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metals rust; fluids turn sour; and in animals, when the the eastern hills; and I was strangely pleased when I saw spint which held the parts together escapes, all things are something of this in Cicero ; for I have been so push'd at dissolved, and return to their own natures or principles : the by herds and flocks of people that follow any body that oily parts to themselves; the aqueous also io themselves, whistles to them, or drives them to pasture, that I am grown &c.; upon which necessarily ensues that odour, that unc- afraid of any truth that seeing chargeable with singularity : trosily, that confusion of parts observable in putrefaction;" but therefore I say, glad I was when I saw Lælius in Cicero So true is it, that in nature all is beauty: that notwithstand discourse thus : Amicitia ex infinitate generis humani ing our partial views and distressing associations, the forms quam conciliavit ipsa natura, contracta res est, et adof death, mis-shapen as we suppose them, are but the ten- ducta in angustum; ut omnis charitas, aut inter duos, dencies to union in similar natures.-To the astronomer, the aut inter paucos jungeretur.' Nature hath made friendseiring sun is as worthy of notice as its golden beams of ships and societies, relations and endearments; and by orient light.

something or other we relate to all the world; there is see lastly his epitaph upon the monument raised by his enough in every man that is willing to make him become affectionate and faithful Secretary, who lies at his feet; and our friend; but when men contract friendships, they inclose although only a few letters of his name, scarcely legible, can the commons: and what nature intended should be every now be traced, he will ever be remembered for his affec- man's, we make proper to two or three. Friendship is like tionate attachment to his master and friend. Upon the rivers, and the strand of seas, and the air,-common to all monument which he raised to Lord Bacon, who appears sit- the world; but tyrants, and evil customs, wars, and want ting in deep but tranquil thought, he has inscribed this epi- of love have made them proper and peculiar." taph:

" The friendship is equal to all the world, and of itself hath

no difference; but is differenced only by accidents, and by FRANCISCVS BACON . BARO DE VERVLĀ STI ALBNI

the capacity or incapacity of them that receive it. For thus SEV NOTORIBVS TITVLIS

the sun is the eye of the world; and he is indifferent to the SCIENTIARVM LVMEN FACVNDIÆ LEX

Negro, or the cold Russian, to them that dwell under the SIC SEDEBAT:

line, and them that stand near the tropics, the-scalded Indian QVI POSTQVAM OMNIA NATVRALIS SAPIENTIÆ

or the poor boy that shakes at the foot of the Riphean hills. ET CIVILIS ARCANA EVOLVISSET

But the fluxures of the heaven and the earth, ihe convenNATVRÆ DECRETVM EXPLEVIT

jency of abode, and the approaches to the north or south COMPOSITA SOLVANTVR.

respectively change the emanations of his beams; not that

they do not pass always from him, but that they are not AÑ: DNT: MDCXXVI.

equally received below, but by periods and changes, by little ÆTATS LXVI.

inlets and reflections, they receive what they can. And TANTI VIRI

some have only a dark day and a long night from him, MEM:

snows and white cattle, a miserable life, and a perpetual

harvest of cattarhes and consumptions, apoplexies and dead THOMAS MEAVTYS

palsies. But some have splendid fires and aromatic spices, SVPERSTITIS CVLTOR

rich wines and well-digested fruits, great wit and great DEFVNCTI ADMIRATOR

courage, because they dwell in his eye, and look in his face, H. P.

and are the courtiers of the sun, and wait upon him in his Any person who is desirous to see the confirmation of chambers of the east. Just so is it in friendships," &c. these opinions upon death will find the subject exhausted in a noble essay, in Tucker's Light of Nature, vol. 7, in his

Note G. inquiry whether we cannot help ourselves by the use of our

Referring to page 21. reason, so as to brave looking death calmly and steadily in the face to contemplate all bis features and examine fairly very untruly, by a nuncio of the pope, returning from a cer

“It was both pleasantly and wisely said, though I think what there is of terrible and what of harmless in them.

tain nation where he served as lieger; whose opinion being Note B.

asked touching the appointment of one to go in his place, he Referring to page 12.

wished that in any case they did not send one that was too

'wise; because no very wise man would ever imagine what See Bacon's Essay on Church Controversies.

they in that country were like to do. And certainly it is an NOTE C.

error frequent for men to shoot over, and to suppose deeper

ends, and more compass-reaches than are; the Italian proReferring to page 14.

verb being elegant, and for the most part true : See Advancement of Learning, as to the Art of Revealing

"Di danari, di senno, e di lede, a Man's Self, and the Art of covering Defects. And see the

Ce ne manco che non credi." Analysis of this subject in the analysis.

(There is commonly less money, less wisdom, and less good

faith than men do account upon.)
NOTE D.
Referring to page 16.

NOTE H.
On this subject, see Bishop's Taylor's sermon entitled

Referring to page

23. “The Marriage Ring.”

See the treatise de Augmentis, book viii. chapter 3, where Note E.

the subject to which this note is annexed, is investigated. Referring to page 17.

“Let states and kingdoms that aim at greatness by all

means take heed how the nobility and grandees, and that There are some observations upon Envy, in Taylor's Holy those which we call gentlemen, multiply too fast ; for that Living.

makes the common subject grow to be a peasant and base Note F.

swain driven out of heart, and in effect nothing else but the

nobleman's bondslaves and labourers. Even as you may Referring to page 18.

see in coppice-wood, 'if you leave your studdles too thick, Bee Bishop Taylor's Holy Living, of Charity, or the Love you shall never have clean underwood, but shrubs and of God.

bushes:' as in a country, if the nobility be too many, the It begins thus: “Love is the greatest thing that God can

commons will be base and heartless, and you will bring it to give us, for himself is love, and it is the greatest thing we especially as to the infantry, which is the nerve of an army,

that, that not the hundredth pole will be fit for an beimet; can give to God, for it will also give ourselves, and carry with it all that is ours. The apostle calls it the band of and so there will be a great population and little strength. perfection ;' it is the old, and it is the new, and it is the great

This which I speak of, hath been in no nation more clearly commandment, and it is all the commandments, for it is the confirmed than in the examples of England and France, fulfilling of the law.' It does the work of all other graces,lation, hath been nevertheless always an overmaich in arms,

whereof England, though far inferior in territory and popuwithout any instrument but its own immediate virtue. For as the love to sin makes a man sin against all his own rea- in regard the middle people of England make good soldiers, son, and all the discourses of wisdom, and all the advices of which the peasants of France do not. And herein the device his friends, and without temptation, and without opportu- of Henry the Seventh King of England, whereof I have nity: so does the love of God; it makes a man chaste spoken largely in the history of his life, was profound and without the laborious acts of fasting and exterior disciplines, admirable, in making farms and houses of husbandry of a temperate in the midst of feasts, and is active enough to standard; that is, maintained with such a proportion of land choose it without any intermedial appetites, and reaches at

unto them, as may breed a subject to live in convenient glory through the very heart of grace, without any other plenty, and to keep the plough in the hands of the owners, arms but those of love." Then see his magnificent dis

or at least usefruciuary, and not hirelings and mercenaries, course on Friendship in his polemical discourses. “Chris- and thus a country shall merit that character whereby Virgil nian charity is friendship to all the world, and when friend-expresses ancient Italy, ships were the noblest things in the world, charity was little,

“ Terra potens armis, atque ubere gleba." like the sun drawn in at a chink, or his beams drawn into Neither is that state which is almost peculiar to England, the centre of a burning-glass; but Christian charity is friend and for anything I know, hardly to be found anywhere else, ship expanded, like the face of the sun when it mounts above except it be perhaps in Poland, to be passed over, I mean the

1 1

state of free servants and attendants upon noblemen and selfe is not good often, and there is but one case, wherein a gentlemen; of which sort even they of inferior condition, do man may commend himselfe with good grace, and that is in not ways yield unto the yeomanry, for infantry. And there- commending vertue in another, especially if it be such a verfore out of all question the magnificence and ihat hospitable tue, as wherevnto himselfe pretendeth. Discretion of speech splendour, the household servants, and great retinues of is more than eloquence, and to speake agreeably to him, with noblemen and gentlemen, received into custom in England, whom we deale is more than to speake in good words or in doth much conduce unto martial greatness ; whereas on the good order. A good continued speech without a good speech other side, the close, reserved and contracted living of noble- of interlocution sheweth slownesse: and a good reply or men, causeth a penury of military forces."

second speech without a good set speech sheweth shallowlle is silent upon ibis subject in the Advancement of ness and weaknesse, as we see in beasts, that those that are Learning, for a reason thus stated. “Considering that I weakest in the course are yet nimblest in the turne. To vse write to a king that is master of this science, and is so well too many circumstances ere one come to the matter is weaassisted, I think it decent to pass over this part in silence, as risome, to vse none at al is blunt. willing to obtain the certificate which one of the ancient philosophers aspired unto; who being silent, when others

OF CEREMONIES AND RESPECTS. contended to make demonstration of their abilities by speech, He that is onely reall had neede haue exceeding great parts desired it might be certified for his part, that there was one that knew how to hold his peace.'

of vertue, as the stone had neede be rich that is set without

But see the Essays foyle. But commonly it is in praise as it is in gaine. For as upon the "True Greatness of Kingdoms and States."

the prouerbe is true, " That light gaines make heauy purses," See Goldsmith's Deserted Village.

because they come thick, wheras great come but now and " A bold peasantry, their country's pride,

then, so it is as true that smal matters win great commendaWhen once destroyed can never be supplied, " &c.

tion: because they are continually in vse and in nole, Note I.

whereas the occasion of anye great vertue commeth but on

holie daies. To attaine good forines, it sufficeth not to dispise Referring to page 24.

them, for so shal a man observe them in others, and let him See, in this volume, page 70.

trust himselfe with the rest, for if he care to expresse thein See also in the preface, ante, p. 6, under observations upon hee shall leese their grace, which is to be natural and vnafMeditationes Sacræ.

fected. Some mens behaviour is like a verse wherin euery

sillable is measured. How can a man comprehend great NOTE K

matters that breaketh his mind too much to sinal) obseruaReferring to the letter prefired, page 62.

tions? Not to vse Ceremonies at all, is to teach others not “Sir,-Finding during parliament a willingness in you to

to vse them againe, and so diminish his respeet, especially conferre with me in this great service concerning the Union, they be not to be omitted to strangers and strange natures. I doe now take hold thereof to excuse my boldness to desire Amongst a mans pieres a man shall be sure of familiarity, that now which you offred then for both ihe tyme as to lea- and therefore it is a good title to keep state: among a mans sure is more liberall and as to the service itself is more urgent inferiors one shal be sure of reuerence, and therefore it is whether it will like you to come to me to Graies In or to good a little to be familiar. He that is too much in anything, appoynt me whear to meete with you I am indifferent and

so that he give another occasion of satiety, maketh himselle leave it to your choise and accordingly desire to hear from cheape. To apply ones selfe to others is good, so it be with you, so I remain yr very loving friend,

F Bacon.

demonstration that a man doth it vpon regard, and not upon “Graies Inne this 8th of Sept. 1604.

facility. It is a good precept generally in seconding another: To Sir Robert Cotton."

yet to add somewhat of ones own, as if you will graunt his

opinion, let it be with some distinction. 'If you will follow NOTE L

his motion : let it be with condition: if you allow his counReferring to preface, page 2.

sell, let it be with alleadging further reason. OF STUDIES.

OF FOLLOWERS AND FRIENDS. Studies serue for pastimes, for ornaments, and for abilities. Costly followers are not to be liked, least while a man Their chiefe vse for pastime is in priuatenesse and relyring: maketh his trayne longer, he make his wings shorter: I for ornament is in discourse, and for ability is in iudgement. reckon to be costly not them alone which charge the purse, Por expert men can execute, but learned men are fillest to but which are wearisome and importune in sutes. Ordinary judge or censure.

following ought to challenge no higher conditions then counTo spend too much time in them is sloth, to vse them too tenance, recommendation and protection from wrong. much for ornament is affectation : to make iudgement wholly Factious followers are worse to be liked, which follow not by their rules, is the humor of a Scholler.They perfect vpon affection to him with whom they range themselues, but Nature, and are perfected by experience. Crafty men con- vpon discontentment conceiued against some other, whertemne them, simple men admire them, and wise-men vse vpon commonly insueth that ill intelligence that wee many them; for they teach not their owne vse, but that is a wise- times see between great personages. The following by cer. dome without them: and aboue them wonne by observation. tain States answerable to that which a great person himself Read not to contradict, nor to eeue, but to weigh and con- professeth, as of souldiers to him that haih been emploiert in sider. Some books are to be tasted, others to be swallowed, ine wars, and the like hath euer beene a thing ciuil and wel and some few to be chewed and disgested. That is, some taken euen in Monarchies, so it bee without too much pompe bookes are to be read only in parts : others to be read but or popularity. But the most honorable kind of following is cursorily, and some fewe to be read wholy and with dilligence to be followed, as one that apprehendeth to aduance vertue and atention. Reading maketh a ful man, conference a ready and desert in all sorts of persons, and yet wher there is no man, and writing an exact man. And therfore if a man write eminent oddes in sufficiency, it is better to take with the huile, he had need haue a great memory: if he confer little, more passable then with the more able. In gouernment it is haue a present wit, and if he read liule, hee had need haue good to vse men of one rancke equally, for 10 countenance much cunning, to seeme to know that he doth not. Histories some extraordinarily, is to make them insolent, and the rest make men wise, Poets witty, the Mathematiks subtill, natu- discontent, because they may claime a due. But in fauours ral philosophy deep, Morall graue, Logick and Rhetoricke, to vse inen with much difference and election is good, for it able to coniend.

maketh the persons preferred more thankful, and the rest

more officious, because all is of fanour. It is good not to OF DISCOURSE.

make too much of any man at first because one cannot hold Some in their discourse desire rather commendation of wit out that proportion. To be gouerned by one is not good, and in being able to hold all arguments, then of judgement in dig- to be distracted with many is worse: but to take aduice of cerning what is true, as if it were a praise to know what friends is ever honorable : “ For lookers on many times seo might be said, and not what shold be thought. Some haue more then gamesters, and the vale best discouereth the hill." certain common-places and Theames wherein they are good, There is little friendship in the world, and least of al between and want variety, which kind of pouerty is for the most part equals, which was wont to bee magnified. That that is, is tedious, and now and then ridiculous. The honorablest part between superior and inferiour, whose fortunes may comof talke is to giue the occasion, and againe to moderate and prehend the one the other. passe to somewhat else. It good to vary and mixe speech

OF SUTORS. of the presept occasion with argument, tales with reasons, asking of questions, with telling of opinions, and iest with Many ill matters are vndertaken, and mange good matters earnest. But some things are priuiledged from iest, namely with ili mindes. Some embrace Sutes which neuer meane religion, matters of state, great persons, any mans present to deale effectually in them. But if they see there may be businesse of importance, and any case that deserueth pitty. life in the matter by some other meane, they will be content He ebat questioneth much shall learne much, and content to win a thanke, or take a second reward. Some take hold much, specially if he apply his questions to the skill of the of sutes only for an occasion to crosse some other, or to make person of whom he asketh, for he shal giue them occasion to an information, whereof ihey could not otherwise haue an please themselues in speaking, and himselfe shall continually apt pretext, without care what become of the sute, when gather knowledge. If you dissemble sometimes your know that turn is serued. Nay some vndertake sutes with a ful ledg of that you are thought to know, you shall bee thought purpose to let them fal, to the end to gratifie the adverse another time to know that you know not. Speech of a mans party or competitor. Surely

there is in sort a right in euery VOL. 1.-9

F2

sute, either a rignt of equity, if it be a sute of controuersie: I hath not been attempted before, or attempted and giuen oner, or a right of desert, if it be a sute of petition. If affection or hath been aichined, but not with so good circumstance, lead a man to fauour the wrong side in iustice, let him rather hee shall purchase more honor, then by effecting a matter of yse his countenance to compound the matter then to carry greater difficulty or vertue, wherin he is but a follower. If it. If affection lead a man to fauour the lesse worthy in a man so femper his actions as in some one of them he do desert, let him do it witliout deprauing or disabling the better content euery faction or combination of people, the Mysicke deseruer. In sutes a man doth not well vnderstand, it is will be the fuller. A man is an ill husband of his honor that good to refer them to some friend of trust and judgment, entreth into any action the failing wherin may disgrace ihat may report whether he may deale in them with honor. him more, then the carrying of it ihrough can honor him. Sutors are so distasted with deläies and abuses, that plaine Discreet followers help much to reputation. Envy which is dealing in denying to deale in sutes at first, and reporting the the canker of honor is best extinguished by declaring a mans successe barely, and in challenging no more thanks ihen selle in his endes, rather 10 secke merite ihan fame and by one haih deserued, is growen not only honorable, but also attributing a mans successes rather to deuine prouidence gratious. In sules of fauor the first coming ought to take and felicity, then to his vertue or policy: little place, so far forth consideration may be had of his trust, The true Marshaling of the degrees of Soueraigne Honour that if intelligence of the mater could not otherwise haue are these. In the first place are “ Conditores," founders of been had but by him, aduantage be not taken of the note. states. In the second place are “ Legislatores," Law-giuers, To be ignorant of the value of a sute is simplicity, as wel as which are also called second founders, or “Perpetui princito be ignorant of the right thereof is want of conscience. pes," because they gouern by their ordinances after they are Secrecy in sutes is a great mean of obtaining, for voycing gone. In the third place are Liberatores, such as compounde them to bee in forwardnesse may discourage some kind of the long miseries of ciuil wars, or deliver their countries kutors, but doeth quicken and awake others. But tyming of from servitude of strangers or tyrants. In the fourth place The suites is the principall

, tyming I say not onely in respect are "propagatores," or " propugnatores imperii,” such as in of the person that should graunt it, but in respect of those honorable wars inlarge their territories, or make Noble dewhich are like to crosse it. Nothing is thought so easie fence against inuaders. And in the last place are “ Patres a request to a great person as his letter, and yet if it patriæ," which raigne justly, and make the times good be noi in a good cause, it is so much out of his reputa- wherein they liue. Degrees of honour in subiectes are first tion.

"Participes curarum,'' those upon whom princes do discharge

the greatest weight of their affaires, their Right hands (as OF EXPENCE.

we call them.) The next are “Duces belli," great leaders, Riches are for spending, and spending for honour and good such as are Princes Lieutenantes, and do them notable seractions. Therefore extraordinary expence must bee limited vices in the warres. The third are “Gratiosi," fauorites, by the worth of the ocasion, for voluntary vndoing may be such as exceed not this scantling to be solace to the Soveas well for a mans country as for the kingdome of heaven, raigne, and harmles to the people. And the fourth“ Negotys but ordinary expence ought to be limited by a man's estate, pares,” such as have great place vnder Princes, and execute and gouerned with such regard as it be within his compasse iheir places with sufficiency. and not subicct to deceite and abuse of seruants, and ordered to the best shiew, that the billes may be lesse ilian the esti

OF FACTION mation abroad. It is no basenesse for the greatest to discend Many have a newe wisedome indeed, a fond opinion: and looke into their owne estate. Some forbeare it not vpon That for a prince to gouerne his estate, or for a great person negligence alone, but doubting to bring themselues into me

to govern his proceedings according to the respects of Faclancholy in respect they shall tind it broken. “But wounds tions, is the principall part of policy: Whereas contrariwise, cannot bee cured without searching."

the chiefest wisedome is eyther in ordering these things lle that cannot looke into his own estate, had need both which are generall, and wherin men of several factions do chuse wel those whom he employetli, yea and change then neuertheles agree, or in dealing with correspondence to paroften. For newe are more timerous and lesse subtle. In ticular persons one by one. But I say not that the consideraclearing of a mans estate he may as well hurt himselfe in tion of Factions is to be neglected Meane men must adheare, being too suddaine, as in letting it run on too long, for hasty but great men that have strength in themselues were better selling is commonly as disaduantagable as interest. He that to maintaine themselves indifferent and neutral, yet euen bathi a state to repaire may not dispise smal things: and in beginners to adheare so moderately, as hee be a man of comonly it is lesse dishonorable to abridge petty charges then the one faction, which is passablest with the other, commonly 10 stoupe to pellye gettinges. A man ought warily to begin giveth best way. The lower and weaker faction is the firmer charges, which once begunne must continue. But in mallers in conjunction. When one of the factions is extinguished, that returne not, he may bee more magnificent.

the remaining subdiuideth, which is good for a second. It is

commonly secne, that mien once placed, take in with the conOF REGIMENT OF HEALTH.

frary faction to that by which ihey enter. "The Traitor in There is a wisedome in this beyond the rules of physicke. factions lightly goeth away with it, for when matters have A manis own obseruation what hec findes good of, and what stuck long in ballancing, the winning of some one man casthe findes hurt of, is the best Physicke to preserve health. eth them, and he getteth al ihe thanks. But it is a saler conclusion to say, This agreeth not well with me, therefore I will not continue it, then this, I finde

OF NEGOCIATING. no offence of this, therefore I may vse it. For strength of It is generally better to deale by speech then by letter, and nature in youth passeth ouer many excesses, which are by the mediation of a third then by a mans selte. Leiters owing a man till his age. Discerne of the comming on of

are good when a man would draw an aunswere by Leller years, and thinke not to doe the same things still. Beware backe againe, or when it may serne for a mans justification of any suddaine change in any great point of diet, and if afterwards to produce his owne Letter. To deale in person necessity inforce it, fit the rest to it. To be free minded and is good when a mans face breedes regard, as commonly with clicarefully disposed at houres of meate, and of sleepe, and inferiors. In choyce of instrumentes it is beller to chuse of exercise, is the best precept of long lasting. If you fly men of a playner sort that are like to doe that that is complıysicke in health altogeiher, it will bee too strange to your mitted to them, and to report backe againe faithfully the bedy when you shall need it. If you make it too familiar it

successe, then those that are cunning to contriue out of wil work no extraordinary effeci when sicknes commeth. other men's busines somewhat to grace themselues, and will Despise no new accident in the body but aske opinion of it. help the master in reporte for satisfactions sake. In sicknesse respect health principally, and in health action.

It is better to sounde a person with whom one deales a far For those that put their bodyes to endure in health, may in off, then to fall vpon the point at first, except you mean to most sicknesses which are not very sharpe, be cured onely surprise him by some short question. It is better dealing with diet and tendring. Physitians are some of them so with men in appetite then with those which are whefe tlity pleasing and comfortable to the humours of the patient, as would be. lfaman deale with another vpon conditions, the they presse not the true cure of the disease: and some other start or first performance is al, which a man cannot reasonare so regular in proceeding according to art, for the disease, alily demaund, except either the nature of the thing be such as they respect not sufficiently the condition of the patient which must go before, or else a man can perswade the other Take one of a middle temper, or if it may not be found in one party that he shal stil need him in some other thing, or els man, compound two of both sortes, and forget not to call as inat he be counted the honester man. All practise is to diswell the best acquainted with your body, as the best reputed couer or to worke: men discouer themselves in trust, in of for his facully.

passion, at vnwares, and of necessity, when they would

haue somewhat done, and cannot finde an apt pretext. If OF HONOUR AND REPUTATION.

you would work any man, you must eyther know his nature The winning of honor is but the reuealing of a man's ver- and fashions, and so lead him; or his endes, and so win him; rue and worth without disadvantage, for some in their actions or his weaknesse or disaduantages, and so awe him, or the se doe affect honour and reputation, which sorte of men are that haue interest in him, and so gouerne hii. In dealing commonly much talked of, but inwardly litle admired : and with cunning persons wee must euer consider their ends to some darken their vertue in the shew' of it, so as they be interpret their speeches, and it is good to say little to them, vnder-valued in opinion. If a man performe tha: which I and that which ihey least looke for.

MEDITATIONES SACRÆ.

OF THE WORKS OF GOD AND MAN.

eth these things; sustenance, defence from out

ward wrongs, and medicine; it was he that drew God beheld all things which his hands had a multitude of fishes into the nets, that he might made, and lo they were all passing good. But give unto men more liberal provision: He turned when man turned him about, and took a view of water, a less worthy nourishment of man's body, the works which his hands had made, he found into wine, a more worthy, that glads the heart of all to be vanity and vexation of spirit: wherefore, man: He sentenced the fig-tree to wither for not if thou shalt work in the works of God, thy sweat doing that duty whereunto it was ordained, which shall be as an ointment of odours, and thy rest as is, to bear fruit for men's food : He multiplied the the sabbath of God: thou shalt travail in the scarcity of a few loaves and fishes to a sufficiency sweat of a good conscience, and shalt keep holy to victual an host of people: He rebuked the day in the quietness and liberty of the sweetest winds that threatened destruction to the seafaring contemplations; but if thou shalt aspire after the men: He restored motion to the lame, light to the glorious acts of men, thy working shall be accom- blind, speech to the dumb, health to the sick, panied with compunction and strife, and thy re- cleanness to the leprous, a right mind to those membrance followed with distaste and upbraid that were possessed, and life to the dead. No ings; and justly doth it come to pass towards miracle of his is to be found to have been of judgthee, O man, that since thou, which art God's ment or revenge, but all of goodness and mercy, work, doest him no reason in yielding him well- and respecting man's body; for as touching riches pleasing service, even thine own works also he did not vouchsafe to do any miracle, save one should reward thee with the like fruit of bitterness. only, that tribute might be given to Cæsar.

OF THE MIRACLES OF OUR SAVIOUR. OF THE INNOCENCY OF THE DOVE, “He hath done all things well."

AND THE WISDOM OF THE SERPENT. A TRUE confession and applause. God when “The fool receiveth not the word of wisdom, except thou dishe created all things saw that every thing in par

cover to him what he hath in his heart." ticular and all things in general were exceeding To a man of a perverse and corrupt judgment good; God, the Word, in the miracles which he all instruction or persuasion is fruitless and conwrought, (now every miracle is a new creation, temptible, which begins not with discovery and and not according to the first creation,) would do laying open of the distemper and ill complexion nothing which breathed not towards men favour of the mind which is to be recured, as a plaster is and bounty: Moses wrought miracles, and unseasonably applied before the wound be searchscourged the Egyptians with many plagues : ed; for men of corrupt understanding, that have Elias wrought miracles, and shut up heaven, that lost all sound discerning of good and evil, come no rain should fall upon the earth; and again possest with this prejudicate opinion, that they brought down from heaven the fire of God upon think all honesty and goodness proceedeth out of the captains and their bands: Elizeus wrought a simplicity of manners, and a kind of want of also, and called bears out of the desert to devour experience and unacquaintance with the affairs of young children: Peter struck Ananias, the sacri- the world. Therefore, except they may perceive legious hypocrite, with present death; and Paul, that those things which are in their hearts, that Elymas, the sorcerer, with blindness; but no is to say, their own corrupt principles, and the such thing did Jesus, the Spirit of God descended deepest reaches of their cunning and rottenness down upon him in the form of a dove, of whom to be thoroughly sounded, and known to him that he said, “You know not of what spirit you are.” goes about to persuade with them, they make but The spirit of Jesus is the spirit of a dove; those a play of the words of wisdom. Therefore it servants of God were as the oxen of God treading behoveth him which aspireth to a goodness (not out the corn, and trampling the straw down under retired or particular to himself, but a fructifying their feet; but Jesus is the Lamb of God, without and begetting goodness which should draw on wrath or judgments all his miracles were con- others) to know those points, which be called in summate about man's body, as his doctrine re- the Revelation the deeps of Satan, that he may spected the soul of man: the body of man need- I speak with authority and true insinuation. Hence

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is the precept, “ Try all things, and hold that not to-morrow's men, considering the shortness of which is good;" which endureth a discerning our time; and as he saith, “ Laying hold on the election out of an examination whence nothing at present day;" for future things shall in their turns all is excluded : out of the same fountain ariseth become presents, therefore the care of the present that direction, “Be you wise as serpents and sufficeth : and yet moderate cares (whether they innocent as doves.” There are neither teeth nor concern our particular, or the commonwealth, or stings, nor venom, nor wreaths and folds of ser- our friends) are not blamed. But herein is a twopents, which ought not to be all known, and, as fold excess; the one when the chain or thread of far as examination doth lead, tried: neither let our cares, extended and spun out to an over great any man here fear infection or pollution, for the length, and unto times too far off, as if we could sun entereth into sinks and is not defiled; neither bind the divine providence by our provisions, let any man think that herein he tempteth God, which even with the heathen, was always found for his diligence and generality of examination is to be a thing insolent and unlucky; for those commanded, and God is sufficient to preserve you which did attribute much to fortune, and were immaculate and pure.

ready at hand to apprehend with alacrity the present occasions, have for the most part in their ac

tions been happy; but they who in a compass, OF THE EXALTATION OF CHARITY.

wisdom, have entered into a confidence that they "If I have rejoiced at the overthrow of him that hated me, had belayed all events, have for the most part enor took pleasure when adversity did befall him."

countered misfortune. The second excess is, The detestation or renouncing of Job. For a when we dwell longer in our cares than is requiman to love again where he is loved, it is the site for due deliberating or firm resolving; for charity of publicans contracted by mutual profit who is there amongst us that careth no more than and good offices; but to love a man's enemies is sufficeth either to resolve of a course or to conclude one of the cunningest points of the law of Christ, upon an impossibility, and doth not still chew over and an imitation of the divine nature. But yet the same things, and tread a maze in the same again, of this charity there be divers degrees; thoughts, and vanisheth in them without issue or whereof the first is, to pardon our enemies when conclusion : which kind of cares are most contrary they repent: of which charity there is a shadow to all divine and human respects. and image, even in noble beasts; for of lions, it is a received opinion that their fury and fierceness ceaseth towards any thing that yieldeth and pros

OF EARTHLY HOPE. trateth itself. The second degree is, to pardon our “Better is the sight of the eye, than the apprehension of cnemies, though they persist, and without satis

the mind.” factions and submissions. The third degree is, Pure sense receiving every thing according to not only to pardon and forgive, and forbear our the natural impression, makes a better state and enemies, but to deserve well of them, and to do government of the mind, than these same imagithem good : but all these three degrees either have nations and apprehensions of the mind; for the or may have in them a certain bravery and great- mind of man hath this nature and property even in ness of the mind rather than pure charity; for the gravest and most settled wits, that from the when a man perceiveth virtue to proceed and flow sense of every particular, it doth as it were bound from himself, it is possible that he is puffed up and and spring forward, and take hold of other matters, takes contentment rather in the fruit of his own foretelling unto itself that all shall prove like unto virtue than in the good of his neighbours; but if that which beateth upon the present sense; if the any evil overtake the enemy from any other coast sense be of good, it easily runs into an unlimited than from thyself, and thou in the inwardest mo- hope, and into a like fear, when the sense is of tions of thy heart be grieved and compassionate, evil, according as is said and dost noways insult, as if thy days of right “ The oracles of hopes doth of abuse." and revenge were at the last come; this I And that contrary, interpret to be the height and exaltation of “ A froward soothsayer is fear in doubts." charity.

But yet of fear there may be made some use;

for it prepareth patience and awaketh industry, OF THE MODERATION OF CARES.

“No shape of ill, comes new or strange to me,

All sorts set down, yea, and prepared be.” “Sufficient for the day is the evil thereof."

But hope seemeth a thing altogether unprofitThere ought to be a measure in worldly cares, able; for to what end serveth this conceit of good. otherwise they are both unprofitable, as those Consider and note a little if the good fall out less which oppress the mind and astonish the judgment, than thou hopest; good though it be, yet less beand profane, as those which savour of a mind which cause it is, it seemeth rather loss than benefit promiseth to itself a certain perpetuity in the things through thy excess of hope; if the good prove of this world; for we ought to be day's men and equal and proportionable in event to thy hope, yet

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