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were the next day shot to death; and the popish priest, their chaplain, was hanged.

Proceeding now to Kilkenny (which, besides its ordinary garrison, had been reinforced from the neighboaring towns that surrendered) when he came within a mile of the walls, Cromwell fummoned Sir Walter Butler the governor, and the corporation, to deliver up the city, which they refusing to do, he drew nearer, and erected a battery in the most convenient place, not. withftanding the opposition from within. With about 100 shot a breach was opened, at which the foldiers engaged the enemy, while colonel Ewer, with 1000 foot, gained another part of the city, called Irish-town. The besieged, however, were so desperate, that neither could Cromwell enter the breach, nor Ewer gain the bridge which led into the heart of the place. But à little confideration brought the governor to better meafures, and after a day's debate, it was agreed, the castle and city should be delivered up to Cromwell, with all the arms, ammunition, and publick stores; that the inhabitants should be protected in their persons, goods, and estates, only paying two thousand pounds to Cromwell's army, and that the governor, officers, and soldiers, should march away with bag and baggage." Thus was Kilkenny, which had been the nursery of the late rebellion, and the residence of the fupreme council, reduced to the parliament's obedience in less than a week, chiefly by the vigilance, activity, and indefatigable industry of the lord-general Cromwell, who frequently, on these desperate occafions, exposed himself to the most imininent dangers.

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• $. 9. Having settled the affairs of Kilkenny, Crom well marched to Carrick, in order to proceed on further action. But first he wrote a letter to the speaker of the parliament, giving an account of the taking of Kilkenny, and several other places ; confeking that he had received many private intimations of the parliament's pleasure, as to his coming home; but that as he did not receive his honour's letter till the army was


in the field, and had not fince heard any thing farther of the parliament's resolution, he thought himself obliged to wait for a more clear expression of their will, to which he was always ready to fubmit."

About this time the marquis of Ormond, and his associates, appointed a meeting in Weft-meath, to consider of some way to support their cause, which was ruined almost everywhere. The result of their conference was, that they should moleft the English in their quarters, thereby to protract time, till they had an opportunity of leaving the kingdom. - But Cromwell, without dreading their motions, fat down before Clonmell, in which was a garrison of 2000 foot, and 120 horse: and as foon as the fiege was formed, he detached colonel Reynolds and Sir Theophilus Jones, with 2500 horse, foot, and dragoons, to prevent Ormond's design. Sir Charles Coot also took the field with 3000 men, with the same intent. But the marquis shifting from place to place, to avoid fighting, colonel Reynolds, that his men might not remain idle, befieged Tecrogham." In the mean time the lord Broghill, with another detachment, defeated the bishop of Ross, who was marching with 5000 men to relieve, Clonmell. Many considerable persons were here taken, and among them the bishop himself, who was carried to a castle kept by his own forces, and there hanged before the walls, in fight of the garrison; which fo discouraged them, that they immediately surrendered to the parliament's forces. This bishop was used to say, There was no way of curing the English, but by hanging them.”

These advantages were a spur to the soldiers that lay before Clonmell, and made them resolute in the business, notwithstanding the vigorous resistance they met with. The active Cromwell, having summoned ONeal, the governor, to no purpose, proceeded to his usual method of storming. The great guns being planted, a breach was foon opened, which the besiegers courageously entered, and, in spite of the bravery of the befeged, kept their ground, till after four hours

fighting, hghting, with doubtful success, they carried all before them. This was looked upon to be the hottest storm, of so long continuance, that had ever been known. But the subduing of Clonmell, tho' with so much diffi culty, occafioned the surrender of several other garri, fons.

§. 10. While the lord-general was thus vi&orious in one part of Ireland, his deputies, with the parties under them, were no less successful in others : and his proceeding fo prosperously in his affairs, and obtaining thereby so great sway, occasioned a book to be dispersed about this time, entitled, “ The character of king Cromwell;" which, tho' suppressed as a libel, was received as a kind of prophecy. And indeed, by his good government in Ireland, both in civil and military affairs, and the great success of it, Cromwell obtained a very great interest, both here and there, both in the officers of the army and the parliament : only the Scots and presbyterians were generally no favourers of him. He was now preparing to take Waterford and Duncannon, and had actually blocked up Waterford, when about the middle of May, by a new order, or rather request of the parliament, he was obliged to leave the finishing of his conquests to his son-in-law Ireton, whom, for that purpose, he constituted lorddeputy. And so fortunate was Ireton in his commisfion, that tho' he died of the plague in a year and a half after, he took Waterford and Limerick, and left very few places in the hands of the enemy.

Cromwell was in Ireland about nine months, in which inconfiderable time, he performed more than any king or queen of England had been able to do in a much greater number of years. Before he left the kingdom, in order to weaken the Irish, he contrived means for transporting no less than 40,000 of them out of their country into foreign service, few of whom ever returned again. He also settled the civil affairs, and procured a more summary way of administring justice than ever yet was known. After which he embarked for England, and failed home, as it were, in triumph. At Bristol, he was twice saluted by the great guns, and welcomed in with many other demonstrations of joy. On Hounslow-heath he was met by general Fairfax, many members of parliament and officers of the army, and multitudes of the com. mon people. Coming to Hyde-park, the great guns were fired off, and colonel Barkstead's regiment,which was drawn up for that purpose, gave him several vol. lies with their small arms. Thus in a triumphant manner he entered London, amidst a croud of attend. ants, friends and citizens, and was received with the higheft acclamations. And having resumed his place in parliament, the speaker, in an elegant speech, re. turned him the thanks of the house for his great and faithful services in Ireland. After which, the lord. lieutenant gave them a particular account of the State and condition of that kingdom,


Cromwell's war against the Scots under king Charles the

second, till be totally routs them at the batile of Wor. cefter.

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HE laft war in which Cromwell was per.

other partizans of king Charles the second. In less than a month after his return from Ireland, he was employed in this new expedition, which took him up much time and labour, the Scots, upon the late king's death, had proclaimed his son their sovereign, and lent commiffioners to the Hague, to acquaint his majesty on what terms they would receive him; the chief of which was,

" that he should conform to both the coyenants, and oblige others to do the fame." The treaty between them was long on foot, his majesty, in the mean time, shifting from place to place for his fecu. rity; till at last, by his granting a commillion to the marquis of Montrose, who was hated by the kirk, the king had like to have spoiled all. But upon the execution of the marquis, and a fresh application from the covenanters, he consented in June, 1650, to all their demands, and arrived in Scotland on the 16th of that month, having figned the covenants before he fet foot on shore.


The parliament of Scotland, hereupon began to raise forces for the king's service, with which, it was supposed, they intended to invade England. While these preparations were carrying on in Scotland, the commonwealth here were providing for their own fecurity; and it was with a view to this, that they had sent for Cromwell from Ireland. He, as foon as he arrived, persuaded the council not to be behind-hand with the enemy, but to prevent the Scots invasion of England, by carrying the war directly into Scotland. Some scrupulous men, however, and among them general Fairfax, objećted to this, as being contrary to the covenant between the two nations. To which it was answered, “ That the Scots had already broken the covenant, and that therefore it was not now binding on the one side, after it had been dissolved on the other." So that they came at length to this refolution, “ That having a formed army, well provided and experienced, they would march it forthwith into Scotland, to prevent the Scots marching into England, and the miseries that might attend Tuch an invafion.” The lord-general Fairfax being again confulted herein, seemed at first to like the design; but having been afterwards persuaded by the Presbyterian minifters, and his own lady, who was a great patroness of them, he declared, “That he was not satisfied, that there was a juft ground for the parliament of England, to send their army to invade Scotland; but in case the Scots should invade England, then he was ready to engage against them in defence of his own


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