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disposition severe and sad, rather than manly and Two years sithence he married la Signora Bi. grave; no princely port or behaviour more than anca, his concubine, a Venetian of Casa Capelli. a great justicer; inclined to peace, and gathering whereby he entered straiter amity with the Venemoney. All Tuscany is subject unto him, where- tians: with the pope he had good intelligence, in were divers commonwealths; whereof the and some affinity by the marriage of Signor Jachief were Florence, Siena, and Pisa, Prato, and como, the pope's son, in Casa Sforza. Pistoia, saving Lucca, and certain forts on the To the emperor he is allied, his first wife being sea-coast, held by the King of Spain.
the Emperor Maximilian's sister. He retaineth in his service few, and they stran- With Spain he is in strait league, and his gers, to whom he giveth pensions. In all his mother was of the house of Toledo ; his brother citadels he hath garrison of Spaniards, except at likewise, D. Pietro, married in the same house. Siena : in housekeeping spendeth little, being as With France he standeth at this present in some it were in pension, agreeing for so much the year misliking. with a citizen of Florence for his diet: he has a With Ferrara always at jar, as with all the small guard of Swissers, and when he rideth Dukes of Italy, for the preseance in some controabroad a guard of forty light-horsemen. The mi- versy. litia of his country amounteth to forty thousand All his revenues arise of taxes and customs; his soldiers, to the which he granteth leave to wear domains are very small. their weapons on the holydays, and other immu- He hath by his first wife one son, of the age nities. Besides, he entertaineth certain men of of four or five years, and four daughters ; he hath arms, to the which he giveth seven crowns the a base child by this woman, and a base brother, month. He also maintaineth seven galleys, the D. Joanni, sixteen years of age, of great exwhich serve under his knights, erected by his pectation. father in Pisa, of the order of St. Stephano: of Two brothers, D. Pietro, and the cardinal. these galleys three go every year in chase.
The Duke of Ferrara, Alfonso d'Este, the fifth His common exercise is in distillations, and in duke, now about forty years of age ; his first wife trying of conclusions, the which he doth exer- Lucretia, daughter to Cosmo de Medici, whom cise in a house called Cassino in Florence, where they say he poisoned; his second, daughter to he spendeth the most part of the day; giving ear Ferdinand the emperor; his third wife, now livin the mean season to matters of affairs and con- ing, Anne daughter to the Duke of Mantua. He ferring with his chief officers. His revenues are hath no child. The chief cities of his state are esteemed to amount to a million and a half of Ferrara, Modena, and Reggio: he is rich in money, crowns, of the which spending half a million, growing as the most of Italy, of exactions; of all he layeth up yearly one million. But certainly the princes of Italy alone inclineth to the French ; he is the richest prince in all Europe of coin. with the pope hath some jar about the passage of The form of his government is absolute, depend a river. The Venetians and he fall in great haing only of his will and pleasure, though re- tred; with Florence hath enmity: with Lucca taining in many things the ancient officers and little skirmishes every year for a castle he buildshow, But those magistrates resolve nothing eth on their confines, to raise a great toll in without his express directions and pleasure. a strait passage, by reason of his mother, a Privy council he useth none, but reposeth much Guise. his trust on sound secretaries, and conferreth William, of the house of Gonsaga, the third chiefly with his wife, as his father did with one of Duke of Mantua; his wife Barbara, daughter to i.is secretaries. For matter of examinations, one the Emperor Ferdinand, by whom he hath a son Corbolo hath the especial trust; he doth favour of twenty-two years of age, and a daughter. His the people more than the nobility, because they son is called Vincentio, his daughter Anne, mardo bear an old grudge to the gentlemen, and the ried of late to the Duke of Ferrara; his son likepeople are the more in number, without whom wise married a year sithence to the Prince of the nobility can do nothing. One thing in him Parma's daughter. The duke his self very degiveth great contentment to the subjects, that he formed and crook-backed, well in years, Montvouchsafeth to receive and hear all their petitions ferrat likewise appertaineth to him. Divers of his himself. And in his absence from Florence, those bouse have pension always, and serve the King that have suit do resort to the offices, and there of Spain; his brother, the Duke of Nevers, reexhibit their bill endorsed; whereof within three maineth in France. He only seeketh to maintain days absolute answers is returned them, unless his estate and enrich himself; his greatest pleathe matter be of great importance, then have they sure is in horses and building. directions how to proceed. He is a great jus- The Duke of Urbin, Francesco Maria, of the ticer; and for the ease of the people, and to have house of Roveré, the second of that name, a prince the better eye over justice, hath built hard by of good behaviour and witty. In his state are his palace a fair row of houses for all offices to- seven reasonable fair cities; Pesaro, Augubio, gether in one place.
Sinigaglia, Fossombrone, Sanleo, Cagli, Urbino,
Pesaro and Sinigaglia are fortresses on the sea- protection of the King of Spain: small in terside, Urbino and Sanleo on the Appenine, well ritory: the city itself well fortified and provided, fortified. He holdeth three provinces, Monte- because of the doubt they have of the Duke of feltro, Massa Trebaria, and Vicariato di Mon- Florence. davio,
Genoa is recommended to the King of Spain, There hath been good princes and valiant of their galleys serve under him, and the chiefest of that house, not so great exactors as the rest of Italy, their city are at his devotion. Though there is a therefore better beloved of their subjects, which faction for the French, whereto he doth hearken love restored their house, being displaced by Pope so weakly, that the Spaniard is there all in all; Leo X.
by whom that state in few years hath made a His wife Leonora, sister to the Duke of Fer- marvellous gain. And the King of Spain hath rara, by whom he hath no children, and now is great need of their friendship for their ports, divorced. He hath two sisters, the one married where embark and land all men, and whatsoever to the Duke of Gravina, the other to the Prince is sent between Spain and Milan. Bisignano, and a third is to marry, whose name is They hold Corsica, an island, and Savona a fair Lavinia.
city, and the goodliest haven in Italy, until it was Ottaviano, first Duke of Castro, then of Came- destroyed by the Genevois; the which now make rino, and after of Parma and Piacenza, with great no profession but of merchandise. trouble restored to his estate; now is aged, and There is a dangerous faction amongst them, beliveth quietly : his wife Marguerite, daughter to tween the ancient houses and the new, which were Charles the Fifth, first wife to Alexander de Me- admitted into the ancient families. dici, first Duke of Florence. He hath one son St. George is their treasure-house and receiver, called Alexander, now general for the King of as at Venice, St. Mark. Spain in the Low Countries; his daughter Vit- Venice, retaining still the ancient form of gotoria was mother to the duke of Urbin.
vernment, is always for itself in like estate and The Cardinal Farnese, his uncle, of great credit all one; at this time between the Turk and the in that college, long time hath aspired to be pope, King of Spain, in continual watch, seeming to but withstood by the King of Spain; on whom make more account of France, so much in hope though now that house depend, yet forgetteth not, of any great afhance at this present to be had in as he thinketh, the death of Pier Lugi, and the loss him, but for the reputation of that nation, and the of Parma and Piacenza restored to their house by amity always they have had with the same, and the French.
behoving them so to do. They use it with good The young princes of Mirandola, in the govern- foresight and speedy preventing, sparing for no ment of their mother Fulvia Correggio, and under charge to meet as they may with every accident. the protection of the King of France, who main- of late they have had some jar with the pope, as taineth there a garrison.
well about the Inquisition as title of land. With The Duke of Savoy, Carlo Emanuel, a young Ferrara and the Venetians is ancient enmity, prince of twenty-one years, very little of stature, specially because he receiveth all their banished but well brought up and disposed. His territory and fugitives. They make most account of the is the greatest of any Duke of Italy, having Pie- Duke of Savoy amongst the Princes of Italy. mont beyond the Alps, and Savoy on this side; They maintain divers ambassadors abroad, with divers fair towns and strongholds, richly left of the Turk, the emperor, France, Spain, and at his father, who was accounted a very wise prince. Rome; with them is an ambassador of France This duke, as is thought, is advised to remain al- and Savoy, always resident, and an agent of ways indifferent between Spain and France, being Spain, because they gave the preseance to France. neighbour to them both, unless some accident do In this it seemeth all the potentates of Italy counsel him to declare himself in behalf of either. do agree to let all private grudges give place to Therefore both those princes go about by marriage foreign invasion, more for doubt of alteration in to have him nearer allied to them. His mother religion, than for any other civil cause. was sister to King Francis the Great: his father There is none amongst them at this day in any being expulsed his dominions by the French, was likelihood to grow to any greatness. For Venice restored by the King of Spain, with whom while is bridled by the Turk and Spain. The Duke of he lived he had strait intelligence. As yet his Tuscany seeketh rather title than territory, otherinclination doth not appear, he retaineth his fa- wise than by purchasing. ther's alliances with Venice, especially in Italy, Savoy is yet young; the rest of no great force and with the emperor. With Florence he hath of themselves. France hath greatly lost the question for pre-eminence.
reputation they had in Italy, by neglecting the His revenues are judged to be a million of occasions offered, and suffering the King of Spain crowns yearly; now he is in arms against Geneva, to settle himself. and guarded against Bern.
The Emperor Adolphe, of the house of AusOf free estates, Lucca, the least, is under the triche, son to Maximilian, about thirty years of
age; no strong constitution of body, and greatly son he hath bought in Germany a pretty state, weakened by immoderate pleasure; no great not far from Ulms; the second is a cardinal. quickness of spirit. In fashion and apparel all Now he is a widower, and said that he shall Spanish, where he had his education in his youth. marry a daughter of the Duke of Mantua. He was most governed by his mother while she These are uncles to the emperor; besides remained with him; and yet altogether by his Maximilian and Ernest, he hath two brothers, steward Dyetristan, and his great chamberlain the Archduke Matthias, that hath a pension of Romphe, both pensionaries of Spain, and there the estates of the Low Country, and a Cardinal with him maintained.
Archbishop of Toledo. Of the empire he hath, by the last imperial In Germany there are divers princes diversely diet, one million of dollars towards the mainte-affected. The Elector Palatine Ludovic, a Lunance of the garrisons of Hungary; and, besides, theran; his chief abode is at Heidelberg. his guards are paid of the empire.
His brother, John Casimir, Calvinist, at To the Turk he payeth yearly tribute for Hun- Keiserslautern, or Nieustadt. gary forty thousand dollars, besides the charge of Richard, their uncle, at Symyers. the presents and his ambassadors, amounting to During the life of the last elector, Ludovic more than the tribute; in all one hundred thou- dwelt at Amberg in the Higher Palatinate. sand dollars.
hilip Ludovic dwelt at Norbourg on the The ordinary garrisons in Hungary are to the Danow, and is commonly called duke of. number of but evil paid at this time. John dwelleth at Rypont, or Sweybourgh, or in
The revenues and subsidies of Hungary do not Bergesaber; the other three brethren have no pass one hundred thousand florins. The last certain dwelling-place. George John, son of emperor affirmed solemnly that the charge of Rupert, Count Palatine, dwelleth at Lysselsteyn. Hungary amounted to one million and a half. Augustus, Duke and Elector of Saxony, re
The revenues of Bohemia, ordinary and extra- maineth the most part at Dresden on the Elbe ; ordinary, amount to fifty thousand dollars. sometimes at Torge on Elbe, a goodly castle for
In the absence of the emperor, the Baron of tified by John Frederick. This elector is LuRosemberg is Governor of Bohemia, who possess- theran, and a great enemy to our profession; of eth almost a fourth part of that country, and is sixty years of age, half frantic, severe, governed a Papist; neither he nor his brother have children: much by his wife, greater exactor than the Gerhe beareth the emperor in hand to make him his man princes are wont to be, and retaineth in his
service divers Italians; his eldest son married of Of Silesia and Moravia, the emperor yearly late the daughter of the Duke of Brandebourg. may have two hundred thousand florins.
The sons of John Frederick, captive, and yet in Out of Austriche of subsidy and tribute, one prison, remain at Coburge in East Franconia, near hundred thousand florins, for his domains are all the forest of Turinge. sold away and engaged.
The sons of John William abide at Vinaria in Thus all his revenues make half a million of Turingia. florins.
Joachim Frederick, son of John George, Elector To his brothers Maximilian and Ernest he of Brandebourg, at Hala, in Saxony, on the river alloweth yearly, by agreement made between of Sala, as administrator of the Archbishopric them, forty-five thousand florins apiece, as well of Magdebourg. for Austriche, as that might hereafter fall unto George Frederick, son of George, dwelleth at them by the decease of the Archduke Ferdinand Orsbuche in East Franconia, or at Blassenbourge, in Tyrol, the which shall come to the emperor. the which was the mansion of his uncle Albert
The emperor altogether dependeth on Spain, the warrior. as well in respect of his house, as the education The Elector of Brandebourg, John George, rehe received there, and the rule his mother hath maineth at Berlin on the river of Sprea: his uncle over him with the chief of his council. He is John dwelleth at Castryne, beyond Odera, very utter enemy to religion, having well declared the strong both by the situation, and fortified. same in banishing the ministers out of Vienna, William, Duke of Bavyre, a Papist, at Munich and divers other towns, where he goeth about to in Bavary, married the daughter of the Duke of plant Jesuits.
Lorrain. Of his subjects greatly misliked, as his house His second brother Ferdinand remaineth most is hateful to all Germany.
at Landshutt. The Archduke Charles holdeth Styria and The third, Ernest, is Bishop of Frishinghen Carinthia; his chief abode is at Gratz; his wife and Hildesheim, and late of Liege. is sister to the Duke of Bavyre, by whom he Julius, Duke of Brunswick, at the strong castle hath children.
of Wolfenbuttel on Oker. The Archduke Ferdinand hath Tyrol, and re- Ericke of Brunswick, son to Magnus, uncle to maineth the most part at Ilsburg. For his eldest Julius, remaineth at Mynda, or where the rivers
01 Werra and Fulda do join, making the river of the daughter of the Prince of Anhalt; his second Visurgis navigable.
son, John George. William, Duke of Luneburg hath his being at Henry, Duke of Silesia and Lignitz, son to the Cella, on the River Albera.
brother of George, dwelleth at Lignitz; he hath Henry his brother at Gryson, where, before, no children alive. their uncle Francis was wont to dwell.
Frederick, brother to Henry, unmarried. Otho, their cousin, Duke of Luneburg, inhabit- Charles, Duke of Munsterburg and Olsse, his eth Harbourg, on this side the Elbe, over-right wife the Countess of Sternberg, in Bohemia, where against Hamburgh.
he maketh his abode. The Dukes of Pomerania, John Frederick dwell- Henry, brother to Charles, remained at Olsse. eth at Stetin.
John Frederick, Duke of Teschen. Bugeslaus at Campena, some time an abbey in Charles, Duke of Lorrain, his chief court at the county of Bardruse.
Charles, Cardinal Archbishop of Metes.
Besides, there are in Germany three electors Casimire at Camyn, which bishopric he hold- bishops, and divers bishops of great livings. eth, either as administrator, or in his own posses- The free towns of greatest importance are Nosion and right.
remberg, Auspurg, Ulmes, and Strasburg: then the Ulricke, Duke of Meckelbourg, remaineth most cantons of the Swisses, the Grisons, and Valois. at Gustrow; his brother John Albert dwelleth at The greatest trouble in Germany at this time is Swerin, whose two sons are in the court of the about the concordate, furthered by the Duke of Duke of Saxon.
Saxon, and the Count Palatine. Adolph, Duke of Holst and Dytmarch; his There is at this present no prince in Germany chief seat is at Gottorp in the Duchy of Sles- greatly toward or redoubted. wick.
The Duke Casimir's credit is greatly impaired, John, his elder brother, unmarried, hath his and his ability small. abode at Hadersburge: John, son to Christiern, The diet imperial shortly should be held, where King of Denmark, and brother to the Duke of the concordate shall be urged, collection for HunHolst, and to Frederick now King of Denmark, gary made, and a King of Romans named. Bishop of Oeselya and Courland in Livonia. The French king, Henry the Third, of thirty
William, Duke of Juliers, Cleve, and Bergin, years of age, of a very weak constitution, and full hath his court at Dusseldorp in the Dukedom of of infirmities ; yet extremely given over to his Bergense.
wanton pleasures, having only delight in dancing, William, Landgrave of Hesse, dwelleth at Cas-feasting, and entertaining ladies, and chambersel on Fulda.
pleasures: no great wit, yet a comely behaviour Ludovick at Marpurge.
and goodly personage, very poor through exactPhilip at Brubache on the Rhine.
ing inordinately by all devices of his subjects George at Darmstadt.
greatly repining that revenge and hungry governLudovick, Duke of Wirtenberge, his chief ment, abhorring wars and all action, yet daily house at Stutgard.
worketh the ruin of those he hateth, as all of the Frederick at Montbelgard.
religion and the house of Bourbon; doting fondly The Marquises of Bathe: the elder Ernest, the on some he chooseth to favour extremely, without second Jacob, the third brother yet younger; their any virtue or cause of desert in them, to whom chief dwelling-place is at Forsheim, or at Dur- he giveth prodigally. His chief favourites now lach.
about him are the Duke Joyeuse, La Valette, and The sons of Philip at the Bath called Badan. Monsieur D'Au. The queen-mother ruleth him
Earnest Joachim, prince of Anhalt, at Zerbest, rather by policy and fear he hath of her, than by in the midway between Magdebourg and Wittem- his good will: yet he always doth show great berg; his other mansion is at Dessau on Mylda, reverence towards her. The Guise is in as great where he was born, new built and fortified by his favour with him as ever he was; the house is now grandfather Ernest; he hath besides the castle of the greatest of all France, being allied to Ferrara, Cathenen, the which was the habitation of Wolf-Savoy, Lorrain, Scotland, and favoured of all the gang, Prince of Anhalt, his great uncle; Ernest Papists; the French king having his kinswoman favoureth religion.
to wife, and divers great personages in that realm George Ernest, Prince and Earl of Henneberg, of his house. at Schlewsing, by the forest called Turing. The chiefest at this present in credit in court,
George, Duke of Silesia and Brieke, of the whose counsel he useth, are Villeroy, Villaquier, family of the Kings of Poland, dwelleth at Brieke; Bellievre, the chancellor and lord keeper, Birague his eldest son, Joachim Frederick, hath married and Chiverny.
He greatly entertaineth no amity with any | abroad. This duke first had intelligence with the prince, other than for form; neither is his friend- Count Ludovic in King Charles's days, and an enship otherwise respected of others, save in respect terprise to escape from the court, and in this king's of the reputation of so great a kingdom. time joined with them of the religion and malcon
The pope beareth a great sway, and the king tents : after was carried against them ; seeketh of Spain by means of his pensions; and of the the marriage with her majesty, so mighty a queen-mother with the Guise; she for her two princess, as it were to marry might with his acdaughters, he for other regard, can do what he list tivity. there, or hinder what he would not have done. He hath had practice in Germany to be created
The division in his country for matters of reli- King of Romans, made a sudden voyage with great gion and state, through miscontentment of the no- expedition into the Low Countries, now is there bility to see strangers advanced to the greatest again with better success than so soon was looked charges of the realm, the offices of justice sold, for. the treasury wasted, the people polled, the coun- The King of Spain, Philip, son to Charles the try destroyed, hath bred great trouble, and like to Fifth, about sixty years of age, a prince of great
The faction between the house of understanding, subtle and aspiring, diligent and Guise against that of Montmorancy hath gotten cruel. This king especially hath made his benefit great advantage.
of the time where his last attempt on Portugal deAt this present the king is about to restore Don serveth exact consideration, thereby as by the Antonio, King of Portugal, whereto are great workmanship to know the master. levies and preparation.
The first success he had was at St. Quintin, Francis, Duke of Anjou and of Brabant, for his where he got a notable hand of the French; he calling and quality greatly to be considered as sought to reduce the Low Countries to an absoany prince this day living, being second person lute subjection. to the king, his brother, and in likelihood to suc- He hath kept France in a continual broil, ceed him. There is noted in the disposition of where, by his pensions and the favour of the this prince a quiet mildness, giving satisfaction house of Guise, by means of the queen-mother in to all men ; facility of access and natural courte contemplation of her nieces, he beareth great sy; understanding and speech great and eloquent; sway. With the pope he is so linked as he may secrecy more than commonly is in the French; do what him list, and dispose of that authority to from his youth always desirous of action, the serve his purposes : as he has gotten great auwhich thing hath made him always followed and thority in pretending to protect the church and respected. And though hitherto he hath brought religion. to pass no great purpose, having suffered great He possesseth the one half of Italy, comprehendwants and resistance both at home and abroad, ing Sicily and Sardinia, with Naples and Milan; yet by the intermeddling is grown to good ex- the which estates do yield him little other profit, perience, readiness, and judgment the better save the maintenance of so many Spaniards as he thereby able to guide and govern his affairs, keepeth there always. both in practice, in treaty, and action. Moreover, The Duke of Florence relieth greatly upon the diseased estate of the world doth so concur him, as well in respect of the state of Siena, as of with this his active forwardness, as it giveth him the ports he holdeth, and of his greatness. Lucca matter to work upon: and he is the only man to be is under his protection. Genoa, the one faction seen of all them in distress, or desirous of altera- at his devotion, with their galleys: at his pension tion. A matter of special furtherance to all such is most of the greatest there. as have achieved great things, when they have Besides the Low Countries, he holdeth the found matter disposed to receive form.
French Comte, the best used of all his subjects, And there is to be found no other prince in this and Luxembourg: the West Indies furnish him part of the world so towards and forward as the gold and silver, the which he consumeth in the duke, towards whom they in distress may turn wars of the Low Countries, and in pensions, and their eyes. We do plainly see in the most coun- is greatly indebted; while he worketh on the fountries of Christendom so unsound and shaken an dation his father laid, to erect a monarchy, the estate, as desireth the help of some great person, which, if he succeed in the conquest of Portugal, to set together and join again the pieces asunder he is likely to achieve, unless death do cut him off. and out of joint. Wherefore the presumption is He hath one son of the years of five by his last great, that if this prince continue this his course, wife, two daughters by the French king's sister, he is likely to become a mighty potentate: for, two base sons. one enterprise failing, other will be offered, and He hath greatly sought the marriage of the still men evil at ease, and desirous of a head and queen's daughter of France, sister to his last wife, captain, will run to him that is fittest to receive and cousin-german removed. them. Besides, the French, desirous to shake off His revenues are reckoned to amount to sixteen the civil wars, must needs attempt somewhat / millions.