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predictions. So many extraordinary and improbable events, which have oc- | curred through so many ages, and in so many nations, as foretold in the Scriptures, could only have been made known by the Omniscient God himself; and must convince every rational mind, that 'the prophecy came not of old time by the will of man; but holy men of God spake as they were moved by the Holy Ghost.' 2 Pet. i. 20, 21.

9. The extraordinary success which has attended Christianity, which is founded on the Sacred Scriptures, while it proves the truth of the facts which they detail, and demonstrates the fulfilment of the prophecies they contain, is a continued miraculous proof of their divine origin. Other religions have owed their extension and prevalence to the celebrity of their founders, to the learning of their advocates, to their conformity to the prejudices and passions of men, to the energy of the secular arm, or even to the power of the sword; but Christianity was totally destitute of all these advantages. (if such they may be termed,) either to recommend or enforce its reception in the world. Its founder was put to an ignominious death by the common consent of his countrymen; its original promulgators were twelve illiterate meu, wholly devoid of every kind of worldly influence; its doctrines were opposed to the principles and practices of the whole world, deeply rooted by inclination, and firmly established by extensive custom, by long confirmed laws, and by the high and universal authority of nations. Yet, by the simple preaching of the Gospel, Christianity triumphed over the craft, rage, and power of the infuriated Jews,-over the haughtiness, policy, and power of the Roman empire,-over the pride of learning, and the obstinacy of ignorance, hatred, prejudice, and lust,-over the hardened inclinations, deep-rooted customs, and long-established laws of both Jews and Pagans, so that, notwithstanding every conceivable form of opposition, within a few years after Christ's ascension, it prevailed, in a greater or less degree, in almost every corner of the Roman empire, and in the countries adjacent; and multitudes, at the hazard of every temporal loss or punishment, readily believed, constantly adhered to, and cheerfully and strictly practised ita pure and holy precepts. Nor has the success of Christianity been conEned to the early ages only; for, during the period of eighteen centuries, Botwithstanding innumerable persecutions, together with the wickedness of professors, and the inconceivable villanies and base indifference of the clergy, it has been more or less successful in reforming the hearts and lives of multitudes in almost every nation under heaven; and we may assert, that even at present, there are many thousands, who have been reclaimed from a profane and immoral course of conduct, to sobriety, equity, truth, purity, and piety, and to an exemplary behaviour in the relative duties of life. Having been made free from sin, and become the servants of God, they have their fruit unto holiness;' and, after patiently continuing in well-doing,' and cheerfully bearing various afflictions, they joyfully meet death, being supported by the hope of eternal life, 'as the gift of God through Jesus Christ: while they who are best acquainted with them, are most convinced, that they have been rendered more wise, holy, and happy, by believing the Bible; and that there is a reality in religion, though various interests and passions may keep them from duly embracing it. This would, indeed, be far more apparent were the Gospel more generally, or fully believed and obeyed. Did all men believe and obey the Bible, as a divine revelation; were repent ance, and renunciation of all vice and immorality, universal or even general, combined with the spiritual worship of God, faith in his truth and mercy, through the mediation of his Son, and the fruits of the Holy Spirit, as visible in every true believer,-they would form the bulk of mankind into such characters, and would produce such effects, as the world has never yet wit nessed. Men would then habitually and uniformly do justice, speak truth, now merey, exercise mutual forgiveness, follow after peace, bridle their appetites and passions, and lead sober, righteous, and godly lives. Murders, wars, slavery, cruel oppressions, rapine, fraud, and unrestrained licentiousness, would no more desolate the earth, nor fill it with misery, nor would bitter contentions ever more destroy domestic comfort; but righteousness, goodness, and truth, would bless the world with a felicity far exceeding all our present conceptions. Such has been the extraordinary success and happy effects of the religion of the Bible; and such is doubtless the direct and legitimate tendency of its doctrines, precepts, motives, and promises. To what cause, then, can we attribute the success which has attended Christianity in the absence of every thing else to recommend or enforce it, but to an Almighty influence accompanying the preaching of the Gospel-to its being preached with the Holy Ghost sent down from heaven?' And is not this one of the strongest possible attestations made by the God of truth himself, to the truth and Divine inspiration of the Sacred Volume? And, while its extraordinary success and effects thus constrain us to admit the Divine authority of the Scriptures, the holy and happy tendency of its doctrines proves, that they could not have originated either with bad angels or men, since they are so diametrically opposite to their vicious inclinations, interests, and honour; nor yet with uninspired good men, who would not Lave dared thus to personate God, and to ascribe their own inventions to in spiration. It remains, therefore, that God must be their author; and that 'holy men of old spake as they were moved by the Holy Ghost,' 'not in the words which men's wisdom teacheth, but which the Holy Ghost teacheth.' . Co. in 13.

Christians are not at all qualified to dispute with infidels, yet they are enabled, through this inward testimony, to obey the Gospel, and to suffer in its cause; and they can no more be convinced by reasonings and objections, that uninspired men wrote or invented the Bible, than they can be persuaded that man created the sun, whose light they behold, and by whose beams they are warmed and cheered.


The venerable Bede seems to have been the first person who attempted the translation of the Scriptures into Anglo-Saxon. He translated the Psalter, and afterwards the Gospel of John. This was in A. D. 734. In the latter part of the next century, Alfred the Great ordered the whole Bible to be translated into Anglo-Saxon, and himself undertook to translate the Book of Psalms, but died in A. D. 900, before it was completed. Little or nothing was done in the next 400 years, till the time of Wickliffe, who, in 1380, completed the whole Bible. In the fifteenth century printing was invented, and immediately employed for multiplying copies of the Scriptures. In 1526, William Tyndal (a Welshman) printed his first New Testament at Antwerp, and was soon after burned for heresy in Flanders. He expired praying, "Lord, open the King of England's eyes!"

Henry VIII. was long averse to having the Scriptures in English; but as soon as Cranmer could get permission, he divided the New Testament into nine parts, and sent it to as many learned divines for a new translation, who all performed their parts except Tonstall, Bishop of London, who sent word to the Archbishop, he would have no hand in it. The work was, however, finished; and, after much difficulty, printed and published. In 1539, Lord Cromwell procured from Henry VIII. license for the people to read the Word of God! and the permission was most joyfully received. The first Bible thus tolerated was called Coverdale's, because he superintended the publication. During the next reign, that of Edward VI., Bibles were placed in all the churches; but were again displaced at the accession of the crue! Queen Mary, and every person endangered his life who was found reading it.* Great numbers of the clergy, and other friends to the Reformation, now fled to Geneva, where the edition called the Geneva Bible was printed, in 1560. Eight years afterwards, in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, was printed the Bishops' Bible; so called as being prepared and published under the care of Archbishop Parker, with the aid of seven other Bishops.

At the Hampton Court Conference, in 1603, Dr. Rainolds suggested the propriety of a new translation, which being approved by the King, fifty-four learned divines, of Westminster and the two English Universities, were appointed to the task, though forty-seven only appear to have engaged in it. The divines of Westminster translated the historical books of the Old Testament, from Genesis to Chronicles, and also the Apostolical Epistles; those at Cambridge took the rest of the Old Testament to the end of Ecclesiastes, and the Apocrypha; and the divines of Oxford, the Prophets, the Gospels, the Acts, and the Apocalypse.

Among the Westminster divines were Drs. (afterwards Bishops) Andrews and Overall. The former said to be acquainted with fifteen languages, and a most excellent divine; the other, unquestionably a man of learning, and Regius Professor of Divinity at Cambridge. Dr. Seravia, who had been Professor of Divinity at Leyden, and, after coming to England, Prebend of Westminster. He was the bosom friend of the immortal Hooker, who actually died in his arms. And Mr Bedwell, a great Arabic scholar. The University lists included the Professors of Greek and Hebrew, Archbishop Abbot, and Dr. Rainolds, with whom the work originated, and other divines, of eminent learning and great respectability. When the work was gone through, three copies were sent to Stationers' Hall, London, and revised by two divines from each University, and two from Westminster. The whole was again reviewed by Bilson, Bishop of Winchester, and Dr. Myles Smith; these prefixed arguments to the several books, and the latter wrote the preface to the whole. In 1611, the work was published, dedicated to the King, and ordered to be read in churches.

Messrs. Thompson and Orme, from whom many of these particulars are taken, give it the following character:-"Like every thing human, it is no doubt imperfect; but, as a translation of the Bible, it has few rivals, and no superior. It is in general faithful, simple, and perspicuous. It has seized the spirit, and copied the manner of the divine originals; it seldom descends to meanness or vulgarity, but often rises to elegance and sublimity; it is level to the understanding of the cottager, and fit to meet the eye of the critic, the poet, and the philosopher. Its phraseology is now familiar to us from our infancy; it has had the most extensive influence on the style of religious works of every description, and has contributed much to fix the standard of the English language itself. No work has ever been more generally read, or more universally admired; and such is its complete possession of the public mind, that no translation differing materially from it can ever become popular."

Selden, a very learned lay member of the Westminster Assembly of Divines, in his "Table Talk," says, "The English translation of the Bible is the best translation in the world; taking in for the English translation the Bishops' Bible, as well as King James'."

Bp. Walton, author of the Polyglot Bible, says, "The last English translation, made by diverse learned men at the command of King James, may justly contend with any now extant, in any language of Europe."

L. Capellus, Professor of Divinity and the Oriental languages at Saumur, and author of the "Critica Sacra," bears witness to our translation as "both true and agreeable, as well to the original words as to the analogy of faith." Dr. Durell, a celebrated Hebrew critic, was of opinion, that "the chief excellency of the version now in use, consists in its being a closer translation than any that had preceded; in using the properest language for popular use."

10. Lastly, Though these arguments are abundantly sufficient to silence objectors, and to produce a rational conviction of the Divine origin and authority of the Scriptures, yet it is only the effectual application of them to the mind, conscience, and heart, in their self-evidencing light and power, which can produce a cordial and saving persuasion that they are indeed THE WORD OF GOD. But when thus applied, then 'He that believeth hath the witness in himself,' (1 Jn. v. 10.) The discoveries which he has made by the Divine light of the Scriptures; the sanctifying and abiding effects produced on his judgment, dispositions, and affections; the comfortable experience which he has had, that God fulfils the promises of His word to them who trust in them; and the earnests of heaven enjoyed by him in communion with God, put the matter beyond all doubt; so that there is no shutting the eyes, nor hardening the heart against them,-no possibility of continuing stupid and unconcerned under them; but the whole faculties of the soul are necessarily affected with them, as indeed stamped with diving evidence, and attended with almighty power. And, though many realing it-Franklin's Life.

The late Dr. Franklin relates of his pious great-grandfather, in the reign of this Queen, that, having an English Bible, which was then a mark of heresy, they were obliged to conceal it under the lid of a night-stool. When he read it, one of the family was set to watch, lest an officer of the Spiritual Court should be on the listen; and when he had done, he restored it to its hiding-place, till another opportunity occurred of read


Dr. Gray says, "The present translation is, indeed, highly excellent, being in its doctrines uncorrupt, and in its general construction faithful to the original." Dr. Doddridge observes, "On a diligent comparison of our translation with the original, we find that of the New Testament, and I might also add that of the Old, in the main, faithful and judicious."

Dr. John Taylor, author of the Hebrew Concordance, though an Arian in sentiment, assures his readers-" You may rest fully satisfied, that, as our translation is in itself by far the most excellent book in our language, so it is a pure and plentiful fountain of divine knowledge, giving a true, clear, and full account of the divine dispensations, and of the gospel of our salvation; insomuch that whoever studies the English Bible, is sure of gaining that knowledge and faith, which, if duly applied to the heart and conversation, will infallibly guide him to eternal life."

Dr. Geddes, a Socinian Catholic priest, though the author of a new translation and commentary, bears this testimony to our authorized Protestant version:-" If accuracy, fidelity, and the strictest attention to the letter of the text, be supposed to constitute the qualities of an excellent version, this, of all versions, must in general be accounted the most excellent."

Dr. Middleton, late Bishop of Calcutta, and author of a celebrated work on the Greek Article, thus commends the same version:-"Its general fidelity has never been questioned; its style is incomparably superior to any thing that might be expected from the finical and perverted taste of our own age. It is simple; it is harmonious; it is energetic; and, which is of no small inportance, use has made it familiar, and time has rendered it sacred."

The Rev. Professor Stewart, of the Theological Seminary of Andover, Massachusetts, gives the following decided testimony :-" Out of some eight hundred thousand various readings, about seven hundred and ninety-nine thousand are of just about as much importance to the sense of the Hebrew Scriptures, as the question in English orthography is, whether the word honour shall be spelled with the u or without it. Of the remainder, some change the sense of particular passages or expressions, or omit particular words and phrases, or insert them; but not one doctrine of religion is changed; not one precept is taken away; not one important fact is altered, by the whole of the various readings collectively taken. There is no ground, then, to fear for the safety of the Scriptures, on account of any legitimate criticism to which the text may be subjected."

DIVISIONS AND MARKS OF DISTINCTION IN THE SCRIPTURES. 1. THE SCRIPTURES are so termed as being the most important of all Writings; and are also called Holy or Sacred, because composed by holy or inspired men; and Canonical, either because they are the rule of faith and practice, or because they were received into the ecclesiastical canons or catalogues, and thus distinguished from those which were apocryphal, or of uncertain authority.

2. The night among the Hebrews was anciently divided into three parts or watches, (Ps. lxiii. 6. xc. 4.) though the division of it into twelve hours, like those of the day, also afterwards obtained. The first was called the beginning of the watches, (La. ii. 19.); the second, the middle watch, (Ju. vii. 19.); and the third, the morning watch, (Ex. xiv. 24.) Subsequently, in the time of our Saviour, the night was divided into four watches; a fourth having been introduced by the Romans, who derived it from the Greeks. The first watch commenced about six and continued till nine; the second (Lu. xii. 38.) began at nine and ended at twelve; the third lasted from twelve to three; and the fourth (Mat. xiv. 25.) began at three and closed at six. All these are distinctly mentioned in Ma. xiii. 35.

3. Seven natural days constituted a week. This division of time appears to have been observed by all nations, probably from the beginning of the world; and, it originated with God himself, who, after he had created the world in six days, rested on the seventh,' or Sabbath, and blessed and sanctified it. It does not appear that the Hebrews had any names for the days of the week; but they numbered them in their order, the first, the second, &c., the seventh, or last day of the week, being the Sabbath.

4. The months of the Hebrews, which were lunar ones, took their name from the moon, because their months began with the new moon. As the synodical lunar month is about 29 1-2 days, they made their month consist alternately of 29 and 30 days, according as the new moon appeared sooner or later; and by this mean their months were made to keep pace nearly with the lunations. In this manner the Jewish calendar was regulated by the law of Moses, which appointed the day of the new moon, or rather the first day of its appearance, to be a solemn festival, and the beginning of the month. But it appears that in the time of Noah, the year consisted of twelve months, each of thirty days; for in the account of the deluge, 150 days are mentioned as equivalent to five months. (Ge. vii. 11, 24. viii. 3, 4, 13, 15.) From these passages it appears the months originally had no particular names, but were called the first, second, third, &c. Afterwards, however, they acquired distinct names; as Abib, (Ex. xiii. 4.); Zif, (1 K1. vi. 1, 37.); Ethanim, (1 Ki. viii. 2.); and Bul, (1 Ki. vi. 38.) These names, after the Babylonian captivity, were exchanged for others of Chaldean, Syrian, or Persian origin: thus Abib was termed Nisan ; Zif, lyar, &c.

5. The Jewish year consisted of twelve lunar months, amounting to 354 days; but, as this falls eleven days short of the solar year of 365 days, it would have produced an entire change in the seasons, and with it a total derangement of the fasts and festivals. In order to remedy this inconvenience, they added a whole month to the year, as often as it was necessary; commonly once in three years, and sometimes once in two years. The intercalary month was added at the end of the ecclesiastical year, after the month Adar, and was therefore called Veadar, and Adar,' or a second Adar. At first the Jews began the year with the autumnal equinox, or the month Tisri, because it was believed the world was created at that time; and from it they continued to compute their jubilees, and to date contracts and other common occurrences, whence it was termed the civil year. But after their departure from Egypt, which happened in the month Abib or Nisan, in commemoration of this deliverance, they afterward began their year from the beginning of that month, which usually happened about the time of the vernal equinox; and according to this form, which was termed the sacred or ecclesiastical year, they celebrated the fasts and festivals, and other ecclesiastical matters.

2. The most common and general division of these Sacred Books, is that of the OLD and NEW TESTAMENT, an appellation derived from 2 Co. iii. 6, 14. where the Greek words are rendered by the Latin translators, Antiquium testamentum, and Novum testamentum, and from them by our translators, The Old Testament, and The New Testament, would be more correctly rendered, The Old Covenant, and The New Covenant. The divisions of the Old Testament which now generally obtain are, 1. The Pentateuch, or the five books of Moses. 2. The Historical Books, comprising Joshua to Esther, inclusive. 3. The Poetical, or Doctrinal Books, from Job to the Song of Solomon, inclusive. 4. The Prophetical Books, from Isaiah to Malachi. The New Tes-lations being made of one whole lunar month at once, the commencement of tament is usually divided into, 1. The Historical Books, containing the four Gospels and the Acts. 2. The Doctrinal Books, comprising all the Epistles written by the Apostles, from Romans to Jude. 3. The Prophetical, being the Book of the Revelation of St. John.

3. The Jews, at an early period, for the sake of convenience, divided the five books of Moses into sections, equal to the number of Sabbaths in their year. The division of chapters and verses was first attempted A. D. 1240, by Cardinal Hugo, for the purpose of forming a concordance to the Vulgate version. Rabbi Nathan, in 1438, adopted a similar plan in arranging a concordance of the Hebrew Bible. The division of the New Testament into verses was made by Robert Stephens, 1551.


1. The Hebrews, in common with other nations, distinguished their days into natural, containing day and night; and artificial, from sunrise to sunset. They reckoned their natural days from sunset to sunset, according to the original arrangement, the evening and the morning were the first day,' (Ge. i. 5.) The artificial day, which began at sunrise and ended at sunset, consequently varied in its length according to the season of the year, though Canaan being situated much nearer the Equator, the difference was not so great as in our country: the longest day being only fourteen hours and tweive minutes of our time, and the shortest, nine hours and forty-eight seconds.

2. The day was divided into twelve hours, which were equal with respect to each other, but consequently unequal with respect to the different seasons of the year. These hours were computed from about six in the morning to six in the evening; the first hour corresponding to our seven o'clock, the second to our eigh, the third to our nine, &c.

The Jewish year being composed of months purely lunar, and the interca

their months caunot be fixed to any certain day in the Julian calendar, but they fall within the compass of thirty days sooner or later. The following table exhibits the Jewish months in the order of the sacred year, with the corresponding months of the Julian year within the compass of which the Jewish months fell:

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The thirteenth month, Veadar, answered mostly to the end of March, it being only intercalated when the beginning of Nisan would otherwise be carried back into the end of February. In the above table, we have given the corresponding months of the Julian calendar as usually reckoned; but it is highly probable, if not certain, that the Jewish calendar has been corrupted, at some period subsequent to the dispersion, and that every month originally commenced one month later: thus Nisan instead of March shoule begin in April; Iyar instead of April should begin in May, &c. For evidenc in support of this opinion, see MICHAELIS on the Hebrew months.


"WHOEVER would attain to a true knowledge of the Christian Religion, in he ful and just extent of it," says Locke," let him study the Holy Scriptures, Experily the New Testament, wherein are contained the words of eternal L' It has God for its author, salvation for its end, and truth, without any En re of error, for its matter."

In calling the latter part of our Scriptures the New Testament, reference was doubtedly had to Heb. ix. 16, 17, wherein the death of Christ is represented as seame to believers all the blessings of the Gospel: and yet the original term (D) styrke) is so much oftener rendered Covenant than it is Testament, that we esgot but acree with Doddridge, Campbell, and most modern commentators, that our Scriptures would be more accurately defined, The Old and New Corenants," as contaming the history and doctrine of the Two Covenants, begal and evangelical: the former ratified by the Mosaical sacritices; the latter, by the statuent of Jesus Christ.

The first part of the New Testament contains the history of Jesus Christ, as recorded by the four Evangelists, whose memoirs are therefore usually called the Sour Gospels," as containing the good tidings of our salvation. These we Cser as distinct and independent narratives, compiled partly perhaps from peenection, but reduced to their present form under the influence of the same Spa by which the authors preached the gospel, and wrought miracles in its delnice It is questioned whether either of these Evangelists had seen the writes of the other.

Piss natural to suppose, that four persons, writing contemporary narratives, might relate different incidents relative to the same facts; one being more impressed by one circumstance, and another by a different one. It must also be recollected, that the apostles were not always together, being sent forth on dif ferent missions; (Mark vi. 7. :) consequently they did not all witness the same misscles, nor all hear the same discourses. Our Lord might work many similar movies, and deliver the same parables, with some variety of imagery or expression, on different occasions. Matthew or Mark might record the one, and Lake or John the other; and this would account for discrepancies which have, without reason, been magnified into contradictions. There is also a great latitude and variety in the Greek, as well as English particles of time and place; these differently rendered, may occasion seeming inconsistencies, where real We have not existed.

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The Old and New Dispensations (or Testaments) compared.

J. But there is another point of view in which the harmony of the New Testament may be considered, namely, as it corresponds with the Old Testament in several interesting points of view, two or three of which we shall just mention. 1. Consoured historically, we may observe, that the Mosaic revelation is not erly acnefted but confirmed by that of Christ. The former may lead a dispasunst tapirer to embrace the latter; but the latter so necessarily supposes the Kemer that we find it difficult to conceive of any man as a believer in Christ, won rejects Moses and the Prophets. Indeed our Saviour himself places this in the strongest point of view, when he says, "If men hear not Moses and the Prats, neither will they be persuaded, though one rise from the dead." (Luke 2 The New Testament corresponds with the Old as it contains the fulfilment of many of its prophecies; those particularly which relate to the Messiah. To hegare all the Prophets witness." From the first promise, that the seed of wonan should bruise the serpent's head, we have a long series of predictions, pasting to the character and works, the life and death, resurrection and future s of the Messiah, the fulfilment of which is distinctly pointed out in monies parts of the New Testament, and particularly in the Gospels. Some sans of the Old Testament may be cited only by way of accommodation. strative; bnú others, quoted by way of argument, have stood the test of et suurou-examination. Tyreal institutions are a species of prophecy, by means of emblems and figustic petka, which, though not so weil understood in our western world, were 1. the Fist equally intelligible and satisfactory with the clearest verbal propheTravelless into these countries are surprised to find the frequency of figuestive action, and the ease with which it is understood. Among the Old Testatant types, the sacrifices are the most interesting and important. The scapenet de paschal lamb, and the whole burnt offering, all, though in different ects of view, direct us to the one offering of Messiah. But the New Testaturat, wiele it clears away the obscurity of former prophecies, presents us with know series, extending no less distance into futurity than those of Abraham and Jacob, and terminating only with the church and with the world. Our Lord linenf forsteld the past calamities and present dispersion of the Jews. St. Pod has drawn the character of the Man of Sin, and marked his progress and final overthrow but St. John, in his Revelations, presents us with the most exGive prophecies ever exhibited They are indeed enveloped in the same ob8717 as those of former ages; but Time has already partially withdrawn the wi and, as he passes on, will still roll back the remaining clouds. 3. Another point of view in which these dispensations may be compared, rereds their peculiar temper and spirit. That of the Old Testament was partial re It was contined to the children of circumcision; yea, with some exceptions, to a single nation, and that one of the smallest, and which, as their own Scriptures assure us, had as little to boast in respect of merit as of numbes. (Deut. vii. 7, 9 Dan. ix. 8, 16.) But the gospel has in it nothing peculiar to any nation, or country. We have the clearest proofs in matter of fact, that it temally with the climates of England, of India, and of Labrador. It is culated, therefore, for universal use, and its universal spread is promised. If we advert also to the miracles with which each dispensation was introduced, we End those of Moses were miracles of judgment, inflicting punishment upon swers (not, indeed, undeserved.) but of a very different character from those by which our Redeemer introduced the gospel: these were, almost without exception, miracles of mercy. Another point of view in which we may advantageously compare the Old and New Testaments, relates to the gradual development of divine truth, which iske that of light, "spining more and more unto the perfect day." The gospeldisensation dawned on Adam, and gradually opened during the Patriarchal and Mosaic dispensations: the Sun of righteousness arose under the clearer revelations of David and Solomon; but attained not its zenith until the day of Pentrust, when the shadows of the Old Testament types were all withdrawn, and the whole scheme of redemption by Jesus Christ exhibited.

During the middle ages, indeed, darkness, even "such as might be felt," again Cove of Christendom, but the Reformation in a great measure cleared away the glxm; and that mighty engine, Printing, has diffused its truths more extensively than ten thousand Missionaries could have done. Nor has it rested there. By the invention of stereotype and steam printing, a new impulso has been given to this vast machine. Steam navigation is another important dis cory, which will facilitate the rapid dispersion both of Bibles and of Missionaries throughout the world.

The revival of zeal and energy in the propagation of the Christian religion among almost all denominations of Christians, promises a speedy accomplishmeat of the divine predictions. Christianity is planted in every quarter of the be and is spreading on every hand. Savages of Africa, and in every part of the Paribe Ocean, hitherto considered as the most untameable, are stretching out their hands to welcome it; Hindoos have began to throw away their caste; and the bigoted Chinese are studying in their own language, the printed word of God. There is a shaking" even among the dry bones" of the house of Israel; and Scripture and facts equally assure us, that the time is coming, when The Greek terin euangelion (gospel) signifies "goort news" in general; in the New Testament, it is confined to the "good news of salvation by Jesus Christ." The word gospel ʼn derived from the Anglo-Saxon god, good, and spell, message, or news.

"the knowledge and the glory of God shall cover the earth as the waters do the bottom of the sea.'

The Evidences of Christianity.

II. In our Introduction to the Old Testament, we touched upon several points relative to the authenticity and inspiration of the Old Testament Scriptures; but whatever argument may be named in defence of the Jewish Scriptures. applies with two-fold, yea, with seven fold, force in favour of the Christian revelation, while there are others peculiar to itself, one only of which we can here mention, referring our readers, who wish to examine for themselves, to Mr. Horne and other able writers.

The argument here presented to our readers, is from one who boldly assumed the character of "a free-thinker," and scorned the shackles of a creed: we refer to RorsSEAU.

"I will confess to you, that the majesty of the Scriptures strikes me with admiration, as the purity of the gospel hath its influence on my heart. Peruse the works of our Philosophers with all their pomp of diction: how mean, how contemptible are they, compared with the Scriptures! Is it possible that a book, at once so simple and sublime, should be merely the work of man? Is it possiblo that the sacred personage, whose history it contains, should be himself a mere man? Do we find that he assumed the tone of an enthusiast, or an ambitious sectary? What sweetness, what purity in his manners! What an aflecting gracefulness in his delivery! What sublimity in his maxims! What profound wisdom in his discourses! What presence of mind, what subtlety, what truth in his replies! How great the command over his passions! Where is the man, where the philosopher, who could so live, and so die, without weakness, and without ostentation? When Plato described his imaginary good man, loaded with all the shame of guilt, yet meriting the highest rewards of virtue, he described exactly the character of Jesus Christ: the resemblance was so striking, that all the Fathers perceived it. "What prepossession, what blindness must it be, to compare the son of Sophroniscus (Socrates) to the son of Mary! What an infinite disproportion there is between them! Socrates, dying without pain or ignominy, easily supported his character to the last; and if his death, however easy, had not crowned his life, it might have been doubted whether Socrates, with all his wisdom, was any thing more than a vain sophist. He invented, it is said, the theory of morals Others, however, had put them in practice; he had only to say, therefore, what they had done, and to reduce their examples to precepts. Aristides had been just before Socrates defined justice; Leonidas had given up his life for his country before Socrates declared patriotism to be a duty; the Spartans were a sober people before Socrates recommended sobriety; before he had even defined virtue, Greece abounded in virtuous men. But where could Jesus learn, among his competitors, that pure and sublime morality, of which he only hath given us both precept and example? The greatest wisdom was made known amidst the most bigotted fanaticism, and the simplicity of the most heroic virlues did honour to the vilest people upon earth. The death of Socrates, peaceably philosophi zing with his friends, appears the most agreeable that could be wished for; that of Jesus, expiring in the midst of agonizing pains; abused, insulted, and accused by a whole nation; is the most horrible that could be feared. Socrates, on receiving the cup of poison, blessed indeed the weeping executioner who administered it; but Jesus, in the midst of excruciating tortures, prayed for his merciless tormentors. Yes, if the life and death of Socrates were those of a sage, the life and death of Jesus are those of a God. Shall we suppose the Evangelical History a mere fiction? Indeed, my friend, it bears not the marks of fiction; on the contrary, the history of Socrates, which nobody presumes to doubt, is not so well attested as that of Jesus Christ. Such a supposition, in fact, only shifts the difficulty, without obviating it: it is more inconceivable that a n ber of persons should agree to write such a history, than that one only should furnish the subject of it. The Jewish authors were incapable of the diction, and strangers to the morality contained in the gospel, the marks of whose truth are so striking and inimitable, that the inventor would be a more astonishing character than the hero." (Letter to the Archbishop of Paris.)

How lamentable is it to add, that a man who saw thus clearly the beauty of the gospel, was prevented, by the depravity of his own heart, from embracing He at once admired and hated it.


The Authenticity of the four Gospels.

III. Of the authority of the four Gospels already named, we shall quote only the concluding remarks of Dr. Lardner.

"In the first part of this work this Credibility') it was shown." says the Doctor, "that there is not any thing in the books of the New Testament, however strictly canvassed, inconsistent with their supposed time and authors. In this second part we have had express and positive evidence, that these books were written by those whose names they bear, even the Apostles of Jesus Christ, who was crucified at Jerusalem in the reign of Tiberius Cæsar, when Pontius Pilate was governor in Judea; and their well known companions and fellowlabourers. It is the concurring testimony of early and later ages, and of writers in Europe, Asia, and Africa, and of men of different sentiments in divers respects. For we have had before us the testimony of those called heretics, as well as Catholics. These books were received from the beginning with the greatest respect, and have been publicly and solemnly read in the assemblies of Christians throughout the world, in every age from that time to this. They were early translated into the languages of divers countries and people. They were quoted by way of proof in all arguments of a religious nature: and were appealed to, on both sides, in all points of controversy that arose among Christians themselves. They were likewise recommended to the perusal of others as containing the authentic account of the Christian doctrine. And many commentaries have been writ to explain and illustrate them. All which afford full assurance of their genuineness and integrity. If these books had not been writ by those to whom they are ascribed, and if the things related in them had not been true, they could not have been received from the beginning. If they contain a true account of things, the Christian religion is from God, and cannot but be embraced by serious and attentive men, who impartially examine, and are willing to be determined by evidence."

Of these four Gospels, the first and last (Matthew and John) were written by two of our Lord's Apostles; the other two by the travelling companions of Apostles, Mark with Peter, and Luke with Paul: so that, independent of their own inspiration, the writers had the best possible means of correct information.

A judicions writer has remarked, that few Deists have ventured to attack the moral cha racter of Christ. Even Thomas Paine, in the midst of his virulence against Christianity, observes, "Nothing that is here said can apply, even with the most distant disrespect, to the He was a virtuous and amiable man. The morality that he real character of Jesus Christ. preached and practised was of the most benevolent kind." undertook to prove, in spite of all history, sacred and profane, that Christ (or Chrestus, as he Nothing, however, is too daring for some writers A French infidel of the name of Volney calls him) was an allegorical personage the Sun. In answer to which ridiculous notion we need only refer to Grotius' work On the Truth of the Christian Religion,"

Grotius says, "That Jesus of Nazareth formerly lived in Juden, in the reign of Tiberius, the Roman emperor, is constantly acknowledged, not only by Christians dispersed all over the world, but also by all the Jews which now are, or have ever wrote since that time; the same is also testified by heathens, that is, such as did not write either on the Jewish or Christian religion; Suetonius, Tacitus, Pliny the younger, and many after these "”

Appeal may also be made, not only to the received, but the apocryphal gospels; not only to Josephus, but to Trypho and Celsus, the great Jewish and Pagan antagonists of Christianity. In short, there is no great character of equal antiquity-neither Juli nor Augustas Casar; neither Cato nor Cicero; neither Virgil nor Horace-whose existe and character

is better attested.

94. The parable of the marriage feast. Matt. xxii. 1-14.


A Concise Harmony of the Gospels.

1. St. Luke's preface. Luke i. 1—4.

2. Christ's divinity. John 1-5. 9-14.

3. John the Baptist's birth foretold, and Christ's. Luke i. 5.

4. Mary in danger to be put away. Matt. i. 18.

5. Christ's birth. Luke f. 1–20.

6. Christ's pedigree both by father and mother. Matt. i. 1-17. Luke iii. 23. 7. Christ's circumcision; Mary's purification. Luke ü. 21—40.

8. The wise men. Matt. ii.

9. Christ disputes with the doctors. Luke ii. 41.

10. John's ministry. Matt. iii. 1-12. Mark i. 1-8. Luke iii. 1-18. John i. 6-8. 11. Christ baptized. Matt. iii. 13-17. Mark i. 9-11. Luke iii. 21-23. John i. 15-18.

12. Christ tempted. Matt. iv. 1-11. Mark i. 12-23. Luke iv. 1—13. 13. John's testimony of Christ; some disciples called. John i. 19. 14. Christ's first miracle. John ii.

15. Christ's discourse with Nicodemus, &c. John iii.

16. John imprisoned. Matt. xiv. 3-5. Mark vi. 17-20. Luke iii. 19, 20.

17. Christ converts many Samaritans, &c. Matt, iv. 12. John iv.

18. Christ preaches in Galilee. Matt. iv. 17. Mark i. 14, 15. Luke iv. 14, 15. 19. Christ preaches at Nazareth. Luke iv. 16-30.

20. Christ at Capernaum. Matt. iv. 13-16. and viii. 2-17. Mark i. 21-45. Luke iv. 31-44. and v. 12-16.

21. Christ heals man sick of the palsy. Matt. ix. 2-8. Mark ii. 1-12. Luke v. 17-26.

22. Christ calls Peter, &c. Matt. iv. 18-22. Mark i. 16-20. Luke v. 1-10. 23. Christ calls Matthew, and eats with him. Matt. ix. 9-17. Mark ii. 13–22. Luke v. 17-39.

24. Christ asserts his godhead. John v.

95. About paying tribute; Christ confutes the Sadducees, and puzzles the scribes. Matt. xxii. 15-46. Mark xii. 13-37. Luke xx. 20-44.

96. The Pharisees and scribes taxed and threatened. Mark xii. 38-40. Luke xx.


97. The widow's two mites. Mark xii. 41-44. Luke xxi. 1—4.

98. Christ foretels the destruction of Jerusalem, and the Jewish state. Matt. xxix. 1-51. Mark xiii. 1-37. Luke xxi. 5-36.

99. The parable of the virgins and talents; the last judgment described. Matt. xxv. 100. Christ washes his disciples' feet, &c. John xiu.

101. The preparation for the passover. Matt. xxvi. 1-5. 14-19. Mark xiv. 1, 2, 10-16. Luke xxii. 1-13.

102. Christ institutes the sacrament of the LORD's supper. Matt. xxvi. 20, 30. Mark xiv. 17-26. Luke xxii. 14-23.

103. Christ begins his consolatory discourse. John xiv.

104. Christ the true vine. John xv.

105. Christ comforts his disciples. John xvi.

106. Christ's mediatory prayer. John xvii.

107. Christ warns his disciples of their forsaking him. Matt. xxvi. 31–35. Mark xiv. 27-31. Luke xxii. 22-39. John xviii. 1, 2.

108. Christ's agony. Matt. xxvi. 36-46 Mark xiv. 32-42. Luke xxii. 40-46. 109. Christ's apprehension. Matt. xxvi. 47-56. Mark xiv. 43-52. Luke xxii. 47-53. John xviii. 3-11.

110. Christ's arraignment. Matt. xxvi. 57-69. Mark xiv. 53-65. Luke xxi. 54. 63-65. John xviii. 12-16. 16-24.

111. Peter's denial. Matt. xxvi. 69-75. Mark xiv. 66-72. Luke xxii. 55-62. John xviii. 17, 18, 25-27.

112. Christ's arraignment before the sanhedrim, Pilate and Herod. Matt. xxvii. 1, 2, 11-14. Mark xv. 1-5. Luke xxii. 66, and 71, xxiii. 1-12. John xviii. 23-38.

25. The disciples pluck ears of corn. Matt. xii. 1-8. Mark ii. 23-28. Luke vi. 113. Christ condemned by Pilate. Matt. xxvii. 15-23, and 26-30. Mark xv. 1-5. 6-19. Luke xxiii. 13-25. Johm xviii. 39, 40. and xix. 1-3. and xvi. 114. Judas hangs himself. Matt. xxviii. 3-10.

Cast heals many. Matt. xii. 9-16. Mark iii. 1-12. Luke vi. 6—11.

chooses and ordains his apostles. Mark iii. 13-21. Luke vi 12–19. 28. Cart's sermon on the Mount. Matt. v. 1-12. Luke vi. 20-36.

29. Matt. vi.

30. Matt. vii. 1-30. Luke vi. 37–49.

31. The centurion's servant healed. Matt. viii. 1-13. Luke vii. 1-10.

32. A widow's son raised. Luke vii. 11-17.

33. John's message to Christ. Matt. xi. 2-19. Luke vii. 18-35.

34. Chorazin and Bethsaida upbraided. Matt. xi. 20.

35. A woman anoints Christ. Luke vii. 36. and viii. 1-3.

36. Of blasphemy against the Holy Ghost. Matt. xii. 22-46. Mark iii. 22-30. Luke xi. 14-26. 29-32.

37. Christ's mother and brethren seek him. Matt. xii. 46-50. Mark iii. 31-35. Luke viii. 19-21.

38. The parable of the sower, &c. Matt. xii. 1-33. Mark iv. 1-34. Luke xiii. 4-18. and xiii. 18-21.

39. A scribe will follow Christ. Mark iv. 35. Matt. viii. 18-22.

40. The disciples in a storm. Matt. viii. 23-27. Mark iv. 86-41. Luke viii.


41. Christ heals the possessed. Matt. viii. 28-34. Mark v. 1-20. Luke viii.


42. Jairus's daughter raised. Matt. ix. 1-26. Mark v. 21-31. and 32-43. Luke

viii. 40-48. and 49-56.

43. Two blind men cured. Matt. ix. 27-31.

44. Christ teaches at Nazareth. Matt. xiii. 54-58. Mark vi. 1-6.

45. Christ journeys again to Galilee. Matt. ix. 35.

46. The apostles sent out. Matt. x. and xi. 1. Mark vi. 7-13. Luke ix. 1-6. 47. John beheaded. Matt. xiv. 6-12. Mark vi. 21--29.

48. Herod's opinion of Christ. Matt. xiv. 1, 2. Mark vi. 14-16. Luke ix. 7—9. 49. Five thousand fed. Matt. xix. 13-21. Mark vi. 30-44. Luke ix. 10-17. John vi. 1-13.

50. Christ walks on the sea. Matt. xiv. 22-36. Mark vi. 45-56. John vi. 14-21. 51. Christ's flesh must be eaten. John vi. and viii. 1.

52. Impious traditions. Matt. xv. 1-20. Mark vii. 1-23.

53. The woman of Canaan's daughter healed. Matt. xv. 21-28. Mark vii. 24-30.

54. A dumb man healed. Matt. xv. 29-31. Mark viii. 31, &c.

55. Four thousand fed. Matt. xv. 32-39. Mark viii. 1-10.

56. The leaven of the Pharisees. Matt. xvi. 1-12. Mark viii. 11-21.

57. A blind man healed. Mark viii. 22-26.

58. Peter's confession of Christ. Matt. xvi. 13-28. Mark viii. 27-38. and ix. 1. Luke ix. 18-27.

59. Christ's transfiguration. Matt. xvii. 1-13. Mark ix. 2-13. Luke ix. 29-36. 60. Christ cures a lunatic child. Matt. xvii. 14-23. Mark ix. 14-32. Luke ix. 37-45.

61. Humility pressed. Matt. xviii. 1-9. Mark ix. 36-50. Luke ix. 46-50.

62. The feast of tabernacles. John vii. 2-9.

63. Christ goes to Jerusalem. Luke ix. 51. John vii. 10.

64. The seventy sent forth. Luke x. 1-6.

65. Christ at the feast of tabernacles. John vii. 11, &c.

66. An adulteress, &c. John viii.

67. A blind man healed. John ix.

68. Christ the good Shepherd. John x. 1-21.

69. The seventy return. Luke x. 17.

70. The efficacy of prayer. Luke xi. 1-13. 27, 28, 33, &c.

71. Against hypocrisy, carnal fear, covetousness, &c. Luke xii

72. An exhortation to repentance. Luke xiii. 1-17.

73. The feast of dedication. Luke xiii. 22. John x. 22.

74. The strait gate. Luke xiii. 23.

75. A dropsical man healed; the wedding feast. Luke xiv.

76. The lost sheep, goat, and son. Luke xv.

77. The unjust steward and rich glutton. Luke xvi.

78. Scandal to be shunned, &c. Luke xvii.

79. The unjust judge and proud Pharisee. Luke xviii. 1-14.

80. Concerning divorce. Matt. xix. 1-12. Mark x. 1-12.

81. Little children brought to Christ, &c. Matt. xix. 19-30. Mark x. 13-31. Luke xviii. 15-30. Matt. xx. 1-16.

82. Lazarus sick. Luke xi. 1-16.

83. Christ foretels bis passion. Matt. xx. 17-19. Mark x. 32-34. Luke xviii.


84. The request of the sons of Zebedee. Matt. xx. 20-28. Mark x. 35-45. 85. A blind man healed; Zaccheus converted; the parable of the pounds. Matt. xx. 29. Mark x. 46. Luke xviii. 35-43. and xix. 1-27.

86. Lazarus raised. John xi. 17.

87. Mary anoints Christ. Matt. xxvi. 6-13. Mark xiv. 3-9. John xii. 1–11. 88. Christ's kingly entrance into Jerusalem, and casting buyers and sellers out of the temple. Matt. xxi. 1-16. Mark xi. 1–11. 15–19. Luke xix. 2-38. John xii. 12-19.

89. Some Greeks desire to see Christ. John xii. 20.

90. The fig tree cursed. Matt. xxi. 17-22. Mark xi. 11-14. and 20-26. Luke xxi. 37, 38.

91. Christ's authority questioned. Matt. xxi. 23-27. Mark xi. 27–33. Luke xix. 1-8.

92. The parable of the two sons. Matt. xxi. 28. 32. Mark xii. 1.

93. The vineyard let out. Matt. xxi. 33-46. Mark xii. 1–12. Luke xx. 9–19. 10

115. Christ crucified. Matt. xxvii. 31-56. Mark xv. 20-41. Luke xxiii. 26-49. John xix. 16-37.

116. Christ's burial. Matt. xxvii. 57-61. Mark xv. 42-47. Luke xxiii. 50-56. John xix. 38-42.

117. Christ's resurrection. Matt. xxviii. 1-8. Mark xvi. 1–9. Luke xxiv. 1-12. John xx. 1-10.

118. Christ's appearing first to Mary Magdalene, then to others. Matt. xxviii. 9-15. Mark xvi. 10, 11. and 13, 14. Luke xxiv. 13-48. John xx. 11-20. 119. Another appearance of Christ, and his discourse with Peter. John xxi. 120. Christ commissions his disciples, and afterwards ascends into heaven. Matt. xxviii. 16-20. Mark xvi. 15-20. Luke xxiv. 49–53.

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Capernaum. Matt. xiii. 1-23. Capernaum. Matt. xiii. 24-43. Capernaum. Mark iv. 26-29. Capernaum. Matt. xii. 31, 32.

Capernaum. Matt. xiii. 33.
Capernaum. Matt. xiii. 44.
Capernaum. Matt. xiii. 45, 46.
Capernaum. Matt. xiii. 47-50.
Capernaum. Luke vii. 36-50.
Capernaum. Matt. xviii 23-35
Near Jericho. Luke x. 25--37.

Luke xii. 16-21.
Luke xii. 35-48.



Luke xiii. 6-9.


Luke xv. 3-7.


Luke xv. 8-10.


Luke xv. 11-32.


Luke xvi. 1-12.


Luke xvi. 19-31.


Luke xviii. 1-8.

Pharisee and publican,


Luke xviii. 9-14.

Labourers in the vineyard, Pounds,.


Matt. xx. 1-16.

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Sheep and the goats,

Two sons,

Jerusalem. Matt. xxv. 14-30, Jerusalem. Matt. xxv. 31-46.

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Sea of Galilee. Luke v. 1-11.
Capernaum. Mark i. 22-28.
Capernaum. Mark i. 30, 31.
Capernaum. Mark i. 40-45.
Capernaum. Matt. viii. 5-13.
Luke vii. 11-17.
Sea of Galilee. Matt. viii. 23-27.
Matt. viii. 28-34.
Capernaum. Matt. ix. 1-8.
Capernaum. Matt. ix. 18-26.
Capernaum. Luke viii. 43-48
Capernaum. Matt. ix. 27-31.
Capernaum. Matt. ix. 32, 33.
Near Tyre.

John v. 1-9.
Matt. xii. 10-13.
Matt. xii. 22, 23.
Matt. xiv. 15-21.

Matt. xv. 22-28.

Mark vii. 31-37.

Matt. xv. 32-39

Mark xiii. 22—25.

Matt. xvii. 14-21. John ix.

Cures a boy possessed of a devil,
Restores to sight a man born blind,
Heals a woman under an infirmity eighteen

Tabor. Jerusalem.



Cures a dropsy,


Luke xiii. 11-17. Luke xiv. 1—6.

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Cleanses ten lepers,

Raises Lazarus from the dead,
Restores to sight two blind men,
Blasts the fig tree,

Heals the ear of Malchus,

Causes the miraculous draught of fishes,


John xi.

Matt. xx. 30-34

Matt. xxi. 18-22

Gethsemane. Luke xxii. 50, 51. Sea of Galilee. John xxi. 1-14.

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Tas Jews call this Book Bereshith, its first word in Hebrew, which signifes,In the beginning." The Syriac and Arabic versions have called it the Book of the Creation, because it furnishes us with an account of the original formation of all things. This the Greek translators meant to express by the word Genesis, which means the origin of all things, and which has been universally adopted. It is indeed the most ancient, important, and exact record of history, and affords information which cannot be derived from any other source. It comprises a period of about 2369 years. It gives us a detailed account of the order of creation; the primeval state of our first parents:


their apostacy from God; the prevalency of sin in the world; and of the ge
neral deluge produced by the wickedness of mankind. We are also informed
how the earth was re-peopled; of the origin of sacrifices; and are furnished
with an account of the lives, actions, and genealogies of the patriarchs till the
death of Joseph.
This book is the fountain of every historical document, and the basis upon
which both tradition and history are built; and the principles and facts
which it exhibits and narrates, are referred to in many other passages of Scrip-


We are now arrived at the close of a book, in many respects the most extraordmary in the world. In antiquity, it goes back to the origin of man, and of the globe which he inhabits, while its prophetic annunciations extend to "the list days." It contains an inspired record of the creation, and a retrospective view of the transactions of Providence for nearly 2000 years. These views are inĜnitely preferable to any of the speculations of Gentile philosophers, either of the East or West. Its discoveries lead directly to the Author of our being, the Creator of all things; their theories sink the human mind into the bors of idolatry, or the gulf of atheism. We have here the elements of universal history, which furnish evidence of these most important truths: that God hath made of one blood all the nations that dwell upon the earth;"-" that He made man upright, but he hath sought out many (corrupt) inventions;"-that He whom man offended, found out the incans of his salvation, and even in his sentence of condemnation mingled the promise of redemption. Here we have an authentic record of that most awful judgment-the universal deluge; also the renewal and re-peopling of the world. The scene now contracts from Noah to Shem: from Shem to Abraham: and from Abraham to Israel. The history of the Bible becomes more select; it is the history, not of the world, but of the church; and the affairs of other nations are only adverted to as they become connected with the great design

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of God in man's salvation. The Book of Genesis closes with the death of Jacob and Joseph. But before the scenes shut up, we have graphic and expanded views of the fate of the twelve tribes of Israel, in the prophetic blessings of their dying father; of which those relative to Judah are to us far the most interesting, as they point to Him, in whose work all the plans and promises of JEHOVAH centre and are accomplished.

One of the wisest and most learned men of the last century was Sir Wil liam Jones, whose researches into Eastern literature were unexampled, and remain unrivalled. This great man, it appears, in the early part of life, was tempted to infidelity; but he esteemed it no small advantage that his researches had corroborated the multiplied evidences of revelation, by confirm ing the Mosaic account of the primitive world." As his last hour came on, be retired into an inner apartment alone, and died in the act of prayer. But be fore his death he left this testimony to the truth and excellency of the Scriptures, particularly of the Old Testament: "I have regularly and attentively read the Holy Scriptures, and am of opinion, this volume, independent of its divine origin, contains more sublimity and beauty, more morality, more important history, and finer strains of poetry and eloquence, than can be collected from all other books, in whatever language or age they may have been composed." Ld. Teignmouth's Life of Sir W. Jones.



The name EXODUS is borrowed from the Septuagint, and means departure: | immediately formed into a connected history; nor is it of the least importance because the departure of Israel from Egypt, with its causes and consequences, form the leading subjects of the history. That Moses was the author of it, there can be no reasonable doubt; for it is cited as his by David, Daniel, and other sacred writers; also by Manetho, Tacitus, and other heathen authors. It also discovers an intimate acquaintance with the affairs of Egypt, and the geography of the wilderness. But the time of this Book being composed is not so clear, though it is certain it must have been written after the commencement of the tabernacle worship. It is reasonable to believe, that such a man as Moses, after he was called to sustain a public character, would suffer no important event to pass without a record, though these might not have been

to ascertain the exact period when this book was written.
The period of history which it occupies is reckoned at one hundred and
forty-five years, from the death of Joseph to the consecration of the Taber-
Besides historical facts, this Book contains the institution of the passover
the moral law-the miracle of manna in the wilderness-the gushing rock of
Horeb directions for building the Tabernacle and mercy-seat, and for forthing
the priestly vestments; most of which circumstances, in their prominent
points, had a typical reference to the New Testament dispensation, as is large-
ly shown by the author of the Epistle to the Hebrews.


"A Miracle is a sensible suspension or controlment of, or deviation from, the known laws of nature By these laws God governs the world He alone established, and He alone, therefore, can suspend them. Effects, which are produced by the regular operation of these laws, or which are conformable to the established course of events, are said to be natural: and every palpable deviation therefrom, a miracle."

quisite after they have been long established? The Jewish economy was introduced by a host of miracles, and some of them were continued for forty years. After it was firmly established, and the early part of the Old Testament written, they were, comparatively, few. Again, at the commencement of the Christian dispensation, the whole world was sunk into idolatry: and the phi losophers and literati, if they did not themselves believe the popular supersti tions, encouraged the vulgar in the belief. At first, therefore, miracles were completed, and widely circulated, they gradually ceased, and are now unne


It is commonly objected, that a miracle is beyond our comprehension; and *, therefore, contrary to reason. But many objects, which are continually pre-equally necessary as in the days of Moses: but when the Scriptures were senter to us, are no less inscrutable and mysterious. Every science we study, presents these: Magnetism, Galvanism, Electricity, &c.; and no question is more so, then the principle of vitality in man; but because we cannot comprehend this, are we to deny that we are living creatures? Hume, the great opponent of the doctrine of miracles, contends, that they are contrary to experience." That they are contrary to our experience, is only to say that we have never witnessed any and is to reason like the Emperor of China, who denied the existence of ice and snow, because he had Dever seen them that is, they were contrary to his experience. But in how small a portion of time and space is our experience circumscribed? Could we boast the age of the Jew of Jerusalem, it might give some weight to our experience; yet, during the age of miracles, had he lived in the other hemisphere, or even but a few score leagues distant, they might all have happened without his knowledge; that is, without coming within the sphere of his exThis objection goes upon the principle, that the experience of every age is uniform, than which nothing can be more absurd or false, while we see every thing around us changing. Climates change. The sea invades the land, in one country; in another, it retires and leaves it dry. How then shall the experi ence of one age be the standard of all others. Besides have there not been different dispensations, the Patriarchal, the Jewish and the Christian? And might not that kind of evidence be necessary to introduce the Jewish and Christian dispensations, which is by no means reThe alludes to the wandering Jew, who, in the last century, travelled through Europe, pretending to have been present at the crucifixion of our Lord.


But the most important point in this controversy is, to fix certain criteria, or marks, to distinguish between true and false, or pretended miracles: this is most essential, before we can depend on any miracles, as the evidence of a divine mission, which is the end proposed in the case before us-the miracles of Moses. The criteria laid down by the celebrated Leslie, (Short Method with a Deist,") and generally adopted by Christian advocates, are the following:1. He contends, every true miracle must be submitted to the outward senses, as seeing, hearing, &c. 2. It must be performed before competent witnesses. 3. The memory of it must be preserved by certain monuments, or authentic records or perpetuated by a certain institution, which. 4. Must have origina ted at the time the transaction is reported to have occurred Now, let us apply these criteria, as a test of the miracles wrought and attested by Moses. 1. They were all submitted to the sight, and several of them, (as the insects, botches, &c.) to the feeling, hearing, &c. 2. They were wrought before the king, his court, and all his learned men, or magicians. 3. The memory of them is preserved in the national records of the Jews, and some of them in the writings of the Gentiles. 4. The truth of them is farther certified by the Passover, an institution purposely intended to preserve the memorial of one of them, (the death of the first born,) and which may be traced up to the very time. But an argument may be adduced in defence of these miracles, which can hardly apply to any other-they were wrought in competition with, or opposi; tion to, all the wise men of Egypt, at that time distinguished for wisdom and science above all nations.

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