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The chief in credit with him of martial men and His father deceased in the year 1559, after for counsel are ....

which he had wars ten years space with the He maketh account to have in continual pay Swede, which gave him occasion to arm by sea. fifty thousand soldiers.

His navy is six great ships of one thousand five He maintaineth galleys to the number of one hundred ton, and fifteen smaller, ten galleys which hundred and forty, whereof there are sixty in Por- sail to pass the Straits. tugal, the rest are at Naples and other places. Now His revenues grow chiefly in customs, and is on league with the Turk.

such living as were in the hands of the abbeys, D. Antonio, elect King of Portugal, thrust out and bishops, whereby he is greatly enriched: his by the King of Spain, of forty-five years of age, a chief haven is Copenhagen, where always his mild spirit, sober and discreet: he is now in navy lieth. France, where he he hath levied soldiers, whereof His brother John, Duke of Holst in Jutland, part are embarked, hoping by the favour of that married to the daughter of the Duke of Inferior king and the good will the Portugals do bear him, Saxony. to be restored again. He holdeth the Torges, and Magnus, his other brother, Bishop of Courland, the East Indians yet remain well affected to him, married the daughter of the Muscovite's brother. a cause of itself deserving the considering and re- The chiefest wars that the King of Denmark lief of all other princes. Be es in his person, hath is with Sweden, with whom now he hath his election to be noted with the title he claimeth peace. The Duke of Holst is uncle to the king very singular, and seldom the like seen, being now reigning; they make often alliances with chosen of all the people; the great dangers he Scotland. hath escaped likewise at sundry times.

John, King of Sweden, son of Gustavus. The King of Poland, Stephen Batoaye, a Baron This Gustavus had four sons, Erick, John, of Hungary, by the favour of the Turk chosen Magnus, Charles. King of the Pollacks, after the escape made by Erick married a soldier's daughter, by whom the French king; a prince of the greatest value he had divers children, and died in prison. and courage of any at this day, of competent John, now king, married the sister of Sigisyears, sufficient wisdom, the which he hath mond, late King of Poland. showed in the siege of Danske, and the wars Magnus bestraught of his wits. with the Muscovite.

Charles married a daughter of the Palsgrave. The Hungarians could be content to exchange Five daughters of Gustavus. the emperor for him. The Bohemians likewise Katherine married to the Earl of East-Frisewish him in the stead of the other. He were land. like to attain to the empire were there not that Anne to one of the Palsgraves. mortal enmity between those two nations as could Cicilia to the Marquis of Baden. not agree in one subjection.

Sophia to the Duke of Inferior Saxony. Straight upon his election he married the In- Elizabeth to the Duke of Mecleburg. fant of Poland, somewhat in years and crooked, This prince is of no great force nor wealth, but only to content the Pollacks, but never companied of late hath increased his navigation, by reason of with her. He doth tolerate there all religions, the wars between him and the Dane, the which, himself heareth the mass, but is not thought to the wars ceasing, they hardly maintain. be a Papist: he had a great part of his education The Muscovite Emperor of Russia, John Basil, in Turkey, efter served the last emperor. of threescore years of age, in league and amity

Frederick the Second, of forty-eight years, with no prince; always at wars with the TartaKing of Denmark and Norway; his wife Sophia, rians, and now with the Pollake. daughter to Ulricke, Duke of Mechelebourg, by He is advised by no council, but governeth whom he hath six children, four daughters and altogether like a tyrant. He hath one son of two sons, Christianus and Ulricus, the eldest of thirty years of age. Not long sithence this five years of age.

prince deposed himself, and set in his place a The chiefest about him, Nicolas Cose, his Tartar, whom he removed again. Of late sent chancellor, in whose counsel he doth much an ambassador to Rome, giving some hope to repose.

submit himself to that see. Their religion is He hath always eight hundred horse about his nearest the Greek church, full of superstition couit, to whom he giveth ten dollars the month. and idolatry.









Queen Elizabeth, both in her natural endow- | their crowns, not only from a private, but also ments, and her fortune, was admirable amongst from an adverse and afflicted fortune ; and did women, and memorable amongst princes. But both excel in their several ways; the former in this is no subject for the pen of a mere scholar, prudence, and the other in justice. Much like or any such cloistered writer. For these men was the condition of this princess, whose blossoms are eager in their expressions, but shallow in and hopes were unequally aspected by fortune, their judgments; and perform the scholar's part that afterwards when she came to crown, fortune well, but transmit things but unfaithfully to pos- might prove towards her always mild and constant. terity. Certainly it is a science belonging to For Queen Elizabeth, soon after she was born, statesmen, and to such as sit at the helms of was entitled to the succession in the crown, upon great kingdoms, and have been acquainted with the next turn disinherited again, then laid aside the weight and secrets of civil business, to handle and slighted : during the reign of her brother, her this matter dexterously. Rare in all ages hath estate was most prosperous and flourishing; durbeen the reign of a woman, more rare the felicity ing the reign of her sister, very tempestuous and of a woman in her reign, but most rare a perma- full of hazard. Neither yet did she pass immenency and lasting joined with that felicity. As diately from the prison to the crown, which sudfor this lady she reigned four-and-forty years, den change might have been enough to make her complete, and yet she did not survive her felicity. cast off all moderation : but first she regained her of this felicity I am purposed to say somewhat; liberty, then there buded forth some probable yet without any excursion into praises; for praises hopes of succession; and lastly, in a great still are the tribute of men, but felicity the gift of God. and happiness she was advanced to the imperial

First, I reckon it as a part of her felicity, that crown without either noise or competitor. All she was advanced to the regal throne from a pri- which I allege that it may appear that the divine vate fortune. For this is ingenerate in the nature Providence, intending to produce a most exquisite and opinions of men, to ascribe that to the great-princess, was pleased to prepare and mould her est felicity, which is not counted upon, and cometh by these degrees of discipline. Neither ought unlooked for, but this is not that I intend, it is the misfortune of her mother justly to stain the this, princes that are trained up in their father's pure stream of her blood ; especially seeing it is courts, and to an immediate and apparent hope of very evident that King Henry the Eighth did first succession, do get this by the tenderness and re- burn with new loves, before he was inflamed missness of their education, that they become, with indignation against Queen Anne: neither is commonly, less capable and less temperate in their it unknown to the ages since that he was a king affections. And therefore you shall find those to naturally prone to loves and jealousies; and not have been the ablest and most accomplished kings containing himself in those cases from the effusion that were tutored by both fortunes. Such was of blood. Besides, the very person for whom with us, King Henry the Seventh; and with the she was suspected showeth the accusation to be French, Lewis the Twelfth: both which, in recent less probable, and built upon weak and frivolous memory and almost about the same time. obtained I suppositions; which was both secretly whispered



in many men's ears at that time; and which ed, I take to be a matter worthy our observation; Queen Anne herself testified by her undaunted for if her lot had fallen amongst the desolate courage, and that memorable speech of her's at Palmyrenes, or in Asia, a soft and effeminate race the time of her death. For having gotten, as she of men, a woman-prince might have been suffisupposed, a faithful and friendly messenger, in cient for a womanish people; but for the English, the very hour before her death, she delivered him a nation stout and warlike, to be ruled by the check these words to relate unto the king: “That she of a woman, and to yield so humble obedience to had ever found the king very constant and firm her, is a thing deserving the highest admiration. to his purpose of advancing her; for first, from Neither was this disposition of her people the estate of a gentlewoman only, and no way (hungry of war, and unwillingly bowing to peace) pretending to noble titles, he raised her to the any impediment to her, but that she enjoyed and honour of a marchioness; next, he vouchsafed to maintained peace all her days: and this desire in make her his consort both of his kingdom and her of peace, together with her fortunate accombed: and now that there remained no higher plishment thereof, I reckon to be one of her chiefearthly honour, he meant to crown her innocency est praises. For this was happy for her time, with the glory of martyrdom.” But though the comely for her sex, and comfortable to her conmessenger durst not relate these words to the science. Indeed, about the tenth year of her king, who was already inflamed with new loves, reign, there was an offer of a commotion in the yet certain tradition, the conserver of truth, hath northern parts, but it was soon laid asleep and exconveyed them to posterity.

tinguished; but all her reign beside was free Another principal thing, which I cast into Queen from the least breath or air of civil broils. Now Elizabeth's felicity, was the time and period of I judge the peace maintained by her to be the her reign; not only for that it was long, but also more eminent for two causes, which indeed make because it fell into that season of her life, which nothing for the merit of that peace, but much for was most active and fittest for the swaying the honour: the one, that it was set off, and made of a sceptre, for she was fully five-and-twenty more conspicuous by the broils and dissensions years old (at which age the civil law freeth from of neighbouring nations, as it were by so many a curator) when she came to the crown, and reign- lights and torches: the other, that arnidst the ed to the seventieth year of her life; so that she benefits of peace she lost not the honour of arms; never suffered either the detriments of pupilage, insomuch, that the reputation of the English arms and check of an over-awing power, or the incon- was not only preserved, but also advanced by veniences of an impotent and unwieldy old age; and her upon many glorious occasions. For the sucold age is not without a competent portion of mise-cours sent into the Netherlands, France, and ries, even to private men; but to kings, besides the Scotland, the expeditions by sea into both the common burden of years, it brings for the most Indies, whereof some circled the whole globe of . part a declining in the estates they govern, and the earth; the fleets sent into Portugal, and to a conclusion of their lives without honour. For annoy the coasts of Spain: and lastly, the often there hath scarce been known a king that hath suppressions and overthrows of the rebels in Irelived to an extreme and impotent old age, but he land, did both show the warlike prowess of our hath suffered some detriment in his territories, nation to be no whit diminished, and did much and gone less in his reputation. Of which thing increase the renown of the queen. there is a most eminent example in Philip the There was another thing that did greatly adSecond, King of Spain, a most puissant prince, vance her glory; that both by her timely suecours, and an excellent governor, who, in the last years her neighbour kings were settled in their rightful of his life, and impotent old age, was sensible of thrones, and the suppliant people, who by the ill this whereof we speak; and therefore with great advisedness of their kings were abandoned and circumspection submitted himself to nature's law, given over to the cruelty of their ministers, and to voluntarily surrendered the territories he had got- the fury of the multitude, and to all manner of ten in France, established a firm peace in that butchery and desolation, were relieved by her; kingdorn, attempted the like in other places, that by reason whereof they subsist unto this day. so he might transmit his kingdoms peaceable and Neither was she a princess less benign and forentire to his next heir. Contrariwise, Queen tunate in the influence of her counsels than of Elizabeth's fortune was so constant and deeply her succours; as being one that had oftentimes rooted, that no disaster in any of her dominions interceded to the King of Spain, to mitigate his accompanied her indeed declining, but still able wrath against his subjects in the Netherlands, years: nay, further, for an undeniable token of her and to reduce them to his obedience upon some felicity, she died not before the rebellion in Ire- tolerable conditions; and further, as being one land was fortunately decided, and quashed by a that did perpetually and upon all occasions reprebattle there, lest otherwise it might have defal- sent to the French kings the observation of their cated from the total sum of her glory. Now the own edicts, so often declaring and promising condition also of the people over whom she reign-1 peace to their subjects. I cannot deny but that


these good counsels of hers wanted the effect: in fell upon times of a singular learning and suffi the former I verily believe for the universal good ciency; in which it was not possible to be emiof Europe, lest happily the ambition of Spain, be- nent, without admirable endowments of wit, and ing unloosed from its fetters, should have poured a rare temper of virtue. Again, the reigns of itself (as things then stood) upon the other king- women are for the most part obscured by their doms and states of Christendom: and for the lat- husbands; upon whom all their praises and wor. ter, the blood of so many innocents with their thy acts do reflect: as for those that continue unwives and children slain within their own har- married, it is they that impropriate the whole bours and nests by the scum of the people, (who glory and merit to themselves. And this was like so many mastiffs were let loose, and hearten- the peculiar glory of this princess, that she had ed, and even set upon them by the state,) would no props or supports of her government, but those not suffer it; which did continually cry unto God that were of her own making. She had no brother, for vengeance, that so blood-sucking a kingdom the son of her mother; no uncle, none other of might have her fill thereof, in the intestine slaugh- the royal blood and lineage that might be partner ters and consumption of a civil war. Howsoever in her cares, and an upholder of the regal dignity. she persisted to perform the part of a wise and And as for those whom she raised to honour, she loving confederate.

carried such a discreet hand over them, and so There is another cause also for which we may interchanged her favours as they still strived in justly admire this peace so constantly pursued emulation and desire to please her best, and she and maintained by the queen. And that is, that herself remained in all things an absolute princess. it did not proceed from any bent or inclination of Childless she was, and left no issue behind her; those times; but from the prudency of her govern- which was the case of many of the most fortument and discreet carriage of things. For where- nate princes, Alexander the Great, Julius Cæsar, as she herself was not without manifest danger Trajan, and others. And this is a case that hath from an ill-affected party at home for the cause of been often controverted and argued on both sides, religion, and that the strength and forces of this whilst some hold the want of children to be a kingdom were in the place of a bulwark to all diminution of our happiness, as if it should be an Europe against the then dreadful and overflowing estate more than human to be happy both in our ambition and power of the King of Spain, she own persons, and in our descendants, but others might have apprehended just cause of a war; but do account the want of children as an addition to as she was still ready with her counsel, so she earthly happiness, inasmuch as that happiness was not behindhand with her forces. And this may be said to complete, over which fortune hath we are taught by an event the most memorable of no power, when we are gone: which if we leave any in our time, if we look upon the felicity there- children cannot be. of. For when as the Spanish navy (set forth She had also many outward gifts of nature. A with such wonderful preparation in all kinds, the tall stature; a comely and straight making; an terror and amazement of all Europe, carried on extraordinary majesty of aspect, joined with a with almost assurance of victory) came braving sweetness; a most happy and constant healthfulupon our seas; it took not so much as one poor ness of body. Unto which I may add, that in cock-boat of ours, nor fired any one village, nor the full possession both of her limbs and spirits landed one man upon English ground; but was until her last sickness, having received no blow utterly defeated, and after a shameful flight and from fortune, nor decay from old age; she obtainmany shipwrecks quite dispersed, so as the peace ed that which Augustus Cæsar so importunately of this kingdom was never more firm and solid. prayed for; an easy and undistempered passage Neither was her felicity less in escaping treacher out of this world. Which also is reported of Anous attempts at home, than in subduing and de- toninus Pius, that excellent emperor; whose death feating foreign invasions. For not a few treasons had the resemblance of some soft and pleasing plotted against her life were most fortunately slumber. So in Queen Elizabeth's disease, there discovered and disappointed. And this was no was no ghastly or fearful accident; no idleness cause to make her lead a more fearful or diffident of brain; nothing unaccustomed to man in genelife than before. No new increase of her guard, ral: she was not transported either with desire no immuring herself within her own walls, or of life, or tediousness of sickness, or extremity forbearing to be seen abroad; but as one assured of pain; she had no grievous or uncomely sympand confident, and that was more mindful of her toms, but all things were of that kind, as did rather escape from danger, than of the danger itself, she show the frailty of nature, than a deordination or was constant to her former customs and fashions. reproach of it. For some few days before her

Furthermore, it is worth our labour to consider death, being much pined with the extreme drought the nature of the times in which she reigned. of her body, and those cares that accompany a For there are some times so barbarous and igno- crown, and not wonted to refresh herself with rant that it is no greater matter to govern people wine, or any liberal diet, she was struck with a than to govern a flock of sheep. But this queen torpor and frigidity in her nerves; notwithstand

ing, which is rare in such diseases, she retained such a fortune. Notwithstanding, I have thought both her speech, and memory, and motion, though good to insert something now concerning her but slow and weak, even to the end. And in this moral part, yet only in those things which have case she continued but a few days; so as it cannot ministered occasion to some malicious to traduce be called the last act of her life, but the first step her. to her death. For as it is a miserable condition This queen, as touching her religion, was to see the faculties of our body buried before us; pious, moderate, constant, and an enemy to and to survive long after them; so it is a fair and novelty. First, for her piety, though the same natural conclusion of our life, when the senses were most conspicuous in her acts and the form are by little and little laid asleep, that the dissolu- of her government; yet it was portrayed also in tion of the whole should immediately follow. the common course of her life, and her daily

I will add one thing more to make up the full comportment. Seldom would she be absent from measure of her felicity: which is, that she was hearing divine service, and other duties of religion, not only most happy in her own person, but in either in her chapel, or in her privy closet. In the abilities and virtues of her servants and the reading of the Scriptures, and the writings ministers, for she was served by such persons as of the fathers, especially of Saint Augustine, she I suppose this island never brought forth the like was very frequent; she composed certain prayers before her times. Now when God beareth a love herself on emergent occasions. Whensoever she to kings, no doubt he raiseth up the spirits of named God, though it were in common discourse, wise servants as a concurrent blessing.

she would for the most part add the title of Maker, There are two fair issues of her happiness, saying, God my Maker: and compose both her born to her since her death, I conceive not less eyes and countenance to a submissness and reveglorious and eminent than those she enjoyed rence. This I have often, myself, observed, alive. The one of her successor, the other of being in her presence; now whereas some have her memory. For she had gotten such a suc- divulged her unmindfulness of mortality, in that cessor, who although, for his masculine virtues, she would never endure any mention either of her and blessing of posterity, and addition of terri- age, or death, is most false: for she would often, tories, he may be said to exceed her greatness and that many years before her death, with a and somewhat to obscure it; notwithstanding, great deal of meekness profess that she found he is most zealous of her name and glory; and herself grown an old woman, and she would doth even give a perpetuity to her acts, consider- sometimes open herself what she liked best for ing both in the choice of the persons, and in the an inscription upon her tomb, saying, that she orders, and institutions of the kingdom, he hath loved no pompous or vainglorious titles, but would departed so little from her, so as a son could only have a line or two for her memory, wherein hardly succeed a father with less noise of inno- her name and her virginity, and the years of her vation. As for her memory, it hath gotten such reign, and her establishing of religion, and her life in the mouths and hearts of men, as that maintaining of peace, should be in the fewest envy being put out by her death, and her fame words comprehended. It is true, that whilst she lighted, I cannot say whether the felicity of her was in her vigorous years, and able to bear childlife, or the felicity of her memory be the greater. ren, if at any time she were moved to declare For if, perhaps, there fly abroad any factious her successor, she would make answer, that she fames of her, raised either by discontented per- would never endure to see her winding-sheet sons, or such as are averse in religion; which before her eyes. And yet, notwithstanding, some notwithstanding, dare now scarce show their few years before her death, one day when she faces, and are everywhere cried down; the same was in a deep meditation, and, as it may be are neither true, neither can they be long-lived. guessed, in that of her mortality, one that might And for this cause, especially, have I made this be bold said unto her, “ Madam, there are divers collection, such as it is, touching her felicity, and offices, and great places in the state, which you the marks of God's favour towards her; «that no keep long void.” She arose up in some displeamalicious person should dare to interpose a curse, sure, and said, “I am sure my office will not be where God hath given a blessing. Now if any long void.” man shall allege that against me, was once said As for her moderateness in religion, I shall to Cæsar; “we see what we may admire, but we seem to be at a stand, in regard of the severe would fain see what we can commend;" certainly, laws made against her subjects of the Romish for my part, I hold true admiration to be the religion: notwithstanding, that which I shall say highest degree of commendation. And besides is no more than what I know for certain, and such felicities as we have recounted could not diligently observed. Most certain it is, tha: befall any princess, but such a one as was ex- was the firm resolution of this princess no: -traordinarily supported and cherished by God's offer any violence to consciences; but then ? favour; and had much in her own person, and the other side, not to suffer the state of her kizs. care virtues. to create and work out unto herself | dom to be ruined under pretence of conscience

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