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dale, who had joined the Scots, behaved resolutely, but were so pressed upon by Cromwell's men, that they were obliged to retreat : which the Scots perceiving, they foon followed their ex. ample, and left Cromwell master of the field ; who pursuing them closely, new many, and took abundance of prisoners, with all their baggage, artillery, and ammunition. The next morning marching towards Warrington, he made a stand at a pass, which for many hours was resolutely disputed with him : buc at last he drove on the enemy, flew 1000 of them, and took 2000 prisoners. He was again opposed at Warrington-bridge by lieutenant-general Rayley, who was obliged to furrender himself prisoner of war, and all his men, to the number of 4000, with arms and ammunition. As for duke Hamilton, he fled from place to place with about 3000 horse, 'rill he was taken at Úttoxeter in Staffordshire, with all his men, and sent prisoner to Windsor-castle. Thus the whole Scotch army, which had occafioned so much terror, was totally routed and defeated by Cromwell, with scarce a third part of the fame number of forces, very few of which were lost in this important expedi. tion. General Monroe, who was come into England as a reserve to the duke, hearing of what had hap. pened, and that Cromwell was advancing towards him in order to profecute the advantage, thought it his best way to march back again with all expedition.

Having rid the nation of this great fear, and the north in particular of the burthen it groaned under through the oppression of the Scots, Cromwell resolved to enter Scotland itfelf, that he might effectually root out whatever threatned any farther disturbance. In his way he reduced Berwick and Carlisle, both which had revolted from their former obedience. And just upon entering the kingdom, he ordered proclamation to be made at the head of every regin:ent, that no one, upon pain of death, should force from the Scots any of their cattle or goods. He also declared to the Scots themselves, " That he came with an army to free their kingdom from the Hamiltonian party, who endeavoured to involve both the nations in blood; without

free fiderable

any intention to invade their liberties, or infringe their privileges." His proceedings were agree- . able to this declaration ; for marching to Edinburgh, he was received with great solemnity by the marquis of Argyle, and others; and having dispossess'd the Hamilton party of all public trusts, he returned to England loaded with marks of honour, leaving behind him, at the request of the Argyle party, three re.. giments of horse under major-general Lambert. Upon his arrival at London, he took his place in parliament, and was presented with the thanks of the house; which he received, according to custom, with great appearance of humility. This was his last military expedition before the death of the king, which happened foon after, but which we shall leave to be spoken of in another place, and pursue our hero into Ireland.

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Tbe military actions of general Cromwell after the king's

death, during his government of Ireland.

3.1. T

$. 1. 'HE Irish rebellion, which broke out in

1641. had, thro’the necessity of the times, been much neglected 'till 1649. The parliament, indeed, had long before got poffeffion of Dublin, which was delivered up to them by the marquis of Ormond, who was then obliged to come over to England. But being recalled by the Irish, Ormond made a league with them in favour of the king, and brought over moft of the kingdom into a union with the royalifts. Londonderry and Dublin were the only places that held out for the parliament, and the latter was in great danger of being Toft. This made colonel Jones, the governor, fend over to England for succour; and a confiderable body of forces were thereupon ordered for Ireland, The command of there was offered to Cromwell, who accepted it with seeming reluctance; profefling, “ that the difficulty which appeared in the expedition, was his chief motive for engaging in it; and that he hardly expected to prevail over the rebels, but only to preserve to the commonwealth some foot. ing in that kingdom.”*

The parliament was so pleafed with his answer, that on the † 22d of June, 1649, they gave him a commisfion to command all the forces that should be sent into Ireland, and to be lord-governor of that kingdom for three years, in all affairs both civil and military. From the very minute of his receiving this charge, Cromwell used an incredible expedition in the raifing of money, providing of shipping, and drawing the forces together for their intended enterprize. The soldiery marched with great speed to the rendezvous at Milford-Haven, there to expect the new lord-deputy, who followed them from London on the 10th of July. His



* The parliament, says his panegyrift, offers the Frish expedition, with the lieutenancy of that kingdom, to Cromwell ; but that command appears inglorious to him, as it leflens the authority of his general. He acquaints him with it, and aftures him, that he will never accept of it, tho' threatened with the greatest punishment if he do not comply, or tendered the highest reward if he do.- By this title and instance Fairfax perceived how much more deserving Cromwell was than himself, whom he before knew to be no way his inferior: and at the same time, he vied in kindness, and shewed that he deserved well of his country, by refusing the charge, and assigned it wholly to Cromwell, Peck's memoirs, &c. p. 54.

† The council of state had nominated him as long before as the 15th of January 1648, and the parliament voted their approbation of him March the 31st; to that he deliberated a long while about the accepting of this commiffion.

setting out was very pompous, being drawn in a coach with fix horses, and attended by many members of the parliament and council of state, with the chief of the army; his life-guard confifting of eighty men, who had formerly been commanders, all bravely mounted and accoutered, both them and their servants.

$. 2. Never did general more diftinguith himself, either for valour and conduct, than Cromwell in this Irish expedition. Having called at Bristol, where he was received with great honour, and given orders for the train of artillery, he went over to Wales, dispatching three regiments before him for Dublin, to strength. en the brave colonel Jones, who was appointed lieu. tenant-general of horse by the parliament. With the affiftance of these, that gallant commander raised the siege of Dublin, and entirely routed the marquis of Ormond, who had treated him with contempt. About four thousand were killed in this action, and 25000 taken prisoners, with the loss of only twenty on the parliament side. All the great guns, ammunition, provisions, and about 4000 l. in money, belonging to the royalists, were obtained in this battle; the great, success of which was unexpected on both fides : Jones having at first only attacked a party, by whose defeat he was led on to a complete victory. The marquis, upon this

misfortune, fled to Kilkenny, and from thence to Drogheda, whither many of his scattered forces had betook themselves before.

There was work enough, however, left for Cromwell, notwithstanding this advantage before his arrival. The beating an army in the field was not the greatest part of the business, while most of the forti. fied places, which were numerous, were in the hands of the enemy: yet a victory fo complete, when he expected rather to hear of the loss of Dublin, was matter of great encouragement to his excellency. He embarked at Milford-haven full of the good news, and arrived at Dublin in a short time, where he was received with all possible demonstrations of joy. As he

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paffed thro' the city, at a convenient place he made a Itand, and in a speech to the people, “ declared the cause of his coming, promising not only favour and affection, but rewards and gratuities, to all that should affitt him in the reduction of their enemies." He was answered with loud applaufes, the people crying out that they would live and die with him.

$. 3. After the foldiers had refreshed themselves, Cromwell drew them out of the city to a general mus. ter, where there appeared a complete body of 15,000 horse and foot, out of which 10,000 were drawn for present service. With this army he advanced towards Drogheda, or Tredagh, a strong place, garrisoned by 2,500 foot and 300 horse, the flower of the royal army, under the command of Sir Arthur Afton, an experienced old soldier. The marquis of Ormond foresaw that this place, by reason of its situation, would be first attempted ; and he was in hopes he should have time to recruit his army, while Cromwell was wasting his forces against the town. But no sooner was the general come before Tredagh, than he fummoned the governor to surrender ; which not being regarded, he immediately hung out the red enfign, blocked up the town by land, and ordered Ayscough with his fleet to do the fame by sea; and being sensible of the mischiefs of a long fiege, he would not submit to the common forms of approaches, but prepared directly for an affault.

Having planted a battery on the south-side of the town, which continued firing for two days, two breaches were made in the walls, by which some regiments of foot immediately entered. But these being repulsed by the defendants, Cromwell drew out a fresh reserve of foot, and in perfon bravely entered at their head. This example inspired the soldiers with such

courage, that none were able to ftand before them; and having now gained the town, they made a terrible slaughter, putting all they met with, that were in arms, to the Iword. Cromwell had given such orders, to discon


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