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lieutenant, with a clause, that the Earl of Kil- that time and temporising, which, whilst his dare, then deputy, should obey him. But the practices were covert and wrought well in Engwild Irish, who were the principal offenders, fied land, made for him; did now, when they were into the woods and bogs, after their manner; and discovered and defeated, rather make against him, those that knew themselves guilty, in the pale, for that when matters once go down the hill, they fled to then. So that Sir Edward Poynings was stay not without a new force, resolved to try his enforced to make a wild chase upon the wild adventure in some exploit upon England; hoping Irish; where, in respect of the mountains and still upon the affections of the common people fastnesses, he did little good. Which, either out towards the house of York. Which body of of a suspicious melancholy upon his bad success, common people he thought was not to be practised or the better to save his service from disgrace, he upon, as persons of quality are; but that the would needs impute unto the comfort that the only practice upon their affections was to set up rebels should receive underhand from the Earl of a standard in the field. The place where he kildare; every light suspicion growing upon the should make his attempt, he chose to be the coast earl, in respect of the Kildare that was in the ac- of Kent. tion of Lambert Simnel, and slain at Stokefield. The king by this time was grown to such a Wherefore he caused the earl to be apprehended height of reputation for cunning and policy, that and sent into England; where, upon examination, every accident and event that went well, was laid he cleared himself so well, as he was replaced in and imputed to his foresight, as if he had set it his government. But Poynings, the better to before: as in this particular of Perkin's design make compensation of the meagerness of his ser- upon Kent. For the world would not believe vice in the wars by acts of peace, called a parlia- afterwards, but the king, having secret intelliment; where was made that memorable act, gence of Perkin's intention for Kent, the better which at this day is called Poynings' law, to draw it on, went of purpose into the north afar whereby all the statutes of England were made off, laying an open side unto Perkin, to make him to be of force in Ireland; for before they were come to the close, and so to trip up his heels, not, neither are any now in force in Ireland, having made sure in Kent beforehand. which were made in England since that time; But so it was, that Perkin had gathered together which was the tenth year of the king.

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of all nations, neither in number, nor in About this time began to be discovered in the the hardiness and courage of the persons, conking that disposition, which afterwards, nourished temptible, but in their nature and fortunes to be and whet on by bad counsellors and ministers, feared, as well of friends as enemies; being proved the blot of his times: which was the bankrupts, and many of them felons, and such course he took to crush treasure out of his sub- as lived by rapine. These he put to sea, and jects' purses, by forfeitures upon penal laws. arrived upon the coast of Sandwich and Deal, in At this men did startle the more at this time, be- Kent, about July. cause it appeared plainly to be in the king's na- There he cast anchor, and to prove the affecture, and not out of his necessity, he being now tions of the people, sent some of his men to land, in float for treasure: for that he had newly received making great boasts of the power that was to the peace-money from France, the benevolence- follow. The Kentish men, perceiving that Permoney from his subjects, and great casualties kin was not followed by any English of name or upon the confiscations of the lord chamberlain account, and that his forces consisted but of stranand divers others. The first noted case of this gers born, and most of them base people and kind was that of Sir William Capel, alderman freebooters, fitter to spoil a coast than to recover of London; who, upon sundry penal laws, was a kingdom; resorting unto the principal gentlecondemned in the sum of seven and twenty hun- men of the country, professed their loyalty to the dred pounds, and compounded with the king for king, and desired to be directed and commanded sixteen hundred: and yet after, Empson would for the best of the king's service. The gentlemen, have cut another chop out of him if the king had entering into consultation, directed some forces not died in the instant.

in good number to show themselves upon the The summer following, the king, to comfort coast; and some of them to make signs to entice his mother, whom he did always tenderly love | Perkin's soldiers to land, as if they would join

and to make open demonstration to with them; and some others to appear from the world, that the proceedings against Sir Wil- some other places, and to make semblance as liam Stanley, which was imposed upon him by if they fled from them, the better to encourage necessity of state, had not in any degree dimi- them to land. But Perkin, who by playing the nished the affection he bare to Thomas his bro-prince, or else taught by secretary Frion, had ther, went in progress to Latham, to make merry learned thus much, that people under command with his mother and the earl, and lay there divers do use to consult, and after to march in order; s.

and rebels contrariwise run upon head together During this progress, Perkin Warbeck, finding in confusion, considering the delay of time, and

and revere,

observing their orderly and not tumultuary arming, according to the mercenary appetites of some doubted the worst. And therefore the wily youth about him. He put all Italy upon their guard, would not set one foot out of his ship, till he by the seizing and holding of Ostia, and the promight see things were sure. Wherefore the tecting of the liberty of Pisa; which made all king's forces, perceiving that they could draw on men suspect that his purposes looked farther no more than those that were formerly landed, than his title of Naples. He fell too soon at set upon them and cut them in pieces, ere they difference with Ludovico Sfortia, who was the could fly back to their ships. In which skirmish, man that carried the keys which brought him in, besides those that were fled and were slain, there and shut him out. He negleeted to extinguish were taken about a hundred and fifty persons. some relics of the war. And lastly, in regard Which, for that the king thought, that to punish of his easy passage through Italy without resista few for example was gentlemen's pay; but for ance, he entered into an overmuch despising of rascal people, they were to be cut off every man, the arms of the Italians; whereby he left the especially in the beginning of an enterprise : and realm of Naples at his departure so much the likewise for that he saw that Perkin's forces less provided. So that not long after his return, would now consist chiefly of such rabble and the whole kingdom revolted to Ferdinando the scum of desperate people, he therefore hanged younger, and the French were quite driven out. them all for the greater terror. They were Nevertheless Charles did make both great threats brought to London all railed in ropes, like a team and great preparations to re-enter Italy once of horses in a cart, and were executed, some of again. Wherefore at the instance of divers of them at London and Wapping, and the rest at the states of Italy, and especially of Pope Alexdivers places upon the sea-coast of Kent, Sussex, ander, there was a league concluded between the and Norfolk, for sea-marks or light-houses, to said pope; Maximilian, King of the Romans; teach Perkin's people to avoid the coast. The Henry, King of England; Ferdinando and Isaking being advertised of the landing of the rebels, bella, King and Queen of Spain; for so they are thought to leave his progress: but being certified constantly placed in the original treaty throughthe next day, that they were partly defeated, and out; Augustino Barbadico, Duke of Venice; and partly fled, he continued his progress, and sent Ludovico Sfortia, Duke of Milan; for the comSir Richard Guildford into Kent in message; mon defence of their estates: wherein though who calling the country together, did much com- Ferdinando of Naples was not named as prinmend from the king their fidelity, manhood, and cipal, yet, no doubt, the kingdom of Naples was well handling of that service; and gave them all tacitly included as a fee of the church. thanks, and, in private, promised reward to some There died also this year, Cecile, Duchess of particulars.

York, mother to King Edward the Fourth, at her Upon the sixteenth of November, this being castle of Berkhamstead, being of extreme years, the eleventh year of the king, was holden the and who had lived to see three princes of her body sergeants' feast at Ely-place, there being nine crowned, and four murdered. She was buried at sergeants of that call. The king, to honour the Foderingham, by her husband. feast, was present with his queen at the dinner; This year also the king called his parliament, being a prince that was ever ready to grace and where many laws were made of a more private countenance the professors of the law; having aand vulgar nature than ought to detain the reader little of that, that as he governed his subjects of a history, And it may be justly suspected by his laws, so he governed his laws by his hy the proceedings following, that as the king lawyers.

did excel in good commonwealth laws, so, neverThis year also the king entered into league theless, he had in secret a design to make use of with the Italian potentates for the defence of them, as well forcollecting of treasure as for correctItaly against France. For King Charles had ing of manners; and so meaning thereby to harrow conquered the realm of Naples, and lost it again, his people, did accumulate them the rather. in a kind of a felicity of a dream. He passed The principal law that was made this parliathe whole length of Italy without resistance; so ment was a law of a strange nature; rather just that it was true which Pope Alexander was wont than legal; and more magnanimous than provito say, “ That the Frenchmen came into Italy dent. This law did ordain, That no person that with chalk in their hands to mark up their lodg-did assist in arms, or otherwise, the king for the ings, rather than with swords to fight.” He like- time being, should after he impeached therefore, wise entered and won, in effect, the whole king- or attainted, either by the course of the law, or dom of Naples itself, without striking stroke. by act of parliament. But if any such act of atBut presently thereupon he did commit and tainder did happen to be made, it should be void multiply so many errors, as was too great a task and of none effect; for that it was agreeable to reafor the best fortune to overcome. He gave no

son of estate, that the subject should not inquire contantment to the Barons of Naples, of the fac- of the justness of the king's title or quarrel; and tion of the Angeovines; but scattered his rewards it was agreeable to good conscience, that, what

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soever the fortune of the war were, the subject to any suit, where the demand is under the value should not suffer for his obedience. The spirit of forty pounds; for that in such cases of petty of this law was wonderful pious and noble, being value it would not quit the charge, to go about like, in matter of war, unto the spirit of David in again. matter of plague; who said, “If I have sinned, There was another law made against a branch strike me: but what have these sheep done?" of ingratitude in women, who having been adNeither wanted this law parts of prudent and deep vanced by their husbands, or their husbands' anforesight; for it did the better take away occa- cestors, should alien, and thereby seek to defeat the sions for the people to busy themselves to pry into heirs, or those in remainder, of the lands wherethe king's title; for that howsoever it fell, their unto they had been so advanced. The remedy safety was already provided for. Besides, it was, by giving power to the next, to enter for a could not but greatly draw unto him the love and forfeiture. hearts of the people, because he seemed more care- There was also enacted that charitable law, for ful for them than for himself. But yet, neverthe- the admission of poor suitors in forma pauperis, less, it did take off from his party that great tie without fee to counsellor, attorney, or clerk, where

of necessity, to fight and go victors out by poor men became rather able to vex than unof the field; considering their lives and fortunes able to sue. There were divers other good laws were put in safety and protected, whether they made that parliament, as we said before; but we stood to it or ran away. But the force and obli- still observe our manner, in selecting out those gation of this law was in itself illusory, as to the that are not of a vulgar nature. latter part of it, by a precedent act of parliament The king, this while, though he sat in parliato bind or frustrate a future. For a supreme and ment, as in full peace, and seemed to account of absolute power cannot conclude itself, neither can the designs of Perkin, who was now returned into that which is in nature revocable be made fixed, Flanders, but as a May-game; yet having the no more than if a man should appoint or declare composition of a wise king, stout without, and by his will, that if he made any latter will it should apprehensive within, had given order for the he void. And for the case of the act of parlia- watching of beacons upon the coasts, and erecting inent, there is a notable precedent of it in King more where they stood too thin, and had a careHenry the Eighth's time; who doubting he might ful eye where this wandering cloud would break. die in the minority of his son, procured an act to But Perkin, advised to keep his fire, which hitherpass, That no statute made during the minority of to burned as it were upon green wood, alive a king, should bind him or his successors, except with continual blowing, sailed again into Ireland, it were confirmed by the king under his great seal whence he had formerly departed, rather upon the at his full age. But the first act that passed in hopes of France, than upon any unreadiness or King Edward the Sixth's time was an act of re- discouragement he found in that people. But in peal of that former act; at which time neverthe- the space of time between, the king's diligence less the king was minor. But things that do not and Poynings's commission had so settled things bind, may satisfy for the time.

there, as there was nothing left for Perkin, but the There was also made a shoaring or underprop- blustering affection of wild and naked people. ping act for the benevolence: to make the sums Wherefore he was advised by his council to seek which any person had agreed to pay, and never- aid of the King of Scotland, a prince young and theless were not brought in, to be leviable by valorous, and in good terms with his nobles and course of law. Which act did not only bring in people, and ill affected to King Henry. At this the arrears, but did indeed countenance the whole time also both Maximilian and Charles of France business, and was pretended to be made at the began to bear no good will 10 the king: the one desire of those that had been forward to pay. being displeased with the king's prohibition of

This parliament also was made that good law, commerce with Flanders; the other holding the which gave the attaint upon a false verdict be- king for suspect, in regard of his late entry into tween party and party, which before was a kind league with the Italians. Wherefore, besides the of evangile, irremediable. It extends not to causes open aids of the Duchess of Burgundy, which did capital, as well because they are for the most part with sails and oars put on and advance Perkin's at the king's suit, as because, in them, if they be designs, there wanted not some secret tides from followed in course of indictment, there passeth a Maximilian and Charles, which did further his double jury, the indictors and the triers: and so fortunes: insomuch as they, both by their secret not twelve men, but four-and-twenty. But it seem- letters and messages, recommended him to the eth that was not the only reason; for this reason King of Scotland. holdeth not in the appeal. But the great reason Perkin, therefore, coming into Scotland upon was, lest it should tend to the discouragement of those hopes, with a well-appointed company, jurors in cases of life and death; if they should be was by the King of Scots, being formerly well subject to suit and penalty, where the favour of prepared, honourably welcomed, and soon after lite maketh against them. It extendeth not also lhis arrival admitted to his presence, in a solemu

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manner: for the king received him in state in his should pass in silence, or at least in a more secret chamber of presence, accompanied with divers relation; for that it may concern some alive, and of his nobles. And Perkin well attended, as the memory of some that are dead. Let it suffice well with those that the king had sent before to think, that I had then a mother living, a queen, him, as with his own train, entered the room and one that expected daily such a commandment where the king was, and coming near to the from the tyrant, for the murdering of her children. king, and bowing a little to embrace him, he Thus in my tender age escaping by God's mercy retired some paces back, and with a loud voice, out of London, I was secretly conveyed over sea; that all that were present might hear him, made where after a time the party that had me in his declaration in this manner:

charge, upon what new fears, change of mind, “ High and mighty king, your grace, and these or practice, God knoweth, suddenly forsook me. your nobles here present, may be pleased benignly Whereby I was forced to wander abroad, and to to bow your ears to hear the tragedy of a young seek mean conditions for the sustaining of my man, that by right ought to hold in his hand the life. Wherefore distracted between several pasball of a kingdom; but by fortune is made him-sions, the one of fear to be known, lest the tyrant self a ball, tossed from misery to misery, and should have a new attempt upon me; the other from place to place. You see here before you of grief and disdain to be unknown, and to live the spectacle of a Plantagenet, who hath been in that base and servile manner that I did; I carried from the nursery to the sanctuary; from resolved with myself to expect the tyrant's death, the sanctuary to the direful prison; from the and then to put myself into my sister's hands, who prison to the hand of the cruel tormentor; and was next heir to the crown. But in this season from that hand to the wide wilderness, as I may it happened one Henry Tudor, son to Edmund truly call it, for so the world hath been to me. Tudor, Earl of Richmond, to come from France So that he that is born to a great kingdom, hath and enter into the realm, and by subtile and foul not ground to set his foot upon, more than this means to obtain the crown of the same, which to where he now standeth by your princely favour. me rightfully appertained : so that it was but a Edward the Fourth, late King of England, as change from tyrant to tyrant. This Henry, my your grace cannot but have heard, left two sons, extreme and mortal enemy, so soon as he had Edward, and Richard, Duke of York, both very knowledge of my being alive, imagined and young. Edward, the eldest, succeeded their father wrought all the subtile ways and means he couldin the crown, by the name of King Edward the to procure my final destruction; for my mortal Fifth: but Richard, Duke of Gloucester, their enemy hath not only falsely surmised me to be a unnatural uncle, first thirsting after the kingdom feigned person, giving me nicknames, so abusing through ambition, and afterwards thirsting for the world; but also, to defer and put me from their blood, out of desire to secure himself, em- entry into England, hath offered large sums of ployed an instrument of his, confident to him, as money to corrupt the princes and their ministers, he thought, to murder them both. But this man with whom I have been retained; and made imthat was employed to execute that execrable portune labours to certain servants about my pertragedy, having cruelly slain King Edward, the son, to murder or poison me, and others to forsake eldest of the two, was moved, partly by remorse, and leave my righteous quarrel, and to depart and partly by some other mean, to save Richard from my service, as Sir Robert Clifford, and his brother; making a report nevertheless to the others. So that every man of reason may well tyrant, that he had performed his commandment perceive, that Henry, calling himself King of for both brethren. This report was accordingly England, needed not to have bestowed such great believed, and published generally; so that the sums of treasure, nor so to have busied himself world liath been possessed of an opinion, that with importune and incessant labour and industry, they both were barbarously made away; though to compass my death and ruin, if I had been such ever truth hath some sparks that fly abroad, until a feigned person. But the truth of my cause it appear in due time, as this hath had. But being so manifest, moved the most Christian Almighty God, that stopped the mouth of the King Charles, and the Lady Duchess Dowager lion, and saved little Joash from the tyranny of of Burgundy, my most dear aunt, not only to Athaliah, when she massacred the king's child- acknowledge the truth thereof, but lovingly to ren; and did save Isaac, when the hand was assist me. But it seemeth that God above, for stretched forth to sacrifice him; preserved the the good of this whole island, and the knitting second brother. For I myself, that stand here of these two kingdoms of England and Scotland in your presence, am that very Richard, Duke of in a strait concord and amity, by so great an obliYork, brother of that unfortunate prince, King gation, hath reserved the placing of me on the Edward the Fifth, now the most rightful surviving imperial throne of England for the arms and sucheir male to that victorious and most noble Ed-cours of your grace. Neither is it the first time ward, of that name the fourth, late King of Eng- that a King of Scotland hath supported them that land. For the manner of my escape, it is fit it were bereft and spoiled of the kingdom of Eng

land, as of late, in fresh memory, it was done in deprived us of our kingdom, but likewise, by all the person of Henry the Sixth. Wherefore, for foul and wicked means, sought to betray us, and that your grace hath given clear signs, that you bereave us of our life. Yet if his tyranny only are in no noble quality inferior to your royal extended itself to our person, although our royal ancestors, I, so distressed a prince, was hereby blood teacheth us to be sensible of injuries, it moved to come and put myself into your royal should be less to our grief. But this Tudor, who hands, desiring your assistance to recover my boasteth himself to have overthrown a tyrant, kingdom of England; promising faithfully to hath, ever since his first entrance into his usurped bear myself towards your grace no otherwise reign, put little in practice but tyranny and the than if I were your own natural brother; and feats thereof. will, upon the recovery of mine inheritance, “ For King Richard, our unnatural uncle, algratefully do you all the pleasure that is in my though desire of rule did blind him, yet in his utmost power."

other actions, like a true Plantagenet, was noble, After Perkin had told his tale, King James an- and loved the honour of the realm, and the conswered bravely and wisely; “That whatsoever tentment and comfort of his nobles and people. he were, he should not repent him of putting But this our mortal enemy, agreeable to the himself into his hands.” And from that time meanness of his birth, hath trodden under foot forth, though there wanted not some about him, the honour of this nation: selling our best conthat would have persuaded him that all was but federates for money, and making merchandise of an illusion; yet notwithstanding, either taken the blood, estates, and fortunes of our peers and by Perkin's amiable and alluring behaviour, or subjects, by feigned wars and dishonourable inclining to the recommendation of the great peace, only to enrich his coffers. Nor unlike princes abroad, or willing to take an occasion of hath been his hateful misgovernment and evil a war against King Henry, he entertained him in deportments at home. First, he hath, to fortify all things as became the person of Richard, Duke his false quarrel, caused divers nobles of this our of York; embraced his quarrel; and, the more to realm, whom he held suspect and stood in dread put it out of doubt, that he took him to be a great of, to be cruelly murdered; as our cousin Sir prince, and not a representation only, he gave William Stanley, lord chamberlain; Sir Simon consent that this duke should take to wife the Mountfort, Sir Robert Ratcliffe, William D'AuLady Catharine Gordon, daughter to the Earl of bigny, Humphrey Stafford, and many others, beHuntley, being a near kinswoman to the king sides such as have dearly bought their lives with himself, and a young virgin of excellent beauty intolerable ransoms: some of which nobles are and virtue.

now in the sanctuary. Also he hath long kept, Not long after, the King of Scots in person, and yet keepeth in prison, our right entirely wellwith Perkin in his company, entered with a great beloved cousin, Edward, son and heir to our army, though it consisted chiefly of borderers, uncle Duke of Clarence, and others; withholding being raised somewhat suddenly, into North- from them their rightful inheritance, to the intent umberland. And Perkin, for a perfume before they should never be of might and power, to aid him as he went, caused to be published a procla- and assist us at our need, after the duty of their mation* of this tenor following, in the name of legiances. He also married by compulsion, cerRichard, Duke of York, true inheritor of the tain of onr sisters, and also the sister of our said crown of England:

cousin the Earl of Warwick, and divers other " It hath pleased God, who putteth down the ladies of the royal blood, unto certain of his mighty from their seat, and exalteth the humble, kinsmen and friends of simple and low degree; and suffereth not the hopes of the just to perish and putting apart all well disposed nobles, he in the end, to give us means at the length to show hath none in favour and trust about his person, ourselves armed unto our lieges and people of but Bishop Fox, Smith, Bray, Lovel, Oliver England. But far be it from us to intend their King, David Owen, Risely, Turbervile, Tiler, hurt or damage, or to make war upon them, other- Chomley, Empson, James Hobart, John Cut, wise than to deliver ourselves and them from Garth, Henry Wyat, and such other caitiffs and tyranny and oppression. For our mortal enemy villains of birth, which by subtile inventions, Henry Tudor, a false usurper of the crown of and pilling of the people, have been the principal England, which to us by natural and lineal right finders, occasioners, and counsellors of the mis. appertaineth, knowing in his own heart our un-rule and mischief now reigning in England. doubted right, we being the very Richard, Duke “ We remembering these premises, with the of York, younger son, and now surviving heir great and execrable offences daily committed and male of the noble and victorious Edward the done by our foresaid great enemy and his adheFourth, late King of England, hath not only rents, in breaking the liberties and franchises of

* The original of this proclamation remaineth with Sir our mother the holy church, upon pretences of Robert Cotton, a worthy preserver and treasurer of rare wicked and heathenish policy, to the high displeaantiquities: from whose manuscripts I have had much light | sure of Almighty God, besides the manifold tres for the furnishing of this work.

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