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which could live in the hottest part of that element: instantly

NOTE V. perceiving what it was, he called for my sister, and, after he

Referring to page 157. had shown us the creature, he gave me a box of the ear: 1 This seed has, for the last two centuries, been apparently fell a crying, while he soothing me with his caresses, spoke not really dormant. It has, during this interval, been softenthese words, ‘My dear child, I dont give you that box for any ing and expanding, and has lately appeared above the surface. fault you have committed, but that you may recollect that By the labours of foreign authors, from Montesquieu to the this little creature which you see in the fire, is a salamander."" benevolent Beccarria, and of various philosophers and poliInstances of the same nature occur daily, of which one of tical economists in this island, and, above all, of Jeremy Benthe most common and practical is the custom, when boys tham, it is beginning to be admitted that “law is a science," walk the boundaries of parishes, for the officer to strike the and that" pour diriger les mouvemens de la pouppée humaine, boy, that he may remember in old age the boundary which il faudroit connoitre les fils qui la meuvent." Commerce has he walked; so that Bacon's doctrine seems to be well founded, already fell the influence of these opinions, the injurious rethat these things which make an impression by means of straints, by which its freedom was shackled, are mouldering strong affection or passion assist the memory. The mind away: and the lesson taught two thousand years ago, of forwhen disturbed, being, for this purpose, free from the same giveness of debtors, has, after the unremitted exertions of cause, the exclusion of all thought but the predominant pas- philosophy during this long period, been lately sanctioned by sion.

the legislature. It is now no longer contended that the count. That strong impressions are produced by a variety of circum- ing-house has any alliance with the jail, or that a man should stances, appears by “proving the same geometrical proposi- be judge in his own cause, and assign the punishment of his tion by different forms of proofs, as algebraic and geometric, own pain. These errors have passed away. In the first &c. Reading the same several truths in prose and in verse, year of the reign of his present majesty, arbitrary imprisonand in different styles in each, &c.

ment for debt was abolished by the establishment of ibe InThat impressions ought not to be too hastily made, may be solvent Court. The same influence has extended to our inferred from the old adage, that "great wits have short criminal law. The restraints upon conscience are gradually memories."

declining: and the punishment of death is receding within With respect to cutting of infinity, or what Bacon terms, its proper limits, which it has for years exceeded, by the "the limitation of an indefinite seeking to an inquiry within erroneous notion, that the power of a law varied not ina narrow compass."

versely, but directly as the opinion of its severity. Twenty The first mode is, he says, by order or distribution; the years have scarcely passed away since Sir Samuel Romilly second by places for artificial memory; which he says, “May first proposed the mitigation of the punishment of death. either be places in a proper sense, as a door, a window, a His proposal was met in the English parliament as disrecorner, &c., or familiar and known persons, or any known spectful to the judges, and an innovation by which crime personis, or any other things at pleasure: provided they be would be increased, and the constitution endangered. During placed in a certain order, as animals, plants, words, letters, the excesses of the French revolution, the prudence of this characters, historical personages, &c., though some of these country stood upon the old ways, dreading the very name of are more, and some less fit for the purpose. But such kind change; but these fears no longer exist : timidity is finding of places greatly help the memory, and raise it far above its its level, and, instead of being perplexed by fear of change, natural powers." And we are told by Aubrey, that Lord our intellectual government encourages improvement, which, Bacon's practice corresponded with his theory; for “In his thus fostered, is now moving upon the whole island. In the description of Lord Bacon's house at Gorhambury, he says, same first year of the reign of his present majesty, the fol. 'Over this portico is a stately gallery, where glass windows lowing laws were enacted: are all painted: and every pane with several figures of beast, “An Act, to repeal so much of the several Acts passed in bird, or flower: perhaps his lordship might use them as topics the thirty-ninth year of the reign of Elizabeth, the fourth of for local memory.'

George I., the fifth and eighth of George II., as inflicts capital The third mode is, he says, by technical memory, of which punishments on certain offences therein specified, and to prothere are an infinite number of modes, not very highly prized vide more suitable and effectual punishinent for such offences. by Bacon, (see page 212 of this volume,) of which old Fuller “ An Act to repeal so much of the several Acts passed in says, “It is rather a trick than an art, and more for the gain the first and second years of the reign of Philip and Mary, of the teacher than profit of the learners. Like the lossing the eighteenth of Charles II., the ninth of George I., and the of a pike, which is no part of the postures and motions twelfth of George II., as inflicts capital punishment on certain thereof, and is rather ostentation than use, to show the offences therein specified. strength and nimbleness of the arm, and is often used by “An Act to repeal so much of an Act passed in the tenth wandering soldiers as an introduction to beg. Understand and eleventh years of King William III., entitled, An Act it of the artificial rules which at this day are delivered by the for the better apprehending, prosecuting, and punishing of memory mountebanks: for sure an art therefore may be relons, that commit burglary, house-breaking, or robbery, in made, (wherein as yet the world may be defective,) and that shops, ware-houses, coach-houses, or stables, or that steal no more destructive to natural memory than spectacles are horses, as takes away the benefit of clergy from persons to the eyes, which girls in Holland wear from twelve years privately stealing in any shop, ware-house, coach-house, or of age.”

stable, any goods, wares, or merchandises, of the value of With respect to the reduction of intellectual to sensible things, 5s., and for more effectually preventing the crime of stealing Bacon is more copious in his treatise “ De Augmentis," where privately in shops, ware-houses, coach-houses, or stables." he says, “What is presented to the senses strikes more forci- May we not hope that during the next fifty years more bly than what is presented to the intellect. The image of progress will be made in sound legislation, than for sone a huntsman pursuing a hare; or an apothecary putting his preceding centuries ? and may we not ascribe these improve. boxes in order; or a man making a speech; or a boy reciting ments partly to the exertions of this great philosopher, who, in verses by heart; or an actor upon the stage, are more easily his dedication of the Novum Organum to King James, says, remembered than the notions of invention, disposition, elocu. “I shall, perhaps, when I am dead, hold out a light to poste. tion, memory, and action.”

rity, by this new torch set up in the obscurity of philosophy,"

NEW ATLANTIS.

A WORK UNFINISHED.

TO THE READER.

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This fable my lord devised, to the end that he might exhibit therein a model or description of a college, instituted for the interpreting of nature, and the producing of great and marvellous works for the benefit of men, under the name of Solomon's House, or the College of the Six Day's Works. And even so far his lordship hath proceeded, as to finish that part. Certainly, the model is more vast, and high, than can possibly be imitated in all things; notwithstanding most things therein are within men's power to effect. His lordship thought also in this present fable to have composed a frame of laws, or of the best state or mould of a commonwealth ; but foreseeing it would be a long work, his desire of collecting the Natural History diverted him, which he preferred many degrees before it.

This work of the New Atlantis (as much as concerneth the English edition) his lordship designed for this place;* in regard it hath so near affinity (in one part of it) with the preceding Natural History.

W. RAWLEY.

NEW ATLANTIS

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We sailed from Peru, where we had continued | knowing how that part of the South Sea was by the space of one whole year, for China and utterly unknown; and might have islands or conJapan, by the South Sea, taking with us victuals tinents, that hitherto were not come to light. for twelve months; and had good winds from the Wherefore we bent our course thither, where we east, though soft and weak, for five months' space saw the appearance of land all that night; and in and more. But then the wind came about and the dawning of the next day, we might plainly settled in the west for many days, so as we could discern that it was a land, flat to our sight and make little or no way, and were sometimes in full of boscage, which made it show the more purpose to turn back. But then again there arose dark. And after an hour and a half's sailing, we strong and great winds from the south, with a entered into a good haven, being the port of a fair point east, which carried us up, for all that we city; not great indeed, but well built, and that could do, towards the north; by which time our gave a pleasant view from the sea.

And we victuals failed us, though we had made good thinking every minute long till we were on land, spare of them. So that finding ourselves in the came close to the shore, and offered to land. But midst of the greatest wilderness of waters in the straightways we saw divers people with batons world, without victual, we gave ourselves for lost in their hands, as it were forbidding us to land ; men, and prepared for death. Yet we did lift up yet without any cries or fierceness, but only as our hearts and voices to God above, who showeth warning us off by signs that they made. Where. “his wonders in the deep;” beseeching him of upon being not a little discomforted, we were his mercy, that as in the beginning he discovered advising with ourselves what we should do. the face of the deep, and brought forth dry land, During which time there made forth to us a small 80 he would now discover land to us that we boat, with about eight persons in it; whereof one might not perish. And it came to pass, that the of them had in his hand a tipstaff of a yellow next day about evening, we saw within a kenning cane, tipped at both ends with blue, who came before us, towards the north, as it were thick | aboard our ship, without any show of distrust at clouds, which did put us in some hope of land; all. And when he saw one of our number pre* See the Note at he end, sent himself somewhat afure the rest, he drew

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forth a little scroll of parchment, somewhat yel- to approach farther; which we did. And therelower than our parchment, and shining like the upon the man, whom I before described, stood up, leaves of writing tables, but otherwise soft and and with a loud voice in Spanish, asked, “ Are flexible, and delivered it to our foremost man. In ye Christians ?" We answered, “we were ;" which scroll were written in ancient Hebrew, and fearing the less, because of the cross we had seen in ancient Greek, and good Latin of the school, in the subscription. At which answer the said and in Spanish, these words ; “ Land ye not, none person lifted up his right hand towards heaven, of you, and provide to be gone from this coast and drew it softly to his mouth, which is the within sixteen days, except you have further time gesture they use when they thank God, and then given you: mean while, if you want fresh water, said ; “ If ye will sware, all of you, by the merits or victual, or help for your sick, or that your ship of the Saviour, that ye are no pirates; nor have needeth repair, write down your wants, and you shed blood lawfully nor unlawfully within forty shall have that which belongeth to mercy.” days past, you may have license to come on This scroll was signed with a stamp of cheru- land." We said, “we were all ready to take bim's wings, not spread but hanging downwards, that oath.” Whereupon one of those that were and by them a cross. This being delivered, the with him, being, as it seemed, a notary, made an ollicer returned, and left only a servant with us entry of this act. Which done, another of the to receive our answer. Consulting hereupon attendants of the great person, which was with amongst ourselves, we were much perplexed. him in the same boat, after his lord had spoken a The denial of landing, and hasty warning us little to him, said aloud; “ My lord would have away, troubled us much; on the other side, to you know, that it is not of pride or greatness that find that the people had languages and were so he cometh not aboard your ship; but for that in full of humanity, did comfort us not a little. your answer you deelare, that you have many And above all, the sign of the cross to that in-sick amongst you, he was warned by the conserstrument was to us a great rejoicing, and as it vator of health of the city, that he should keep a were a certain presage of good. Our answer was distance.” We bowed ourselves towards him in the Spanish tongue; “ That for our ship, it and answered, “we were his humble servants ; was well; for we had rather met with calms and and accounted for great honour, and singular contrary winds than any tempests. For our sick, humanity towards us, that which was already they were many, and in very ill case ; so that if done; but hoped well, that the nature of the sick. they were not permitted to land, they ran danger ness of our men was not infectious." So he reof their lives.” Our other wants we set down in turned ; and a while after came the notary to us particular ; adding, " that we had some little aboard our ship, holding in his hand a fruit of that store of merchandise, which if it pleased them to country, like an orange, but of colour between deal for, it might supply our wants without being orange-tawney and scarlet, which cast a most exchargeable unto them.” We offered some reward cellent odour. He used it, as it seemeth, for a

a in pistolets unto the servant, and a piece of crim- preservative against infection. He gave us our son velvet to be presented to the officer; but the oath ; " By the name of Jesus and his merits :" servant took them not nor would scarce look upon and after told us, that the next day by six of the them; and so left us, and went back in another clock in the morning we should be sent to, and little boat which was sent for him.

brought to the Strangers' House, so he called it, About three hours after we had despatched our where we should be accommodated of things, answer, there came towards us a person, as it both for our whole and for our sick. So he left seemed, of place. He had on him a gown with us; and when we offered him some pistolets, he wide sleeves, of a kind of water-chamblet, of an smiling, said, “ he must not be twice paid for one excellent azure colour, far more glossy than ours; labour:" meaning, as I take it, that he had salary his under apparel was green, and so was his hat, sufficient of the state for his service. For, as I being in the form of a turban, daintily made, and after learned, they call an officer that taketh se not so huge as the Turkish turbans ; and the wards, Twice-paid. locks of his hair came down below the brims of The next morning early, there came to us the it. A reverend man was he to behold. He came same officer that came to us at first with his cane, in a boat, gilt in some part of it, with four per- and told us, “ he came to conduct us to the Stran. sons more only in that boat; and was followed by gers' House: and that he had prevented the hour, another boat, wherein were some twenty. When because we might have the whole day before us he was come within a flight shot of our ship, for our business. For," said he, “if you will signs were made to us, that we should send forth follow my advice, there shall first go with me some to meet him upon the water, which we pre- some few of you; and see the place, and how it sently did in our ship-boat, sending the principal may be made convenient for you; and then you men amongst us save one, and four of our num- may send for your sick, and the rest of your numher with him. When we were come within six ber, which ye will bring on land.” We thanked yards of their boat, they called us to stay, and not him, and said, that this care, which he took of

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desolate strangers God would reward. And so any collegiate diet that I have known in Europe. six of us went on land with him: and when we We had also drink of three sorts, all wholesomo were on land, he went before us, and turned to us, and good ; wine of the grape; a drink of grain, and said, " he was but our servant, and our guide.” such as is with us our ale but more clear; and a He led us through three fair streets; and all the kind of cider made of a fruit of that country; a wonway we went there were gathered some people derful pleasing and refreshing drink. Besides, on both sides, standing in a row; but in so civil there were brought into us great store of those a fashion, as if it had been, not to wonder at us scarlet oranges for our sick; which, they said, but to welcome us; and divers of them, as we were an assured remedy for sickness taken at sea. passed by them, put their arms a little abroad; There was given us also, a box of small gray or which is their gesture when they bid any wel- whitish pills, which they wished our sick should come. The Strangers' House is a fair and spa-take, one of the pills every night before sleep; cious house, built of brick, of somewhat a bluer which, they said, would hasten their recovery. colour than our brick; and with handsome win- The next day, after that our trouble of carriage, dows, some of glass, some of a kind of cambric and removing of our men and goods out of our oiled. He brought us first into a fair parlour ship was somewhat settled and quiet, I thought above stairs, and then asked us, “What number good to call our company together ; and when of persons we were ? And how many sick ?" they were assembled said unto them; “My dear We answered, “we were in all, sick and whole, friends, let us know ourselves, and how it standone-and-fifty persons, whereof our sick were eth with us. We are men cast on land, as Jonas seventeen." He desired us to have patience a was, out of the whale's belly, when we were little, and to stay till he came back to us, which | as buried in the deep; and now we are on land, was about an hour after; and then he led us to we are but between death and life; for we are be. see the chambers, which were provided for us, yond both the old world and the new; and whebeing in number nineteen: they having cast it, as ther ever we shall see Europe, God only knoweth. it seemeth, that four of those chambers, which It is a kind of miracle hath brought us hither: were better than the rest, might receive four of and it must be little less that shall bring us hence. the principal men of our company, and lodge them Therefore in regard of our deliverance past, alone by themselves; and the other fifteen cham- and our danger present and to come, let us bers, were to lodge us two and two together. look up to God, and every man reform his own The chambers were handsome and cheerful cham-ways. Besides we are come here amongst a bers, and furnished civilly. Then he led us to a Christian people, full of piety and humanity; let long gallery, like a dorture, where he showed us us not bring that confusion of face upon ouralong the one side, for the other side was but selves, as to show our vices or unworthiness bewall and window, seventeen cells, very neat ones, fore them. Yet there is more: for they have by having partitions of cedar wood. Which gallery commandment, though in form of courtesy, clois. and cells, being in all forty, many more than we tered us within these walls for three days : who needed, were instituted as an infirmary for sick knoweth whether it be not to take some taste of persons. And he told us withal, that as any of our manners and conditions ? and if they find our sick waxed well, he might be removed from them bad, to banish us straightways; if good, 10 his cell to a chamber; for which purpose there give us further time. For these men, that they were set forth ten spare chambers, besides the have given us for attendance, may withal have an number we spake of before. This done, he eye upon us. Therefore for God's love, and as brought us back to the parlour, and lifting up his we love the weal of our souls and bodies, let us cane a little, as they do when they give any charge so behave ourselves as we may be at peace with or command, said to us, “ Ye are to know that the God, and may find grace in the eyes of this peo. custom of the land requireth, that after this day ple.” Our company with one voice thanked me and to-morrow, which we give you for removing for my good admonition, and promised me to live of your people from your ship, you are to keep soberly and civilly, and without giving any the within doors for three days. But let it not trou- least occasion of offence. So we spent our three ble you, nor do not think yourselves restrainea, days joyfully, and without care, in expectation but çather left to your rest and ease. You shall / what would be done with us when they were exwant 'nothing, and there are six of our people ap- pired. Durigg which time, we had every hour pointed to attend you fok any business you may joy of the amendment of our sick, who thought have abroad.” We gave him thanks with all themselves cast into some divine pool of healing, affection and respect, and said, “God surely is they mended so kindly and so fast. manifested in this land." We offered him also The morrow after our three days were past, twenty pistolets; but he smiled, an only said there came to us a new man, that we had not seen “What? twice paid !” And so he left us. Soon before, clothed in Diue as the formeret 26. save after our dinner was served in; which was right that his turban was white, with a small red cross good viands, both for bread and meat: better than on the tap. He had also a tippet of fine linen

VOL. 1.-33

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At his coming in he did bend to us a little, and angels, which did appear to us daily, and prevent put his arms abroad. We of our parts saluted us with comforts which we thought not of, much him in a very lowly and submissive manner, as less expected.” looking that from him we should receive sentence The next day, about ten of the clock, the goof life or death. He desired to speak with some vernor came to us again, and after salutations said few of us: whereupon six of us only stayed, and familiarly, that he was come to visit us: and called the rest avoided the room. He said, “I am by for a chair, and sat him down: and we being some office governor of this House of Strangers, and ten of us, the rest were of the meaner sort, or else by vocation I am a Christian priest; and there- gone abroad, sat down with him. And when we fore am come to you, to offer you my service, both were set, he began thus: “ We of this island of as strangers and chiefly as Christians. Some Bensalem,” for so they call it in their language, things I may tell you, which I think you will not have this, that by means of our solitary situation, be unwilling to hear. The state hath given you and of the laws of secrecy which we have for our licence to stay on land for the space of six weeks: travellers, and our rare admission of strangers, we and let it not trouble you if your occasions ask know well most part of the habitable world and further time, for the law in this point is not pre- are ourselves unknown. Therefore, because he cise; and I do not doubt but myself shall be able that knowest least is fittest to ask questions, it is to obtain for you such further time as may be con- more reason for the entertainment of the time, that venient. Ye shall also understand, that the ye ask me questions, than that I ask you.” We Strangers' House is at this time rich, and much answered ; « That we humbly thanked him that aforehand; for it hath laid up revenue these thir- he would give us leave so to do: and that we conty-seven years; for so long it is since any stranger ceived by the taste we had already, that there was arrived in this part: and therefore take ye no care; no worldly thing on earth more worthy to be the state will defray you all the tinie you stay; known than the state of that happy land. But neither shall you stay one day the less for that. above all," we said, “ since that we were met from As for any inerchandise ye have brought, ye shall the several ends of the world, and hoped assuredly be well used, and have your return either in mer- that we should meet one day in the kingdom of chandise or in gold and silver : for to us it is all heaven, for that we were both parts Christians, one. And if you have any other request to make, we desired to know, in respect that land was so hide it not. For ye shall find, we will not make remote, and so divided by vast and unknown seas, your countenance to fall by the answer ye shall from the land where our Saviour walked on earth, receive. Only this I must tell you, that none of who was the apostle of that nation, and how it you must go above a karan," that is with them a was converted to the faith?" It appeared in his mile and a half, “from the walls of the city with-face that he took great contentment in this our out special leave.” We answered, after we had question: he said, “ Ye knit my heart to you, by looked awhile one upon another, admiring this asking this question in the first place; for it gracious and parent-like usage; "that we could showeth that you • first seek the kingdom of heanot tell what to say: for we wanted words to ex- ven;' and I shall gladly and briefly satisfy your press our thanks; and his noble free offers left us demand. nothing to ask. It seemed to us, that we had be- “ About twenty years after the ascension of our fore us a picture of our salvation in heaven; for Saviour, it came to pass, that there was seen by we that were awhile since in the jaws of death, the people of Renfusa, a city upon the eastern were now brought into a place where we found coast of our island, within night, the night was nothing but consolations. For the commandment cloudy and calm, as it might be some mile into laid upon us, we would not fail to obey it, though the sea, a great pillar of light; not sharp, but in it was impossible but our hearts should be in- form of a column or cylinder rising from the sea a flamed to tread further upon this happy and holy great way up towards heaven: and on the top of ground.” We added ; "that our tongues should it was seen a large cross of light more bright and first cleave to the roofs of our mouths, ere we resplendent than the body of the pillar. Upon should forget either his reverend person or this which so strange a spectacle, the people of the whole nation in our prayers." We also most city gathered apace together upon the sands to humbly besought him to accept of us as his true ser- wonder, and so after put themselves into a numvants, by as just a right as ever men on earth were ber of small boats, to go nearer to this marvellous bounden, laying and presenting both our persons sight. But when the boats were come within and all we had at his feet. He said ; " he was a about sixty yards of the pillar, they found thempriest, and looked for a priest's reward; which selves all bound, and could go no further, yet so was our brotherly love and the good of our souls as they might move to go about, but might not and bodies.” So he went from us, not without approach nearer : so as the boats stood all as in a tears of tenderness in his eyes; and left us also theatre, beholding this light as an heavenly sign. confused with joy and kindness, saying amongst It so fell out, that there was in one of the boats purselves, “ that we were come into a land of one of the wise men of the society of Solomon's

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