealed. 193. 239.

Si. Physics. 196. 3. Philosophy,

ri. Speculative. 195.-
relating to the un-

2. Natural Phi-
derstanding.
L2. From Reason. 193. Z 2. Particular philosophy.
1. General philosophy. 193. losophy. 195.

(1. Experimental. 201.
1. Division. 2. Philosophical. 199.
2. Operative.

3. Magical. 199. 12. Appendices.{2: Calendar of inventions. 199.

13. Human Philosophy, or Knowledge of Man. 201. (a) 1. Discovery.

1. Physiognomy. 201.
ri. The undivided state of man.

2. Exposition of dreams. 201.
22.
-2. Impression. { 2. Action of mind on body. 202.

§ 1. Action of body on mind. 202.

1. Health. 202. 1. Man as an individual. 201.

f1. The Body: 3. Strength. 205.

2. Beauty. 205.

4. Pleasure. 205. 2. The divided state of man.

(1. Its origin. 2. Fascination. 206. § 1. Divination. 206.

1. Of arts and sciences. S 1. Literate Experience. 209. ri. Invention. 207.

{2. Nodum Organum. 2. Of argument. 209.

2. Judgment. 210. 1. Of Conversation. 228.

2. The mind. 205.
ri. The Understanding. 3. Memory. 212. 1. Helps of memory. 212.

2. Nature of memory. 212.
2. Man in Society 228. 2. Of Negotiation. 229.
(3. of Government. 238.

1. Grammar. 213. 1. Literary.

2. Philosophical. 2. Its faculties.

14 l'radition. 212. 2. Rhetoric. 215. (3. Appendices.

12. The Art of Instruction. -2. The Wiu. 218. 1. Tire Image of Good. 219.

22. The Culture of the Mind. 223.

1. Chronicles.

3. Relations.

(2. Metaphysics. 196. Mathematics. 198.

]

2. .

$1. The Art Critical. 2/7

KNOWLEDGE OF MAN.

THE FIRST BOOK

OF

FRANCIS BACON

OF THE

PROFICIENCE AND ADVANCEMENT OF LEARNING,

DIVINE AND HUMAN.

TO THE KING.

There were, under the law, excellent king, both the least occasion presented, or the least spark of daily sacrifices, and freewill-offerings; the one pro- another's knowledge delivered. And as the Scripceeding upon ordinary observance, the other upon a ture saith of the wisest king, “ That his heart was devout cheerfulness : in like manner there belong- as the sands of the sea :" which though it be one eth to kings from their servants both tribute of duty of the largest bodies, yet it consisteth of the smalland presents of affection. In the former of these I est and finest portions; so hath God given your hope I shall not live to be wanting, according to my majesty a composition of understanding admirable, most humble duty, and the good pleasure of your being able to compass and comprehend the greatmajesty's employments : for the latter I thought it est matters, and nevertheless to touch and appremore respective to make choice of some oblation, hend the least : whereas it should seem an impossiwhich might rather refer to the propriety and ex- bility in nature, for the same instrument to make itcellency of your individual person, than to the busi- self fit for great and small works. And for your ness of your crown and state.

gift of speech, I call to mind what Cornelius TaciWherefore, representing your majesty many tus saith of Augustus Cæsar; “ Augusto profluens, times unto my mind, and beholding you not with et quæ principem deceret, eloquentia fuit." For, if the inquisitive eye of presumption, to discover that we note it well, speech that is uttered with labour

which the Scripture telleth me is inscrutable, but and difficulty, or speech that savoureth of the . with the observant eye of duty and admiration; affectation of art and precepts, or speech that is

leaving aside the other parts of your virtue and framed after the imitation of some pattern of fortune, I have been touched, yea, and possessed eloquence, though never so excellent, all this has with an extreme wonder at those your virtues and somewhat servile, and holding of the subject. faculties, which the philosophers call intellectual; But your majesty's manner of speech is indeed the largeness of your capacity, the faithfulness of prince-like, flowing as from a fountain, and yet your memory, the swiftness of your apprehension, streaming and branching itself into nature's order, the penetration of your judgment, and the facility full of facility and felicity, imitating none, and inand order of your elocutions, and I have often imitable by any. 'And as in your civil estate there thought, that of all the persons living that I have appeareth to be an emulation and contention of your known, your majesty were the best instance to majesty's virtue with your fortune ; a virtuous dismake a man of Plato's opinion, that all knowledge position with a fortunate regiment; a virtuous exis but reinembrance, and that the mind of man by pectation, when time was, of your greater fortune, nature knoweth all things, and hath but our own with a prosperous possession thereof in the due native and original motions (which by the strange time; a virtuous observation of the laws of marriage, ness and darkness of this tabernacle of the body with most blessed and happy fruit of marriage; a are sequestered) again revived and restored : such virtuous and most Christian desire of peace, with a a light of nature I have observed in your majesty, fortunate inclination in your neighbour princes and such a readiness to take flame and blaze from thereunto: so likewise, in these intellectual matters, Vol. 1.-21

161

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there seemeth to be no less contention between the the way, and, as it were, to make silence, to have excellency of your majesty's gifts of nature, and the true testimonies concerning the dignity of the universality and perfection of your learning. learning to be better heard, without the interrupFor I am well assured that this which I shall say tion of tacit objections; I think good to deliver it is no amplification at all, but a positive and mea- from the discredits and disgraces which it hath sured truth; which is, that there hath not been received, all from ignorance, but ignorance seversince Christ's time any king or temporal monarch, ally disguised ; appearing sometimes in the zeal which has been so learned in all literature and and jealousy of divines; sometimes in the severierudition, divine and human. For let a man seri- ty and arrogancy of politicians; and sometimes ously and diligently revolve and peruse the succes in the errors and imperfections of learned men sion of the emperors of Rome; of which Cæsar themselves. the dictator, who lived some years before Christ, I hear the former sort say, that knowledge is and Marcus Antonius, were the best learned ; and of those things which are to be accepted of with so descend to the emperors of Græcia, or of the great limitation and caution; that the aspiring to West; and then to the lines of France, Spain, overmuch knowledge, was the original temptation England, Scotland, and the rest, and he shall find and sin, whereupon ensued the fall of man; that this judgment is truly made. For.it seemeth much knowledge hath in it somewhat of the serpent, and in a king, if, by the compendious extractions of therefore where it entereth into a man it makes him other men's wits and labours, he can take hold of swell; “Scientia inflat:" that Solomon gives a any superficial ornaments and shows of learning; censure, “ That there is no end of making books, or if he countenance and prefer learning and and that much reading is a weariness of the flesh;" learned men : but to drink indeed of the true foun- and again in another place, “ That in spacious tains of learning, nay, to have such a fountain of knowledge there is much contristation, and that learning in himself, in a king, and in a king born, he that increaseth knowledge increaseth anxiety;" is almost a miracle. And the mare, because there that St. Paul gives a caveat, “ That we be not is met in.your majesty a rare conjunction, as well spoiled through vain philosophy;" that expeof divine and sacred literature, as of profane and rience demonstrates how learned men have been human ; so as your majesty standeth invested of arch-heretics, how learned times have been inthat triplicity, which in great veneration was as- clined to atheism, and how the contemplation of cribed to the ancient Hermes the power and for- second causes doth derogate from our dependence tune of a king, the knowledge and illumination upon God, who is the first cause. of a priest, and the learning and universality of a To discover then the ignorance and error of this philosopher. This propriety, inherent and indi-opinion, and the misunderstanding in the grounds vidual attribute in your majesty, deserveth to be thereof, it may well appear these men do not obexpressed not only in the fame and admiration of serve or consider, that it was not the pure knowthe present time, nor in the history or tradition of ledge of nature and universality, a knowledge by the ages succeeding; but also in some solid the light whereof man did give names unto other work, fixed memorial, and immortal monument, creatures in Paradise, as they were brought before bearing a character or signature both of the power him, according unto their proprieties, which gave of a king, and the difference and perfection of such the occasion to the fall ; but it was the proud a king.

knowledge of good and evil, with an intent in man Therefore I did conclude with myself, that I to give law unto himself, and to depend no more could not make unto your majesty a better obla- upon God's commandments, which was the form tion, than of some treatise tending to that end, of the temptation. Neither is it any quantity of

whereof the sum will consist of these two parts; knowledge, how great soever, that can make the | the former, concerning the excellency of learning mind of man to swell; for nothing can fill, much

and knowledge, and the excellency of the merit less extend the soul of man, but God and the

and true glory in the augmentation and propaga- contemplation of God; and therefore Solomon rytion thereof: the latter, what the particular acts speaking of the two principal senses of inqui

and works are, which have been embraced and sition, the eye and the ear, affirmeth that the eye undertaken for the advancement of learning; and is never satisfied with seeing, nor the ear with again, what defects and undervalues I find in such hearing; and if there be no fulness, then is the particular acts: to the end, that though I cannot continent greater than the content: so of knowpositively or affirmatively advise your majesty, ledge itself, and the mind of man, whereto the or propound unto you framed particulars ; yet I senses are but reporters, he defiineth likewise in may excite your princely cogitations to visit the these words, placed after that calendar or epheexcellent treasure of your own mind, and thence merides, which he maketh of the diversities of to extract particulars for this purpose, agreeable times and seasons for all actions and purposes; to your magnanimity and wisdom.

and concludeth thus: “God hath made all things

beautiful, or decent, in the true return of their seaIn the entrance to the former of these, to clear / sons : Also he hath placed the world in man's

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heart, yet cannot man find out the work which forget our mortality. The second, that we make God worketh from the beginning to the end :" application of our knowledge, to give ourselves declaring, not obscurely, that God hath framed repose and contentment, and not distaste or repinthe mind of man as a mirror or glass, capable of ing. The third, that we do not presume by the the image of the universal world, and joyful to contemplation of nature to attain to the mysteries receive the impression thereof, as the eye joyeth of God. For, as touching the first of these, Soloto receive light; and not only delighted in behold- mon doth excellently expound himself in another ing the variety of things, and vicissitude of times, place of the same book, where he saith ; " I saw but raised also to find out and discern the ordi- well that knowledge recedeth as far from ignonances and decrees, which throughout all those rance as light doth from darkness; and that the changes are infallibly observed. And although wise man's eyes keep watch in his head, whereas he doth insinuate, that the supreme or summary the fool roundeth about in darkness: but withal I law of nature, which he calleth, “ The work which learned, that the same mortality involveth them God worketh from the beginning to the end, is both.” And for the second, certain it is, there is not possible to be found out by man;" yet that no vexation or anxiety of mind which resulteth doth not derogate from the capacity of the mind, from knowledge, otherwise than merely by accibut may be referred to the impediments, as of dent; for all knowledge, and wonder (which is shortness of life, ill conjunetion of labours, ill the seed of knowledge) is an impression of pleatradition of knowledge over from hand to hand, sure in itself: but when men fallto framing concluand many other inconveniences, whereunto the sions out of their knowledge, applying it to their condition of man is subject. For that nothing particular, and ministering to themselves thereby parcel of the world is.denied to man's inquiry and weak fears or vast desires, there groweth that invention, he doth in another place rule over, carefulness and trouble of mind which is spoken when he saith, “ The spirit of man is as the lamp of: for then knowledge is no more. 66 Lumen of God, wherewith he searcheth the inwardness siccum,” whereof Heraclitus the Profound said, of all secrets." If then such be the capacity and " Lumen siccum optima anima;" but it becometh receipt of the mind of man, it is manifest, that “Lumen madidum, or maceratum,” being steeped there is no danger at all in the proportion or quan- and infused in the humours of the affections. And tity of knowledge, how large soever, lest it should as for the third point, it deserveth to be a little make it swell or out-compass itself; no, but it stood upon, and not to be lightly passed over: is merely the quality of knowledge, which, be it for if any man shall think, by view and inquiry in quantity more or less, if it be taken without the into these sensible and material things, to attain true corrective thereof, hath in it some nature of that light, whereby he may reveal unto himself venom or malignity, and some effects of that ve- the nature or will of God, then indeed is he nom, which is ventosity or swelling. This cor- spoiled by vain philosophy: for the contemplation rective spice, the mixture whereof maketh know- of God's creatures and works produceth (having ledge so sovereign, is charity, which the apostle regard to the works and creatures themselves) immediately addeth to the former clause ; for so knowledge ; but having regard to God, no perfect he saith, “knowledge bloweth up, but charity knowledge, but wonder, which is broken knowbuildeth up;” not unlike unto that which he de- ledge. And therefore it was most aptly said by livereth in another place: “If I spake,” saith he, one of Plato's school, That the sense of man 56 with the tongues of men and angels, and had carrieth a resemblance with the sun, which, as we · not charity, it were but as a tinkling cymbal;" see, openeth and revealeth all the terrestrial globe; not but that it is an excellent thing to speak but then again it obscureth and concealeth the with the tongues of men and angels, but because, stars and celestial globe; so doth the sense if it be severed from charity, and not referred to discover natural things, but it darkeneth and the good of men and mankind, it hath rather a shutteth up divine." And hence it is true, that sounding and unworthy glory, than a meriting it hath proceeded, that divers great learned men and substantial virtue. And as for that censure have been heretical, whilst they have sought to of Solomon, concerning the excess of writing and fly up to the secrets of the Deity by the waxen reading books, and the anxiety of spirit which re- wings of the senses. And as for the conceit that doundeth from knowledge; and that admonition of too much knowledge should incline a man to St. Paul, “ That we be not seduced by vain philoso- atheism, and that the ignorance of second causes phy;" let those places be rightly understood, and should make a more devout dependance upon God, they do indeed excellently set forth the true bounds which is the first cause ; First, it is good to ask and limitations, whereby human knowledge is the question which Job asked of his friends ; confined and circumscribed ; and yet without any " Will you lie for God, as one man will do for such contracting or coarctation, but that it may another to gratify him ?" For certain it is that comprehend all the universal nature of things; God worketh nothing in nature but by second for these limitations are three: the first, that we causes ; and if they would have it otherwise benot so place our felicity in knowledge, as we lieved, it is mere imposture, as it were in favour

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