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than to see the walls of it levelled with the ground, and the dikes filled with earth ; thereby to curh the disaffection of the inhabitants. This done, he marched up in a triumphant manner to London, driving 4 or 5000 prisoners before him. Beyond Aylesbury, he was met by four commissioners from the parliament, whom they sent to pay him all the marks of honour and esteem. When he came to Acton, he was fo. lemnly met by the speaker, and the rest of the mem



form fingular good service, for which they deserve a very high estimation and acknowledgment; as also for their willingness thereunto, forasmuch as the same hath added so much to the reputation of your affairs : They are all dispatch'd home again ; which I hope, will be much for the ease and satisfaction of the coun. try, which is a great fruit of the successes.

The dimensions of this mercy are above my thoughts ; it is, for ought I know, a crowning mercy ; surely, if it be not, such a one we shall have, if this provoke those that are concerned in it to thankfulness, and the parliament to do the will of him, who hath done his will for- it, and for the nation whose good pleasure is, to establith the nation, and the change of the government, by making the people to willing to the defence thereof, and so fignally to bless the endeavours of your servants in this late great work. I am bold, humbly to beg, that all thoughts may tend to the promoting of his honour, who hath wrought so great salvation, and that the fatness of: these continued mercies may not occasion pride and wantonness, as formerly the like hath done to a chosen people. But that the fear of the Lord, even for his mercies, may keep an authority, and the people fo prospered, and blefied, and witnessed to, humble and faithful; that justice and righteousness, mercy and truth may flow from you, as a thankful return to our glorious God: This shall be the prayer of, Sir, your most humble and obedient servant,


bers and council of ftate ; and soon after by the lordmayor, aldermen and fheriffs, and many persons of quality, with the militia, and multitudes of people ; who welcomed him with loud thouts and acclamations, and several vollies of great and small shot. Whitelock says, he carried himself with great affability, and seeming humility ; and in all his discourses - about the business of Worcester, would feldom mention any thing of himself, but the gallantry of the officers and foldiers, and gave all the glory of the action unto God.

After some small repofe, on the 16th of September, he took his place in parliament, where the speaker made a speech to him, congratulating his return after so many atchievements, and giving him the thanks of the house for his services to the commonwealth. On the same day, he with his chief officers, was feasted in the city, with all posible state and pomp: and soon after two acts were drawn up, that were much to his honour ; one for a folemn thanksgiving-day, and the other for a yearly observation of the 38 of September, in all the three kingdoms. The parliament likewise settled 4000 1. a year upon him, out of the duke of Buckingham and the marquis of Worcester, besides 2,500 l. per Annum formerly granted.

$. 20. Soon after the battle of Worcester, the ille of Man, bravely defended by the heroick countess of Derby, and the ifle of Jersey, that had been long maintained by Sir George Carteret, were both redu. ced to the parliament's obedience. They had long since been masters of Guernsey, except the chief fort, called Cornet-castle, which had been a great while defended by Roger Burges, but was about the latter end of October surrendered by him upon very good articles. And the Scilly isles, which had been the chief harbour for the king's men of war, were some time before reduced by a part of the parliament's feet.

MajorMajor-general Monk, whom the lord-general had left in Scotland, to perfect the reduction of that king. dom, proceeded in his work with very good success. Before the fight of Worcester, he took Sterling, the chief strength of the Scots ; as alfo Dundee, with as terrible an execution as Cromwell had before used at Tredagh ; and surprised a convention of the Scotch nobility, among whom was old general Lesley, and fent them prisoners to London. The example that was made of Dundee, occasioned such a terror, that St. Andrews, Aberdeen, Dunbarton, and Dunnoter castles, with other towns, castles, and strong-holds, either voluntarily declared for the conquerors, or surrendered upon summons. Notwithstanding this

, the Scots made one attempt more, under Middleton, Huntley, Glencarne, and others in the Highlands : but they were foon suppressed and dispersed by colonel Morgan : fo that the English extended their conquests through all parts of the kingdom, even as far as the isles of Orkney and Shetland, which now submitted to them. After this, there was no more work for our general in the field; who therefore continued about London most of the remainder of his days.

And here I Mall dismiss the affairs of Scotland with the remarks that bishop Burnet makes on the state of that kingdom, after their absolute reduction of it under the power of the English. 56 After this, says he, the country was kept in great order : some castles in the Highlands had garrions put into them, that were so careful in their discipline, and so exact to their rules, that in no time the Highlands were kept in better order, than during the usurpation. There was a considerable force of about seven or eight thoufand men kept in Scotland : these were paid exactly, and striatly disciplined. The pay of the army brought so much money into the kingdom, that it continued all that while in a very flourishing state. Cromwell built three citadels, at Leith, Air, and Inverness, befides many little forts. There was good justice done, and vice was fuppressed and punished; fo that we al


ways reckon those eight years of usurpation, a time of great peace and prosperity. There was also a sort of union of the three kingdoms in one parliament, where Scotland had its representatives. The marquis of Argyle went up one of our commilliwners.

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$. 21. Thus have we gone through Cromwell's military life, and with as much brevity as poífible, except in two or three of the principal actions, which I have taken more at large from the historians of the time. His next conquest was over the parlia.rent who employed him, by another fort of warfare, in which he was no less expert and successful than in the open

field. But that will be the subject of another chapter. I would only oblerve at the end of this, that with whomsoever of the great captains of antiquity we compare him, Cromwell is in no danger of losing by the comparison*. Like Lucullus, he came to the field unexperienced, and Mone out at once an accomplished general. For the rapidity of his conquests he might vie withi Alexander, or, whom he more nearly resembled, with Julius Cæsar. That an army of veteran Greeks, though fewer in number, should triumph over the effeminate Asians, was what might well enough be expected: but where Roman was opposed to Roman, and Briton to Briton, it feems but an act of justice to ascribe it to the genesals, that one of these parties was for ever victorious ; especially if the party which prevailed, as in Cromwell's case, appeared at first under many disadvan tages.

Those who conclude, from the feverity used at Tredagh, and a few other places, that Cromwell in his temper was favage and cruel, are certainly much mistaken. We find him excuing those actions himself from the necessity of affairs, which has always been taken for a sufficient reason in matters of this

* See the panegyrick in the appendix.


E 3

nature. And if we consider the barbarities which the Triih, for some years before, had been pradising on the poor English protestants, especially in the horrid matiacre of 1641, we mould have no reason to wonder if a spirit of vengeance had prevailed in the Engliih army, when they had it in their power to rake retaliation. We see nothing however of this kind breaking out among them, which doubtless was owing, in a great meafure, to the good conduct of the general, and the firict discipline for which he was so remarkable.


Arview of Cromwell's conduet towards king Charles I.

with a vindication of bim in many particulars.

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$. 1. T cannot be denied that Cromwell, in a mul.

titude of instances, appears to have been a great master of diffimulation ; and if the old maxim be true, "s that he who knows not how to diffemble, knows not how to reign," we mall find it was neceffary for him to be fo. This puts us under a difficulty, however, with regard to many of his actions, to find what were his real motives and views. But if we may judge from a series of the most probable cira cuniitances, we have no reason to think that he had at first, or even for a long time after he arrived at great power, any settled design against the king's lise. It was owing to him *, indeed, that the king


* The animofities between the parliament and army fill continuing and increafing, the agitators feared the parliament would now, for their own fea curity, receive the king upon any terms, or rather


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