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pleasures, as great princes do by banquets, come who lived a little before, then the consort is more and look a little upon them, and turn away. For perfect. For that Lewis the Eleventh, Ferdinannever prince was more wholly given to his affairs, do, and Henry, may be esteemed for the stres nor in them more of himself: insomuch as in magi” of kings of those ages. To conclude, if triumphs of justs and tourneys, and balls, and this king did no greater matters, it was long of masks, which they then called disguises, he was himself: for what he minded he compassed. rather a princely and gentle spectator, than seemed He was a comely personage, a little above just much to be delighted.

stature, well and straight limbed, but slender. No doubt, in him, as in all men, and most of His countenance was reverend, and a little like a all in kings, his fortune wrought upon his nature, churchman: and as it was not strange or dark, so and his nature upon his fortune. He attained to neither was it winning or pleasing, but as the face the crown, not only from a private fortune, which of one well disposed. But it was to the disadmight endow him with moderation; but also from vantage of the painter, for it was best when he the fortune of an exiled man, which had quickened spake. in him all seeds of observation and industry. His worth may bear a tale or two, that may put And his times being rather prosperous than calm, upon him somewhat that may seem divine. had raised his confidence by success, but almost When the Lady Margaret, his mother, had divers marred his nature by troubles. His wisdom, by great suitors for marriage, she dreamed one night, often evading from perils, was turned rather into that one in the likeness of a bishop in pontifical a dexterity to deliver himself from dangers, when habit did tender her Edmund, Earl of Richmond, they pressed him, than into a providence to prevent the king's father, for her husband, neither had she and remove them afar off. And even in nature, ever any child but the king, though she had three the sight of his mind was like some sights of eyes; husbands. One day when King Henry the Sixth, rather strong at hand, than to carry afar off. For whose innocency gave him holiness, was washing his wit increased upon the occasion : and so much his hands at a great feast, and cast his eye upon the more, if the occasion were sharpened by danger. King Henry, then a young youth, he said; “ This Again, whether it were the shortness of his fore- is the lad that shall possess quietly that, that we sight, or the strength of his will, or the dazzling now strive for." But that, that was truly divine of his suspicions, or what it was, certain it is, that in him, was that he had the fortune of a true the perpetual troubles of his fortunes, there being Christian, as well as of a great king, in living ex. no more matter out of which they grew, could not ercised, and dying repentant: so as he had a have been without some great defects and main happy warfare in both conflicts, both of sin and errors in his nature, customs, and proceedings, the cross. which he had enough to do to save and help with He was born at Pembroke castle, and lieth a thousand little industries and watches. But buried at Westminster, in one of the stateliest and those do best appear in the story itself. Yet take daintiest monuments of Europe, both for the chapel him with all his defects, if a man should compare and for the sepulchre. So that he dwelleth more him with the kings his concurrents in France and richly dead, in the monument of his tomb, than Spain, he shall find him more politic than Lewis he did alive in Richmond, or any of his palaces. the Twelfth of France, and more entire and sin- I could wish he did the like in this monument of cere than Ferdinando of Spain. But if you shall his fame. change Lewis the Twelfth for Lewis the Eleventh

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After the decease of that wise and fortunate thing as any great and mighty subject, who King, Henry the Seventh, who died in the height might anywise eclipse or overshade the imperial of his prosperity, there followed, as useth to do, power. And for the people and state in general, when the sun setteth so exceeding elear, one of they were in such lowness of obedience, as subthe fairest mornings of a kingdom that hath been jects were like to yield, who had lived almost known in this land or anywhere else. A young four-and-twenty years under so politic a king as king, about eighteen years of age, for stature, his father; being also one who came partly by the strength, making, and beauty, one of the goodliest sword; and had so high courage in all points of persons of his time. And though he were given regality; and was ever victorious in rebellions to pleasure, yet he was likewise desirous of glory; and seditions of the people. The crown extremeso that there was a passage open in his mind, by ly rich, and full of treasure, and the kingdom like glory, for virtue. Neither was he unadorned to be so in a short time. For there was no war, with learning, though therein he came short of his no dearth, no stop of trade, or commerce : it was brother Arthur. He had never any the least only the crown which had sucked too hard, and pique, difference, or jealousy with the king his now being full, and upon the head of a young father, which might give any occasion of altering king, was like to draw less. Lastly, he was incourt or council upon the change; but all things heritor of his father's reputation, which was great passed in a still. He was the first heir of the throughout the world. He had strait alliance white and red rose; so that there was no discon- with the two neighbour states, an ancient enemy tented party now left in the kingdom, but all men's in former times, and an ancient friend, Scotland hearts turned towards him: and not only their and Burgundy. He had peace and amity with hearts, but their eyes also; for he was the only France, under the assurance, not only of treaty son of the kingdom. He had no brother; which and league, but of necessity and inability in the though it be a comfortable thing for kings to have, French to do him hurt, in respect that the French yet it draweth the subjects' eyes a little aside. king's designs where wholly bent upon Italy: so And yet being a married man in those young that it may be truly said, there had scarcely been years, it promised hope of speedy issue to succeed seen, or known, in many ages, such a rare conin the crown. Neither was there any queen- currence of signs and promises, of a happy and mother, who might share any way in the govern- flourishing reign to ensue, as were now met in this ment, or clash with his counsellors for authority, young king, called after his father's name, Henry while the king intended his pleasure. No such the Eighth.

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By the decease of Elizabeth, Queen of England, conjectures of wise men, so in this matter the prothe issues of King Henry the Eighth failed, being vidence of King Henry the Seventh was in all spent in one generation and three successions. men's mouths; who being one of the deepest and For that king, though he were one of the goodliest most prudent princes of the world, upon the depersons of his time, yet he left only by his six liberation concerning the marriage of his eldest wives three children; who reigning successively, daughter into Scotland, had, by some speech utand dying childless, made place to the line of tered by him, showed himself sensible and almost Margaret, his eldest sister, married to James the prescient of this event. Fourth, King of Scotland, descended of the same Neither did there want a concurrence of divers Margaret both by father and mother: so that by rare external circumstances, besides the virtues a rare event in the pedigrees of kings, it seemed and condition of the person, which gave great as if the divine Providence, to extinguish and reputation to this succession. A king in the take away all envy and note of a stranger, had strength of his years, supported with great aldoubled upon his person, within the circle of one liances abroad, established with royal issue at age, the royal blood of England by both parents. home, at peace with all the world, practised in the This succession drew towards it the eyes of all regiment of such a kingdom, as might rather enmen, being one of the most memorable accidents able a king by variety of accidents, than corrupt that had happened a long time in the Christian him with affluence or vainglory; and one that world. For the kingdom of France having been besides his universal capacity and judgment, was reunited in the age before in all the provinces notably exercised and practised in matters of rethereof formerly dismembered : and the kingdom ligion and the church: which in these times, by of Spain being, of more fresh memory, united the confused use of both swords, are become so and made entire, by the annexing of Portugal in intermixed with considerations of estate, as most the person of Philip the Second; there remained of the counsels of sovereign princes or republics but this third and last union, for the counterpois depend upon them: but nothing did more fill ing of the power of these three great monarchies; foreign nations with admiration and expectation and the disposing of the affairs of Europe thereby of his succession, than the wonderful, and, by to a more assured and universal peace and concord. them, unexpected consent of all estates and subAnd this event did hold men's observations and jects of England, for the receiving of the king discourses the more, because the island of Great without the least scruple, pause, or question. Britain, divided from the rest of the world, was For it had been generally dispersed by the fuginever before united in itself under one king, not- tives beyond the seas, who, partly to apply themwithstanding also that the uniting of them had selves to the ambition of foreigners, and partly to been in former times industriously attempted both give estimation and value to their own employby war and treaty. Therefore it seemed a mani- ments, used to represent the state of England in a fest work of providence, and a case of reservation false light, that after Queen Elizabeth's decease for these times; insomuch that the vulgar conceiv- there must follow in England nothing but confued that now there was an end given, and a con- sions, interreigns, and perturbations of estate, summation to superstitious prophecies, the belieflikely far to exceed the ancient calamities of the of fools, but the talk sometimes of wise men, and civil wars between the houses of Lancaster and to an ancient tacit expectation, which had by tra- York, by how much more the dissensions were dition been infused and inveterated into men's like to be more mortal and bloody, when foreign minds. But as the best divinations and predic-competition should be added to domestical, and tions are the politic and probable foresight and I divisions for religion to matter of title to the crown.


And in special, Parsons the Jesuit, under a dis- were not to many unwelcome. Many were glad, guised name, had not long before published an ex- and especially those of settled estate and fortune, press treatise, wherein, whether his malice made that the fears and uncertainties were overblown, him believe his own fancies, or whether he thought and that the die was cast. Others, that had made it the fittest way to move sedition, like evil spirits, their way with the king, or offered their service which seem to foretell the tempest they mean to in the time of the former queen, thought now the move, he laboured to display and give colour to time was come for which they had prepared : and all the vain pretences and dreams of succession generally all such as had any dependence upon which he could imagine; and thereby had possess the late Earl of Essex, who had mingled the sered many abroad that knew not the affairs here with vice of his own ends with the popular pretence of those his vanities. Neither wanted there here advancing the king's title, made account their within this realm,divers persons both wise and well cause was amended. Again, such as might misaffected, who, though they doubted not of the un- doubt they had given the king any occasion of doubted right, yet setting before themselves the distaste, did contend by their forwardness and waves of people's hearts, guided no less by sudden confidence, to show it was but their fastness to and temporary winds, than by the natural course the former government, and that those affections and motion of the waters, were not without fear what ended with the time. The papists nourished their might be the event. For Queen Elizabeth being hopes, by collating the case of the papists in Enga princess of extreme caution, and yet one that land, and under Queen Elizabeth, and the case of loved admiration above safety; and knowing the the papists in Scotland under the king: interpretdeclaration of a successor might in point of safety ing that the condition of them in Scotland was be disputable, but in point of admiration and re- the less grievous, and divining of the king's spect assuredly to her disadvantage; had, from governnient here accordingly: besides the comthe beginning, set it down for a maxim of estate, fort they ministered to themselves from the memoto impose a silence touching succession. Neither ry of the queen his mother. The ministers, and was it only reserved as a secret of estate, but re- those which stood for the presbytery, thought strained by severe laws, that no man should pre- their cause had more sympathy with the discipline sume to give opinion, or maintain argument touch of Scotland than the hierarchy of England, and so ing the same: so, though the evidence of right took themselves to be a degree nearer their desires. drew all the subjects of the land to think one Thus had every condition of persons some conthing; yet the fear of danger of law made no mantemplation of benefit, which they promised themprivy to other's thought. And therefore it rejoiced selves; over-reaching, perhaps, according to the all men to see so fair a morning of a kingdom, nature of hope, but yet not without some probable and to be thoroughly secured of former apprehen- ground of conjecture. At which time also there sions; as a man that awaketh out of a fearful came forth in print the king's book, intituled, dream. But so it was, that not only the consent, Badedıxov aớpov: containing matter of instruction but the applause and joy was infinite, and not to to the prince his son touching the office of a king; be expressed, throughout the realm of England which book falling into every man's hand, filled upon this succession : whereof the consent, no the whole realm, as with a good perfume or indoubt, may be truly ascribed to the clearness of cense, before the king's coming in; for being exthe right; but the general joy, alacrity, and gratu- cellently written, and having nothing of affectalation, were the effects of differing causes. For tion, it did not only satisfy better than particular Queen Elizabeth, although she had the use of reports touching the king's disposition, but far many both virtues and demonstrations, that might exceeded any formal or curious edict or declaradraw and knit unto her the hearts of her people: tion, which could have been devised of that nature, yet nevertheless carrying a hand restrained in gift, wherewith the princes in the beginning of their and strained in points of prerogative, could not reigns do use to grace themselves, or at least exanswer the votes either of servants or subjects to press themselves gracious in the eyes of their a full contentment; especially in her latter days, people. And this was for the general the state when the continuance of her reign, which extend- and constitution of men's minds upon this change; ed to five-and-forty years, might discover in peo- the actions themselves passed in this manner. ple their natural desire and inclination towards change: 80 that a new court and a new reign

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In the consideration of the present state of Scotland are already, God be thanked, quite reChristendom, depending on the inclinations and formed, with the better part of Germany. And qualities of the princes, governors of the same, because the queen's majesty hath that reputation first the person of the pope, acknowledged for to be the defender of the true religion and faith; supreme of the princes catholic, may be brought against her majesty, as the head of the faithful, forth.

is the drift of all their mischiefs. Gregory XIII., of the age of seventy years, by The King of Spain having erected, in his consurname Boncompagno, born in Bolonia, of the ceit, a monarchy, wherein seeking reputation in meanest state of the people, his father a shoe- the protection of religion, this conjunction with maker by occupation; of no great learning nor the pope is as necessary to him for the furtherance understanding, busy rather in practice, than de- of his purposes, as to the pope behoveful for the sirous of wars, and that rather to further the ad- advancing of his house, and for his authority; vancement of his son and his house, a respect the King of Spain having already bestowed on highly regarded of all the popes, than of any in the pope's son, degree of title and of office, with clination of nature, the which, yet in these years, great revenues. To encourage the pope herein, abhorreth not his secret pleasures. Howbeit, two being head of the church, they set before him the things especially have set so sharp edge to him, analogy of the name Gregory, saying, that we whereby he doth bend himself so vehemently were first under a Gregory brought to the faith, against religion. The one is a mere necessity, the and by a Gregory are again to be reduced to the other the solicitation of the King of Spain. For obedience of Rome. if we consider duly the estate of the present time, A prophecy likewise is found out, that foretellwe shall find that he is not so much carried with eth, “the dragon sitting in the chair of Peter, the desire to suppress our religion, as driven with great things should be brought to pass.” the fear of the downfall of his own, if in time it Thus is the King of France solicited against be not upheld and restored.

those of the religion in France; the emperor The reasons be these: He seeth the King of against those in his dominions; divisions set in Spain already in years, and worn with labour and Germany; the Low Countries miserably oppresstroubles, that there is little hope in him of long ed; and daily attempts against her majesty, both life. And he failing, there were likely to ensue by force and practice; hereto serve the seminagreat alterations of state in all his dominions, ries, where none are now admitted, but those the which should be joined with the like in reli- who take the oath against her majesty. gion, especially in this divided time, and in Spain, The sect of the Jesuits are special instruments already so forward, as the fury of the Inquisition to alienate the people from her majesty, sow faccan scarce keep in.

tion, and to absolve them of the oath of obedi. In France, the state of that church seemeth to ence, and prepare the way to rebellion and revolt. depend on the sole life of the king now reigning, Besides, for confirmation of their own religion, being of a weak constitution, full of infirmities, they have used some reformation of the clergy, not likely to have long life, and quite out of hope and brought in catechizing. of any issue. Of the Duke of Anjou he doth not assure himself; besides the opinion conceived of the weakness of the complexion of all that race,

To go forth with the Princes of Italy, next in

situation, giving neither hope of length of life nor of children. And the next to the succession make al- The great Duke of Tuscany, Francisco de Meready profession of the reformed religion, besides dici, son to Cosmo, and the third duke of that the increase thereof daily in France; England and family and province; of the age of forty years; of

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