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Such are specimens, mere specimens, of this 4. RESEMBLANCES AND DIFFERENCES.
most valuable of all his works, and by him Observe resemblances between apparent differences. most highly valued. It is written in a plain, un-Are not gums of trees and gems produced in adorned style, in aphorisms, invariably stated by the same manner, both of them being only exu-him to be the proper style for philosophy, which, dations and percolations of juices: gums being the conscious of its own power, ought to go forth transuded juices of trees, and gems of stones; “naked and unarmed ;" but, from the want of whence the clearness and transparency of them symmetry and ornament, from its abstruseness, both are produced by means of a curious and ex- from the novelty of its terms, and from the imperquisite percolation !–Are not the hairs of beasts fect state in which it was published, it has, aland the feathers of birds produced in the same though the most valuable, hitherto been too much manner, by the percolation of juices ? and are not neglected : but it will not so continue. The time the colours of feathers more beautiful and vivid, has arrived, or is fast approaching, when the because the juices are more subtilely strained pleasures of intellectual pursuit will have so through the substance of the quill in birds than deeply pervaded society, that they will, to a conthrough the skins of beasts? Do not the celes- siderable extent, form the pleasures of our youth; tial bodies move in their orbits by the same laws and the lamentation in the Advancement of Learnwhich govern the motions of the bodies terres- ing will be diminished or pass away : “ Nevertrial.
theless, I do not pretend, and I know it will be From the conformity between a speculum and impossible for me, by any pleading of mine, to the eye, the structure of the ear and of the cavernous reverse the judgment, either of Æsop's cock, that places that yield an echo, it is easy to form and preferred the barley-corn before the gem; or of collect this axiom,—that the organs of the senses, Midas, that, being chosen judge between Apollo, and the bodies that procure reflections to the president of the muses, and Pan, god of the fiocks; senses, are of a like nature. And, again, the un- judged for plenty; or of Paris, that judged for
а derstanding being thus admonished, easily rises beauty and love, against wisdom and power; or to a still higher and more noble axiom; viz., of Agrippina, occidat matrem modo imperet,' that there is no difference between the consents that preferred empire with any condition, never so and sympathies of bodies endowed with sense, detestable; or of Ulysses, qui vetulam prætulit and those of inanimate bodies without sense, immortalitati,' being a figure of those which only that in the former an animal spirit is added prefer custom and habit before all excellency; or to the body so disposed, but is wanting to the of a number of the like popular judgments. For latter; whence, as many conformities as there are these things must continue as they have been: among inanimate bodies, so many senses there but so will that also continue, whereupon learnmight be in animals, provided there were organsing hath ever relied, and which faileth not: or perforations in the animal body, for the animal.justificata est sapientia a filiis suis.'”
the king, the
a proper instrument. And, conversely, as many University of Cambridge, Sir Henry Wotton, and senses as there are in animals, so many motions Sir Edward Coke. there may be in bodies inanimate, where the ani- The tranquil pursuits of philosophy he was mal spirit is wanting ; though there must, of ne- now,(1620,) for a time, obliged to quit, to allay, if cessity, he many more motions in inanimate bo- | possible, the political storm in which the state dies than there are senses in animate bodies, he- was involved, and which he vainly thought that cause of the small number of the organs of sense. he had the power to calm. It is scarcely possible
Real differences in apparent resemblances.-Do for any chancellor to have been placed in a situaany two beings differ more from each other than tion of greater difficulty. He knew the work two human beings ? Men's curiosity and diligence that must be done, and the nature of his materials. have been hitherto principally employed in ob- The king, who was utterly dependent upon the serving the variety of things, and explaining the people, was every day resorting to expedients precise differences of animals, vegetables, and which widened the breach between them : despotic fossils, the greatest part of which variety and dif- without dignity, and profuse without magnififerences are rather the sport of nature, than mat-cence, meanly grasping, and idly scattering ters of any considerable and solid use to the neither winning their love, nor commanding their sciences. Such things, indeed, serve for delight, reverence, he seemed in all things the reverse of and sometimes contribute to practice, but afford his illustrious predecessor, exceptin what could be little or no true information, or thorough insight well spared, the arbitrary spirit common to them into nature; human industry, therefore, must be both. While the people were harassed and pilbent upon inquiring into, and observing the simi- laged by the wretches to whom the king had delitudes and analogies of things, as well in their legated his authority, he reaped only part of the wholes as in their parts; for these are what spoil, but all the odium. anite nature, and begin to build up the sciences. The chancellor had repeatedly assured the king that his best interests, which consisted in a good punity. Truth, the daughter of time, not of auunderstanding with his subjects, could be main- thority, is constantly warning the community in tained only by calling frequent parliaments : ad- what their interests consist, and that to protect, vice not likely to be acceptable to a monarch who not to encroach upon these interests, all governhad issued a proclamation, commanding all his ments are formed. people, from the highest to the lowest, “not to Upon the opening of parliament the king adintermeddle, by pen or speech, with state concern- dressed the Commons. He stated his opinion of ments and secrets of empire, at home or abroad, their relative duties: that he was to distribute which were not fit themes for common meetings justice and mercy; and they, without meddling or vulgar persons;" but, whatever their secret with his prerogative, were by petition to acquaint dissatisfaction might be, the whole body of the him with their distresses, and were to supply his nation manifested so much zeal for the recovery pecuniary wants. of the palatinate, that the juncture was deemed At first there appeared nothing but duty and favourable for relieving the king's pecuniary dif- submission on the part of the Commons. Deterficulties, who consented with this view to sum- mined, if possible, to maintain a good correspondmon a parliament.
ence with their prince, they without one dissenting This resolution was no sooner formed, than the voice voted him two subsidies, and that too at the chancellor was instructed to confer with the most very beginning of the session, contrary to the proper persons as to the best means of carrying maxims frequently adopted by former parliaments. it into effect; and he accordingly availed himself They then proceeded, in a very temperate and of the assistance of the two chief justices, and of decided manner, to the examination of their opSerjeant Crew, who, after mature deliberation, pressions, intimating that the supply of the king's agreed upon four points, which were immediately distresses and the removal of their vexations were communicated to his majesty and to Buckingham. to advance hand in hand without precedency, as
Different days were fixed for the meeting of twin brothers. this eventful parliament, which was called with Of their grievances the Commons loudly and a full knowledge of the king's motive for sum- justly complained. Under the pretext of granting moning them; and that, had not the expedient patents, the creatures of Buckingham had raparespecting benevolence wholly failed, this council ciously exacted large fees. These exactions can of the nation would never have been assembled; scarcely be credited. There were patents for as the king considered the Commons " daring en- every necessary and convenience of life; for gold croachers upon his prerogative; endeavouring to and silver thread; for inns and ale-houses; for make themselves greater, and their prince less, remitting the penalties of obsolete laws, and even than became either."
for the price of horse-meat, starch, candles, toPrevious to the meeting, the lord chancellor bacco-pipes, salt, and train-oil; and such traders was raised to the dignity of Viscount St. Alban, by as presumed to continue their business without a patent which stated that the king had conferred satisfying the rapacity of the patentees, had been this title because he thought nothing could adorn severely punished by vexatious prosecutions, fine, his government more or afford greater encourage- and imprisonment. The outeries of the subject ment to virtue and public spirit, than the rais- were incessant.“ Monopolies and briberies were ing worthy persons to honour; and with this new beaten upon the anvil every day, almost every dignity, he, on the 27th day of January, was with hour.” The complaints were so numerous that great ceremony invested at Theobalds, the patent not less than eighty committees to redress abuses being witnessed by the most illustrious peers of in the church, in the courts of law, and in every dethe realm, the Lord Carew carrying, and the partment of the state, were immediately nominated. Marquess of Buckingham supporting the robe of From the mass of evils under consideration, the state before him, while his coronet was borne by House first directed its attention to the three great the Lord Wentworth. The new viscount return- patents, of inns, of ale-houses, and of gold and ed solemn thanks to the king for the many fa- silver thread. The chief actors were Sir Giles vours bestowed upon him.
Mompesson, a man of property, and a member of The thirtieth of January, an ominous day to the house, and Sir Francis Michell, his tool, a the family of the Stuarts, was at last fixed for the poor justice, who received annually £100 for issuking to meet his people, writhing as they were ing warrants to enforce his tyranny. Ine rage for under the intolerable grievances by which they punishment was not confined to Mompesson and were oppressed; grievances which, notwithstand Michell. Sir Henry Yelverton, the attorneying tre warnings and admonitions addressed to the general, who had incurred the displeasure of king when he ascended the throne, had most cul- Buckingham, was prosecuted and severely punishpably increased. Power, not only tenacious in ed, for some irregularity respecting a patent for a retaining its authority, but ever prone to increase charter for the city of London. its exactions, may disregard the progress of It appeared before a committee of the house, knowledge, but it is never disregarded with im- that the p.ofits from these patents were shared by
all classes of society who were connected with in matters of such moment, Buckingham should Buckingham. Amongst the patentees were the apply for counsel to Williams rather than to Lord Harrington and the Countess of Bedford. Bacon, by whose advice he professed to be alChristopher Villiers, and Sir Edward Villiers, ways guided : it is, however, certain that he not half-brother of the lord marquis, received £1,800 only communicated privately with Williams, but annually between them; and from one single that he carried him to the king, whom they found patent the king's annual profit was £10,000. closeted with the prince, in much distress and
These rumours reached and alarmed the king, perplexity, when the dean read to his royal who instantly caused a communication to be made master a document prepared at the suggestion to the lords, that the patent was sanctioned by of Buckingham, or the fruit of his own politic divers of the judges for the point of law, and by brain. divers lords for point of convenience.
It is to be hoped that the fiend ambition did not Reform was now the universal cry of the na- so far possess him, as to recommend the greater tion. It was one of those periodical outcries, sacrifice of Bacon, should Mompesson and Michell which ever has been and ever will be heard in be deemed insufficient to allay the storm ; but if England, till, by admitting the gradual improve ambition did influence this politic prelate, if the ment which the progress of knowledge requires, vision of the seals floated before him, and induced the current, instead of being opposed, is judi- him to plot against the “ gracious Duncan," he ciously directed. The streams which for cen- could not but foresee that the result of the inturies roll on, and for centuries are impeded, at quiries would only convince the parliament that last break down or rush over the barriers and Mompesson and Michell were mere puppets carry every thing before them. When in this moved for the profit and advantage of others, and deluge the ark itself is in danger, the patriot en- that Buckingham, or one as highly placed, might deavours to confine the torrent within its proper be demanded. banks, and to resist or direct its impetuosity, On the 15th of March, 1620, Sir Robert while the demagogue joins in the popular clamour, Phillips reported from the committee appointed to visiting on individuals the faults of the times, and inquire into the abuses of courts of justice, of sacrificing, as an atonement to injured feeling, which he was chairman, that two petitions had the most virtuous members of the community, been presented for corruption against the lord
When the complaints of the people could no chancellor, by two suitors in the court of chanlonger be resisted, and public inquiry becaine cery, the one named Aubrey, the other Egerton. inevitable, Buckingham, insensible to all other Aubrey's petition stated, " That having a suit shame, appeared fully conscious of the infamy pending before the lord chancellor, and being of exposure. The honour of a gentleman and the worn out by delays, he had been advised by his pride of nobility slept at ease upon the money- counsel to present £100 to the chancellor, that bags extorted from the sufferers, but he and his his cause might, by more than ordinary means, noble colleagues endured the utmost alarm at the be expedited, and that in consequence of this prospect of discovery.
advice he had delivered the £100 to Sir George Conscious of his peril, disquieted, and robbed Hastings and to Mr. Jenkins, of Gray's Inn, by of all peace of mind, admonished « That the. whom it was presented to his lordship; but notarrow of vengeance shot against his brother withstanding this offering, the chancellor had degrazed himself,” he consulted one of the ablest cided against him." men in England, Williams, then Dean of West- Egerton's complaint was, that « To procure my minster, who, well versed in matters of state, lord's favour, he had been persuaded by Sir soon saw the position in which all parties were George Hastings and Sir Richard Young, to make placed. He recommended that Villiers should, some present to the chancellor; and that he acwithout a moment's delay, be sent upon some cordingly delivered to Sir George and to Sir foreign embassy ; and, his guilt being less enor- Richard £400, which was delivered by them to mous or less apparent than of the other offenders, the chancellor as a gratuity, for that my lord, he was thus protected by the power of his brother. when attorney-general, had befriended him: and Villiers being safe, Williams advised compliance that, before this advice, Egerton had himself, with the humour of the people, and suggested either before or after the chancellor was intrusted that in this state tempest Sir Giles Mompesson with the great seal, presented to his lordship a and Sir F. Michell “ should be thrown overboard piece of plate worth fifty guineas; but that, notas wares that might be spared," quoting a wise withstanding these presents, the lord chancellor, heathen as a precedent, well knowing that his assisted by Lord Chief Justice Hobart, had debreviary contained no such doctrine : advice cided against him. which was gratefully received by the marquis, If Bacon, instead of treating the charge with who declared that, for the future, he would attend contempt, and indulging in imaginations of the to no other counsellor.
friendship of Buckingham and of the king, thinkIt may, at first sight, appear remarkable, that, ling, as they were, only of their own safety, had
trusted to his own powerful mind, and met the of Greece; in all feudal states; in France, accusation instantly and with vigour, he might at where the suitors always presented the judge once, strong as the tide was against all authority, with some offering, in conformity with their eshave stemmed the torrent, and satisfied the intel- tablished maxim, “ Non deliberetur, donec solventur ligent, that the fault was not in the chancellor, species ;” and in England, from time immemorial. but the chancery.
It existed before the time of King John, and durMight he not have reminded the house that, ing his reign; and notwithstanding the rights although he knew the temporary power of custom secured at Runnymede, it has ever continued. against opinion, he, in resistance of the establish- | It existed in the reign of Henry the Fifth; and ed practice, had exerted himself to prevent any although, during the reign of Henry the Eighth, interference, even by Buckingham or the king, in Sir Thomas More declined to receive presents, the administration of justice, by which the im- his very power of declining proves that it was cuspartiality of the judges might be, or might appear tomary to offer them, and, in conformity with this to be disturbed.
practice, the usual presents were made to Lord Could he not have said that, both petitions Bacon within a few hours after he had accepted contained internal and unanswerable proof that the great seal, the only pecuniary compensation, it was not the corruption of the judge, but the except a very trifling salary, to which the lord fault of the times, in which the practice ori- keeper was entitled for labours never intended to ginated? Could he not have said that the be gratuitous. presents were made openly, in the presence of
What could have been said in answer to this witnesses?
statement, that the presents were made openly, How could these offerings have influenced his that the decision was against the party by whom judgment in favour of the donor, when, in both they were made, and that they were made by the cases, he decided against the party by whom the advice of counsel, and delivered by men of emipresents were made ? In the case of Aubrey, he, to nence, and sanctioned by immemorial practice in repeat the strong expressions which had been used, this and in all countries? made - a killing decree against him :" and, with Might he not have called upon the justice of respect to Egerton, the decision was in favour of the House for protection from the aspersions of his opponent, Rowland, who did not make any two discontented suitors, who had no more cause present until some weeks after the judgment was of complaint against him than Wraynham, by pronounced.
whom he was slandered, or Lord Clifford, by But, not contenting himself by thus showing whom he was threatened to be assassinated ? that the offerings were neither presented nor Might he not have called upon the house for proreceived as bribes, could he not have said, the tection against these calumnies at a time when the petitions both state that the presents were recom- excited people wished for some sacrifice, as a mended by counsel, and delivered by men of title tribute to public opinions, an atonement for public and members of parliament ? Did they then act wrongs, and a security for better times ? in compliance with long established practice, or The people are often censured for their selecwere they all bribed ? Were the practitioners in tion of a victim, but, where they contend for a this noble profession polluted by being accessory principle, they lose sight of the individual. It is to the worst species of bribery? Why, when the this dangerous indifference that enables bad men charge was made, did the recorder instantly say, to direct, for private ends, a popular tumult. The “ If Egerton desired to congratulate him at his Jewish people demanded merely their annual pricoming to the seal for his kindness and pains in vilege; it was the priests who said, “Save Barformer business, what wrong hath he done, if he rabas." hath received a present? And if there were a suit On the 17th of March the chancellor presided, depending, who keeps a register in his heart of all for the last time, in the House of Lords. The causes ? nay, who can, amongst such a mul- charges which he had at first treated with indiftitude ?"
ference, were daily increasing, and could no Could he not have said that the custom of the longer be disregarded. From the pinnacle on chancellor's receiving presents had existed from which he stood, he could see the storm gatherthe earliest periods ? that a member had reminded ing round him: old complaints were revived, and the house of its existence, and said, “I think the new accusations industriously collected ; and, chancellor took gratuities, and the lord chancellor though he had considered himself much beloved in before, and others before him? I have, amongst both houses of parliament, he felt that he had the muniments of my own estate, an entry of a secret enemies, and began to fear that he had false payment to a former chancellor of a sum for the friends. He resolved, therefore, to meet his pains he had taken in hearing our cause." accusers; but his health, always delicate, gave
This custom of judges receiving presents was way, and instead of being able to attend in not peculiar to England, but existed in the most person, he was obliged by writing to address the enlightened governments; in the different states House of Peers.
To the Right Honourable his very good Lords, which his lordship instantly acknowledged, with
the Lords Spiritual and Temporal in the Upper the expression of his intention to speak more fully House of Parliament assembled.
at a future time. My very good Lords,-I humbly pray your Thus resolved to defend himself, there was lordships all to make a favourable and true con- some communication between the chancellor and struction of my absence. It is no feigning or Buckingham; whether it was confined to the fainting, but sickness both of my heart and of favourite must be left to conjecture; but it appears my back, though joined with that comfort of mind to have had its full effect both upon him and upon that persuadeth me that I am not far from heaven, the king, who, seeing the untoward events which whereof I feel the first-fruits. And because, might yet occur from the discussions of this whether I live or die, I would be glad to preserve inquiring parliament, sent a message to the Commy honour and fame, so far as I am worthy, mons, expressing his comfort that the House was hearing that some complaints of base bribery are careful to preserve his honour; his wish that the coming before your lordships, my requests unto parliament should adjourn to the 10th of April; your lordships are:
and his assurance that the complaints against First, that you will maintain me in your good the lord chancellor should be carefully examined opinion, without prejudice, until my cause be heard. before a committee of six peers and twelve com
Secondly, that in regard I have sequestered my moners; a proposal not very acceptable to Sir mind at this time in great part from worldly Edward Coke, who thought it might defeat the matters, thinking of my account and answers in a parliamentary proceedings which he was so anxhigher court, your lordships will give me conve- ious to prosecute. nient time, according to the course of other courts, On the 20th, the Commons proceeded to the to advise with my counsel and to make my answer; examination of witnesses, and a further complaint wherein, nevertheless, my counsel's part will be was preferred in the cause of Wharton and Wil. the least; for I shall not, by the grace of God, | loughby, by the Lady Wharton, against whom the trick up an innocency with cavillations, but plainly chancellor had decided. It appeared that the and ingenuously (as your lordships know my man- presents were made openly at two several times, ner is) declare what I know or remember. with the knowledge and in the presence of wit
Thirdly, that, according to the course of jus- nesses. tice, I may be allowed to except to the witnesses The cry having been raised, the lowest membrought against me; and to move questions to bers of the profession, a common informer and a your lordships for their cross-examinations; and disgraced registrar were, with their crew, emlikewise to produce my own witnesses for the ployed in hunting for charges; and, so ready was discovery of the truth.
the community to listen to complaints, that it matAnd lastly, that if there be any more petitions of tered not by whom they were preferred ; “greatlike nature, that your lordships would be pleased ness was the mark, and accusation the game." not to take any prejudice or apprehension of any one of his many faithful friends, Sir Thomas number or muster of them, especially against a Meautys, rose to resist this virulence. He adjudge, that makes two thousand orders and decrees monished the House of the misstatements that in a year, (not to speak of the courses that have would be made by such accusers, men without been taken for hunting out complaints against me,) character, under the influence of motives which but that I may answer them according to the rules could not be misunderstood. “I have known," of justice, severally and respectively.
he said, “and observed his lordship for some These requests I hope appear to your lordships years : he hath sown a good seed of justice ; let not no other than just. And so thinking myself the abandoned and envious choke it with their happy to have so noble peers and reverend prelates tares.” He had as much prospect of success as if to discern of my cause; and desiring no privilege he had attempted to stop the progress of a volcano. of greatness for subterfuge of guiltiness, but mean- Additional charges, thus collected, and of the ing, as I said, to deal fairly and plainly with your same nature, were preferred against him. lordships, and to put myself upon your honours On the 26th of March, in conformity with the and favours, I pray God to bless your counsels advice given by Williams, sentence was passed and persons. And rest your lordships' humble upon Mompesson and Michell, many patents servant,
Fr. St. Alban, Canc. were recalled, and the king, after having addressMarch 19, 2620
ed the House, adjourned the parliament. This letter, which was delivered by Bucking- The king's speech abounded with that adroit ham, the Lords immediately answered, by assur- flattery to the House, which he so frequently ing the chancellor “ that the proceedings should practised when he had any thing to gain or any be according to the right rule of justice; that it thing to fear; he did not name the chancellor was the wish of the House that his lordship should directly, and, when he glanced at the charge of clear his honour from the different aspersions, and bribery, while he cautioned them not to be carpraying him to provide for his defence;" a courtesy ried away“ by the impertinent discourses of those