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towards God; and nothing else but to offer to so much renowned, attributing and challenging the Author of truth the unclean sacrifice of a lie. the one to the Romans, and leaving and yielding But farther, it is an assured truth, and a conclu- the other to the Grecians; “ Tu regere imperio posion of experience, that a little or superficial pulos, Romane, memento, Hæ tibi erunt artes, &c." knowledge of philosophy may incline the mind So likewise we see that Anytus, the accuser of Soof man to atheism, but a farther proceeding there- crates, laid it as an article of charge and accusain doth bring the mind back again to religion; tion against him, that he did, with the variety and for in the entrance of philosophy, when the power of his discourses and disputations, withsecond causes, which are next unto the senses, draw young men from due reverence to the laws do offer themselves to the mind of man, if it dwell and customs of their country: and that he did and stay there, it may induce some oblivion of profess a dangerous and pernicious science, which the highest cause ; but when a man passeth on was, to make the worse matter seem the better, farther, and seeth the dependence of causes, and and to suppress truth by force of eloquence and the works of Providence; then, according to the speech. allegory of the poets, he will easily believe that But these, and the like imputations, have rather the highest link of nature's chain must needs be a countenance of gravity, than any ground of justied to the foot of Jupiter's chair. To conclude tice: for experience doth warrant, that both in therefore, let no man, upon a weak conceit of so- persons and in times, there hath been a meeting briety, or an ill-applied moderation, think or and concurrence in learning and arms, flourishing maintain, that a man can search too far, or be too and excelling in the same men and the same ages. well studied in the book of God's word, or in the For, as for men, there cannot be a better, nor the book of God's works; divinity or philosophy; like instance, as of that pair, Alexander the Great but rather let men endeavour an endless progress and Julius Cæsar the dictator ; whereof the one or proficience in both ; only let men beware that was Aristotle's scholar in philosophy, and the they apply both to charity, and not to swelling ; other was Cicero's rival in eloquence: or if any to use, and not to ostentation; and again, that man had rather call for scholars that were great

1 they do not unwisely mingle or confound these generals, than generals that were great scholars, learnings together.

let him take Epaminondas the The an, or XenoAnd as for the disgraces which learning receiv- phon the Athenian; whereof the one was the first eth from politicians, they be of this nature; 'that that abated the power of Sparta, and the other learning doth soften men's minds, and makes was the first that made way to the overthrow of them more unapt for the honour and exercise of the monarchy of Persia. And this concurrence is arms ; that it doth mar and pervert men’s dispo- yet more visible in times than in persons, by how sitions for matter of government and policy ; in much an age is a greater object than a man. For making them too curious and irresolute by variety both in Ægypt, Assyria, Persia, Græcia, and of reading; or too peremptory or positive by strict- Rome, the same times that are most renowned ness of rules and axioms; or tno immoderate and for arms, are likewise most admired for learning; overweening by reason of the greatness of exam- so that the greatest authors and philosophers, and ples; or too incompatible and differing from the the greatest captains and governors, have lived in times by reason of the dissimilitude of examples; the same ages. Neither can it otherwise be : for or at least, that it doth divert men's travails from as, in man, the ripeness of strength of the body action and business, and bringeth them to a love and mind cometh much about an age, save that of leisure and privateness; and that it doth bring the strength of the body cometh somewhat the into states a relaxation.of discipline, whilst every more early; so in states, arms, and learning, man is more ready to argue, than obey and execute. whereof the one correspondeth to the body, the Out of this conceit, Cato, surnamed the Censor, other to the soul of man, have a concurrence or one of the wisest men indeed that ever lived, near sequence in times. when Carneades the philosopher came in embas- And for matter of policy and government, that sage to Rome, and that the young men of Rome learning should rather hurt, than enable thereunto, began to flock about him, being allured with the is a thing very improbable: we see it is accountsweetness and majesty of his eloquence and learn- ed an error to commit a natural body to empiric ing, gave counsel in open senate, that they should physicians, which commonly have a few pleasing give him his despatch with all speed, lest he receipts, whereupon they are confident and advenshould infeet and enchant the minds and affections turous, but know neither the causes of diseases, of the youth, and at unawares bring in an altera- nor the complexion of patients, nor the peril of Lion of the manners and customs of the state. Out accidents, nor the true method of cures : we see of the same conceit, or humour, did Virgil, turn it is a like error to rely upon advocates or lav. ing his pen to the advantage of his country, and yers, which are only men of practice, and not the disadvantage of his own profession, make a grounded in their books, who are many times kind of separation between policy and govern- easily surprised, when matter falleth out besides ment, and between arts and sciences, in the verses their experience, to the prejudice of the causes

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they handle: so, by like reason, it cannot be butment, which learning is pretended to insinuate; a matter of doubtful consequence, if states be if it be granted that any such thing be, it must be managed by empiric statesmen, not well mingled remembered withal, that learning ministereth in with men grounded in learning. But contrari- every of them greater strength of medicine or rewise, it is almost without instance contradictory, medy than it offereth cause of indisposition or that ever any government was disastrous that infirmity ;.for if by a secret operation, it make was in the hands of learned governors. For men perplexed and irresolute, on the other side, howsoever it hath been ordinary with politic men by plain precept, it teacheth them when and upon to extenuate and disable learned men by the names what ground to resolve; yea, and how to carry of pedants ; yet in the records of time it appear- things in suspense without prejudice, till they eth, in many particulars, that the governments of resolve ; if it make men positive and regular, it princes in minority (notwithstanding the infinite teacheth them what things are in their nature disadvantage of that kind of state) have neverthe- demonstrative, and what are conjectural; and as less excelled the government of princes of mature well the use of distinctions and exceptions, as the age, even for that reason which they seek to tra- latitude of principles and rules, If it mislead by duce, which is, that by that occasion the state disproportion, or dissimilitude of examples, it hath been in the hands of pedants : for so was the teacheth men the force of circumstances, the errors state of Rome for the first five years, which are of comparisons, and all the cautions of applicaso much magnified, during the minority of Nero, tion; so that in all these it doth rectify more in the hands of Seneca, a pedant: so it was again effectually than it can pervert., And these medifor ten years' space or more, during the minority cines it conveyeth into men's minds much more of Gordianus the younger, with great applause forcibly by the quickness and penetration of exand contentation in the hands of Misitheus, a amples, For let a man look into the errors of .pedant: so it was before that, in the minority of Clement the Seventh, so livelily described by Alexander Severus, in like happiness, in hånds Guicciardine, who served under him, or into the not much unlike, by reason of the rule of the errors of Cicero, painted out by his own pencil in women, who were aided by the teachers and pre- his epistles to Atticus, and he will fly apace from ceptors. Nay, let a man look into the govern- being irresolute. Let him look into the errors of ment of the bishops of Roine, as by name, into Phocion, and he will beware how he be obstinate the government of Pius Quintus, and Sextus or inflexible. Let him but read the fable of Ixion, Quintus, in our times, who were both at their en- and it will hold him from being vaporous or imtrance esteemed but as pedantical friars, and he aginative. Let him look into the errors of Cato shall find that such popes do greater things, and the Second, and he will never be one of the antiproceed upon truer principles of estate, than those podes, to tread opposite to the present world. which have ascended to the papacy from an edu- And for the conceit, that learning should dispose cation and breeding in affairs of estate and courts men to leisure and privateness, and make men of princes ; for although men bred in learning slothful; it were a strange thing if that which are perhaps to seek in points of convenience, and accustometh the mind to a perpetual motion and accommodating for the present, which the Italians agitation should induce slothfulness; whereas call “ragioni di stato," whereof the same Pius contrariwise it may be truly affirmed, that no kind Quintus could not hear spoken with patience, of men love business for itself, but those that are terming them inventions against religion and the learned ; for other persons love it for profit, as an moral virtues; but on the other side, to recom- hireling, that loves the work for the wages; or pence that, they are perfect in those same plain for honour, as because it beareth them up in the grounds of religion, justice, honour, and moral eyes of men, and refresheth their reputation, which virtue, which, if they be well and watchfully pur- otherwise would wear; or because it putteth them sued, there will be seldom use of those other, no in mind of their fortune, and giveth them occamore than of physic in a sound or well-dieted sion to pleasure and displeasure; or because it body. Neither can the experience of one man's exerciseth some faculty wherein they take pride life furnish examples and precedents for the events and so entertaineth them in good humour and of one man's life: for, as it happeneth sometimes pleasing conceits toward themselves; or because that the grandchild, or other descendant, resem- it advanceth any other their ends. So that, as it bleth the ancestor more than the son; so many is said of untrue valours, that some men's valours times occurrences of present times may sort better are in the eyes of them that look on; so such men's with aneient examples, than with those of the industries are in the eyes of others, or at least in latter or immediate times : and lastly, the wit of regard of their own designments : only learned one man can no more countervail learning, than men love business, as an action according to nature, one man's means can hold way with a common | as agreeable to health of mind, as exercise is to purse.

health of body, taking pleasure in the action itAnd as for those particular seducements, or in- self, and not in the purchase; so that of all dispositions of the mind for policy and govern- men they are the most indefatigable, if it be towards any business which can hold or detain | art of empire, and leaving to others the arts of their mind.

subjects; yet so much is manifest, that the RoAnd if any man be laborious in reading and mans never ascended to that height of empire, study, and yet idle in business and action, it grow- till the time they had ascended to the height of eth from some weakness of body or softness of other arts. For in the time of the two first spirit; such as Seneca speaketh of: “Quidam sars, which had the art of government in greatest

am sunt mbratiles, ut putent in turbido esse perfection, there lived the best poet, Virgilius quicquid in luce est;" and not of learning: well Maro; the best historiographer, Titus Livius ; may it be, that such a point of a man's nature the best antiquary, Marcus Varro; and the best, may make him give himself to learning, but it is or second orator, Marcus Cicero, that to the menot learning that breedeth any such point in his mory of man are known. As for the accusation nature.

of Socrates, the time must be remembered when And that learning should take up too much time it was prosecuted; which was under the thirty or leisure : I answer; the most active or busy man tyrants, the most base, bloody, and envious perthat hath been or can be, hath, no question, many sons that have governed; which revolutions of vacant times of leisure, while he expecteth the tides state was no sooner over, but Socrates, whom they and returns of business, (except he be either tedious had made a person criminal, was made a person and of no despatch, or lightly and unworthily am- heroical, and his memory accumulate with honours bitious to meddle in things that may be better done divine and human; and those discourses of his, by others :) and then the question is, but how those which were then termed corrupting of manners, spaces and times of leisure shall be filled and were afterwards acknowledged for sovereign mespent; whether in pleasures or in studies; as was dicines of the mind and manners, and so have been well answered by Demosthenes to his adversary received ever since till this day. Let this thereÆschines, that was a man given to pleasure, and fore serve for answer to politicians, which in their told him that his orations did smell of the lamp: humorous severity, or in their feigned gravity, • Indeed,” said Demosthenes, " there is a great have presumed to throw imputations upon learndifference between the things that you and I do ing; which redargution, nevertheless, (save that by lamp-light.” So as no man need doubt that we know not whether our labours may extend to learning will expulse business; but rather it will other ages,) were not needful for the present, in keep and defend the possession of the mind regard of the love and reverence towards learning, against idleness and pleasure, which otherwise which the example and countenance of two so at unawares may enter, to the prejudice of both.' learned princes, Queen Elizabeth, and your ma

Again, for that other conceit, that learning jesty, being as Castor and Pollux, “ lucida sideshould undermine the reverence of laws and ra," stars of excellent light and most benign government, it is assuredly a mere depravation influence, hath wrought in all men of place and and calumny, without all shadow of truth. For authority in our nation. to say, that a blind custom of obedience should Now therefore we come to that third sort of disbe a surer obligation than duty taught and under-credit or diminution of credit, that groweth unto stood ; it is to affirm, that a blind man may tread learning from learned men themselves, which surer by a guide than a seeing man can by a commonly cleaveth fastest: it is either froin their light. And it is without all controversy, that fortune; or from their manners; or from the learning doth make the minds of men gentle, nature of their studies. For the first, it is not in generous, maniable, and pliant to government; their power; and the second is accidental; the whereas ignorance makes them churlish, thwart- third only is proper to be handled : but because ing, and mutinous; and the evidence of time we are not in hand with true measure, but with doth clear this assertion, considering that the popular estimation and conceit, it is not amiss to most barbarous, rude, and unlearned times have speak somewhat of the two former. The derogabeen most subject to tumults, seditions, and tions, therefore, which grow to learning from the changes.

fortune or condition of learned men, are either And as to the judgment of Cato the Censor, in respect of scarcity of means, or in respect of he was well punished for his blasphemy against privateness of life, and meanness of employlearning in the same kind wherein he offended ; ments. for when he was past threescore years old, he Concerning want, and that it is the case of was taken with an extreme desire to go to school learned men usually to begin with little, and not again, and to learn the Greek tongue, to the end to grow rich so fast as other men, by reason they to peruse the Greek authors ; which doth well de convert not their labours chiefly to lucre and inmonstrate, that his former censure of the Grecian crease : it were good to leave the commonplace learning was rather an affected gravity, than ac- in commendation of poverty to some friar to cording to the inward sense of his own opinion. handle, to whom much was attributed by MachiaAnd as for Virgil's verses, though it pleased him vel in this point; w he said, “That the to brave the world in taking to the Romans the kingdom of the clergy had been long before at an.

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end, if the reputation and reverence towards the popularity of opinion to measure of reason) may poverty of friars had not borne out the scandal appear in that, we see men are more curious what of the superfluities and excesses of bishops and they put in a new vessel, than into a vessel seaprelates.” So a man might say, that the felicity soned ; and what mould they lay about a young and delicacy of princes and great persons had long plant, than about a plant corroborate; so as the since turned to rudeness and barbarism, if the weakest terms and times of all things use to have poverty of learning had not kept up civility and the best applications and helps. And will you honour of life: but without any such advantages, hearken to the Hebrew Rabbins ? “ Your young it is worthy the observation, what a reverend and men shall see visions, and your old men shall honoured thing poverty of fortune was, for some dream dreams;" say the youth is the worthier age, ages, in the Roman state, which nevertheless was for that visions are nearer apparitions of God than a state without paradoxes: for we see what Titus dreams. And let it be noted, that howsoever the Livius saith in his introduction : « Cæterum aut condition of life of pedants hath been scorned upon me amor negotii suscepti fallit aut nulla unquam theatres, as the ape of tyranny; and that the respublica nec major, nec sanctior, nec bonis ex- modern looseness or negligence hath taken no emplis ditior fuit; nec in quam tam seræ avaritia due regard to the choice of schoolmasters and luxuriaque immigraverint; nec ubi tantus ac tam tutors ; yet the ancient wisdom of the best times diu paupertati ac parsimoniæ honos fuerit.” We did always make a just complaint, that states see likewise, after that the state of Rome was not were too busy with their laws, and too negligent itself, but did degenerate, how that person, that in point of education ; which excellent part of took upon him to be counsellor to Julius Cæsar ancient discipline hath been in some sort revived of after his victory, where to begin his restoration of late times by the colleges of the Jesuits; of whom, the state, maketh it of all points the most sum- although in regard of their superstition I may mary to take away the estimation of wealth : say, “ quo meliores, eo deteriores ;" yet in regard “ Verum hæc, et omnia mala pariter cum honore of this, and some other points concerning human pecuniæ desinent: si neque magistratus, neque learning and moral matters, I may say, as Agesialia vulgo cupiendia, venalia erunt.” To con- laus said to his enemy Pharnabaus, “ Talis quum clude this point, as it was truly said, that “rubor sis, utinam noster esses." And thus much touchest virtutis color," though sometimes it come from ing the discredits drawn from the fortunes of vice; so it may be fitly said that “ paupertas est learned men. virtutis fortuna,” though sometimes it may proceed As touching the manners of learned men, it is from misgovernment and accident. Surely Solo- a thing personal and individual : and no doubt mon hath pronounced it both in censure, « Qui there be amongst them, as in other professions, festinat ad divitias, non erit insons; and in pre- of all temperatures : but yet so as it is not without cept; “ Buy the truth, and sell it not;" and so truth, which is said, that " abeunt studia in moof wisdom and knowledge: judging that means res,” studies have an influence and operation upon were to be spent upon learning, and not learning the manners of those that are conversant in them. to be applied to means. And as for the private- But upon an attentive and indifferent review, ness, or obscureness (as it may be in vulgar esti- I for my part cannot find any disgrace to learning mation accounted) of life of contemplative men; can proceed from the manners of learned men not it is a theme sa common, to extol a private life inherent to them as they are learned ; except it not taxed with sensuality and sloth, in comparison be a fault (which was the supposed fault of Deand to the disadvantage of a civil life, for safety, mosthenes, Cicero, Cato the Second, Seneca, and liberty, pleasure, and dignity, or at least freedom many more) that, because the times they read of from indignity, as no man handleth it, but handleth are commonly better than the times they live in, it well : such a consonancy it hath to men's con- and the duties taught better than the duties pracceits in the expressing, and to men's consents in tised, they contend sometimes too far to bring the allowing. This only I will add, that learned things to perfection, and to reduce the corruption men forgotten in states, and not living in the eyes of manners to honesty of precepts, or examples of men, are like the images of Cassius and Brutus of too great height. And yet hereof they have in the funeral of Junia : of which not being repre- caveats enough in their own walks. For Solon, sented, as many others were, Tacitus saith, “ Eo when he was asked whether he had given his ipso præfulgebant, quod non visebantur.” citizens the best laws, answered wisely, “ Yea

And for meanness of employment, that which of such as they would receive:” and Plato, find is most traduced to contempt is that the govern- ing that his own heart could not agree with the ment of youth is commonly allotted to them; corrupt manners of his country, refused to bear which age, because it is the age of least authority, place or office ; saying, “That a man's country it is transferred to the disesteeming of those em- was to be used as his parents were, that is, with ployments wherein youth is conversant, and which humble persuasions, and not with contestations.” are conversant about youth. But how unjust this And Cæsar's counsellor put in the same caveat, traducement is (if you will reduce things from “ Non ad vetera instituta revocans quæ jampridem

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corruptis moribus ludibrio sunt:"and Cicero noteth depth of their corrupt principles may despise it, this error direetly in Cato the Second, when he yet it will receive an open allowance, and therewrites to his friend Atticus : Cato optime sentit, fore, needs the less disproof or excusation. sed nocet interdum reipublicæ ; loquitur enim Another fault incident commonly to learned tanquam in republica Platonis, non tanquam in men, which may be more probably defended than fæce Romuli." And the same Cicero doth ex- truly denied, is, that they fail sometimes in applycuse and expound the philosophers for going too ing themselves to particular persons which want far, and being too exact in their prescripts, when of exact application ariseth from two causes: the he saith, “ Isti ipsi præceptores virtutis et magis- one, because the largeness of their mind can hardly tri, videnter fines officiorum paulo longius quam confine itself to dwell in the exquisite observanatura vellet protulisse ut cum ad ultimum animo tion or examination of the nature and customs of contendissemus, ibi tamen, ubi oportet, consiste- one person: for it is a speech for a lover, and not remus :" and yet himself might have said, “ Mo- for a wise man : “ Satus magnum alter alteri nitus sum minor ipse meis :" for it was his own theatrum sumus." Nevertheless I shall yield, fault, though not in so extreme a degree. that he that cannot contract the sight of his mind,

Another fault likewise much of this kind hath as well as disperse and dilate it, wanteth a great been incident to learned men; which is, that they faculty. But there is a second cause, which is have esteemed the preservation, good, and honour no inability, but a rejection upon choice and judgof their countries or masters before their own for- ment; for the honest and just bounds of observatunes or safeties. For so saith Demosthenes unto tion, by one person upon another, extend no the Athenians: “ If it please you to note it, my farther but to understand him sufficiently, whereby counsels unto you are not such whereby I should not to give him offence, or whereby to be able to grow great amongst you, and you become little give him faithful counsel, or whereby to stand upon amongst the Grecians : but they be of that nature, reasonable guard and caution in respect of a man's as they are sometimes not good for me to give, self: but to be speculative into another man, to but are always good for you to follow." And so the end to know how to work him or wind him or Seneca, after he had consecrated that Quinquen-govern him, proceedeth from a heart that is double nium Neronis to the eternal glory of learned go- and cloven, and not entire and ingenuous; which vernors, held on his honest and loyal course of as in friendship it is want of integrity, so towards good and free counsel, after his master grew ex- princes or superiors is want of duty. For the tremely corrupt in his government. Neither can custom of the Levant, which is, that subjects do this point otherwise be; for learning endueth forbear to gaze or fix their eyes upon princes, is in nien's minds with a true sense of the frailty of the outward ceremony barbarous, but the moral is their persons, the casualty of their fortunes, and good; for men ought not by cunning and beyt obthe dignity of their soul and vocation : so that it servations to pierce and penetrate into the hearts is impossible for them to esteem that any greatness of kings, which the Scripture hath declared to be of their own fortune can be a true or worthy end inscrutable. of their being and ordainment ; and therefore are There is yet another fault (with which I will desirous to give their account to God, and so like- conclude this part) which is often noted in learnwise to their masters under God (as kings and the ed men, that they do many times fail to observe states that they serve) in these words; Ecce tibi decency and discretion in their behaviour and lucrefeci," and not * Ecce mihi lucrefeci;” where- carriage, and commit errors in small and ordinary as the corrupter sort of mere politicians, that have points of action, so as the vulgar sort of capacities not their thoughts established by learning in the do make a judgment of them in greater matters love and apprehension of duty, nor ever look by that which they find wanting in them in smaller. abroad into universality, do refer all things to But this consequence doth often deceive men, for themselves, and thrust themselves into the centre which I do refer them over to that which was said of the world, as if all lines should meet in them by Themistocles, arrogantly and uncivilly being and their fortunes; never caring, in all tempests, applied to himself out of his own mouth; but, what becomes of the ship of state, so they may being applied to the general state of this question, save themselves in the cockboat of their own for- pertinently and justly; when being invited to tune : whereas men that feel the weight of duty, touch a lute, he said, “ he could not fiddle, but and know the limits of self-love, use to make good he could make a small town a great state.” So, their places and duties, though with peril ; and no doubt, many may be well seen in the passages if they stand in seditions and violent alterations, of government and policy, which are to seek in it is rather the reverence which many times both little and punctual occasions. I refer them also adverse parts do give to honesty, than any versa- to that which Plato said of his master Socrates, vile advantage of their own carriage. But for whom he compared to the gallipots of apothecaThis point of tender sense, and fast obligation of ries, which on the outside had apes, and owls, liuty which learning doth endue the mind withal, and antiques, but contained within sovereign and unwsoever fortune may tax it. and many in the precious liquors and confections ; acknowledging

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