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an intention to carry on your war with vigour, | £17,750,000, as compared with £16,000,000, to which it had been reduced for the current period.

and the wish and hope of her majesty's government is, that that may be truly said of the people of England, with regard to this war, which was, I am afraid, not so truly said of Charles II. by a courtly but great poet, Dry


This financial scheme, bold, simple, and effectual, met with the support of men who were keen judges of finance, and among them was Joseph Hume, who accepted it on the ground that those who had urged the government to a war, the propriety of which could not yet be judged, should bear their share of its burdens. This was one of the latest votes of the veteran reformer, financier, and political economist. He was seventy-eight years old, and died in February of the following year (1855) after a parliamentary career of forty-four years, during which he did the country inestimable service in watching the national expenditure and pointing out the means of reducing taxation. The resolution for doubling the income-tax was passed without discussion or division, but on the following day an amendment was moved by Sir H. Willoughby to the effect that the collection of the additional moiety should extend over the whole year; and Mr. Disraeli, who had previously stated that he should not oppose the vote, as the house was bound to support her majesty in all just and necessary wars, came forward with a contention that the government was only justified in levying increased taxes if they could prove the war to be unavoidable. It was of course pointed out that this argument was equivalent to an expression of want of confidence and should have been followed by a proposed vote to that effect, but the leader of the opposition would not listen to this argument, urged that the government apparently had no confidence in the house or in themselves, quoted ministerial utterances to show what divergence of opinion had existed on the question whether there should be peace or war, and declared that these differences had in fact produced the present state of affairs. The war, he said, was "a coalition war," and had the cabinet been united it would have been prevented altogether. Obviously if these arguments were potent against voting in favour of the budget they more than justified want of confidence, and Mr. Gladstone, in reply, challenged that issue, saying that Mr. Disraeli

He without fear a dangerous war pursues,
Which without rashness he began before.'

That, we trust, will be the motto of the people of England; and you have this advantage, that the sentiment of Europe, and we trust the might of Europe, is with you. These circumstances though we must not be sanguine, though it would be the wildest presumption for any man to say, when the ravages of European war had once begun, where and at what point it would be stayed-these circumstances justify us in cherishing the hope that possibly this may not be a long war."

The plan was, as we have seen, to increase the income-tax, levying the whole addition for and in respect of the first moiety of the year, which was in effect to double the tax for the half year. The amount of the tax for 1854-55 was calculated at £6,275,000, and a moiety of that sum was £3,137,500; but as the cost of collection diminished in proportion to the amount obtained the real moiety would be £3,307,000, so that the whole produce of the income-tax would be £9,582,000. The aggregate income for the year would be £56,656,000, and as the expenditure was estimated at £56,186,000 this would leave a small probable surplus of £470,000. There were other changes of commercial importance, one of which was to abolish the distinction between home and foreign drawn bills, which were thenceforward to pay the same rate of duty. As the additions to the revenue could not be realized before the end of the year, and a large sum was immediately required to meet the expenses of the war, he brought forward a resolution for a vote of £1,750,000 for an issue of exchequer bills. It was not expected that it would be necessary to exercise this permission to its full extent, but should the necessity arise the unfunded debt would only stand as it stood twelve months before, when its amount was

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Common could scarcely be deemed a hostile rode with the prince and her guests down the movement, as it had been proposed early in lines, and afterwards witnessed the manquvres the year, and was part of a scheme for in- from a neighbouring height. The spectacle creasing the general efficiency of the army by was realistic-for the country was open, but training the troops to field operations in ac- broken by hollows, woods or thickets, streams cordance with modern manœuvres; but when and marshes-and a hundred thousand specthe various brigades were assembled the tators had assembled to witness it. The real spectacle presented was not without signifi- value of the camp was to be found in the daily cance. A party of sappers and miners went exercises, and though the weather for a great down to prepare the camping-ground, dig part of the two months during which the troops wells, clear away obstructions, and erect the were under canvas was exceptionally rainy more important stores and buildings; and on and tempestuous, the men showed themselves the 14th there arrived from various quarters to be remarkably efficient and enduring. four regiments of cavalry, three battalions of guards, two brigades of infantry each com- More suggestive than the maneuvres at prising three regiments, a troop of royal horse- Chobham, however, was the naval review held artillery, and three batteries of horse-artillery. at Spithead on the 8th of August. By that A company of sappers was there, and a pon- time the common impression was that war toon train formed part of the equipment. must soon become imminent, and the display Prince Albert went with the Duke of Cam- of a naval force was regarded not only as a bridge to visit the camp on the arrival of the determined manifestation, but as an exhibimen, and remained there for two or three tion of the enormous development, or rather days in command of the brigade of guards. the vast reconstruction, of our maritime armaHe took deep interest in the operations, and ments. There were altogether forty vessels of would have continued actively employed, but war, of which twenty-five were of chief imon his return to town with a severe cold was portance. Thirteen of these were screw and seized with an attack of measles, from which nine were paddle-wheel steamers, while three the royal children (except the two youngest), were sailing ships of the line. The steamand finally the queen herself, afterwards suf- vessels possessed a nominal total of nearly fered. The infection also reached the guests 10,000 horse-power, and an actual total of at Buckingham Palace, the young Crown- about 18,000 and of 44,146 tons, the number prince of Hanover and the Duke and Duchess of hands being about 10,000. There were of Coburg, who had left England before they 1087 guns, of which 68-pounders were the discovered that they had incurred the disorder, chief feature, the smallest of the guns being which they in turn had carried to the Duke 32-pounders and the largest throwing 84-pound of Brabant and the Count of Flanders, whom shells. At forty-five minutes past ten the they met on their homeward journey. This, royal yacht, the Victoria and Albert, entered however, was after the review and the trial between the leeward ships of the fleet, passing of field operations which took place be- the Vesuvius and the Terrible, and then profore the queen at Chobham on the 21st of ceeding straight down the line towards the June. The queen had been staying at Osborne, Duke of Wellington, gave an opportunity to whither she had gone a fortnight after the the vast number of persons congregated on birth of her fourth son (Prince Leopold) on the decks of the steamers, which brought pasthe 7th of April, and had returned on the 27th sengers to the spectacle, to welcome her majof May, so that this was her first appearance esty with bursts of enthusiastic cheering. After on any special public occasion after the event; the queen and the royal party had inspected bat early in the morning her majesty and the the Duke of Wellington, the signal was given prince, with the King of Hanover and the to weigh, and her majesty led the fleet out to Duke of Coburg, were on the ground; the sea, the royal yacht occupying a central posiqueen, on horseback in a military riding-habit, ' tion between“ the Dukeon the starboard and



the Agamemnon on the port side, but slightly | parture of troops by railway or by transport in advance of both. A few miles below the ships, the marching of well-known regiments mole the signal was given to form line abreast, through the streets, the clang and fanfare and at cable length from each other the line of military bands, the tramp of men, and from end to end extended for more than three the “ shrill squeaking of the wry-necked fife” miles. At 2:40 the signal was given to “chase,” or the drone of the bagpipe. They were to and later in the afternoon the review ended have part too in leave-takings, that were with a mock engagement between the princi- sad enough, and were remembered afterpal vessels. The weather was fine, and the wards when, during the terrible winter, there spectacle from the point of view of those who came home tidings from the British camp regarded it as a great warlike demonstration which made men and women wail, and utter was magnificent. Most of the members of the complaints that were little short of imprecaHouse of Commons with the speaker went to tions against a government which had presee the great show by special steamers pro- pared so ill for war that while men were vided for their accommodation. It was said upon the field to fight the foe, they had to that a hundred steam-boats carried spectators, fight cold and hunger and disease also, because and the royal circle included the three grand- food and drink, shelter and clothing, and duchesses, the Crown-prince of Wurtemburg, medicine, and even mules and horses, had the Duke of Mecklenburg, and the Prince of either not arrived or were beating about on Prussia, so there were plenty of witnesses shipboard at some port where they were useto report the proceedings not only to the two less, or were landed where there were no means neutral powers, but to the Emperor of Russia of conveying them to the soldiers who starved himself. Prince Albert afterwards wrote to and froze and sickened, but would not yield Stockmar: "The great naval review has come till death itself vanquished them. off, and surpassed all that could have been anticipated. The gigantic ships of war, among Before war had been formally declared both them the Duke of Wellington with 131 guns France and Russia had sent considerable forces (a greater number than was ever before as- to the East for the protection of Turkey, and sembled in one vessel), went, without sails, to act as might be required for that object. and propelled only by the screw, eleven miles | The British army consisted of four divisions an hour, and this against wind and tide! This commanded by Lieutenant General Sir George is the greatest revolution effected in the con- Brown, and Major-Generals the Duke of duct of naval warfare which has yet been Cambridge, Sir de Lacy Evans, and Sir known. Steam as well as sailing vessels will Richard England, and a division of cavalry of necessity be cast aside as useless, and men- under the Earl of Lucan. Altogether 10,000 of-war with the auxiliary screw will take of our troops left England at the end of their place. This will cost a great deal of February, 1854, and landed at Malta, where money till the change is effected, and render they remained till the 31st of March, when they many fleets, like the present Russian one, use- proceeded to Gallipoli, in European Turkey, less. We have already sixteen at sea and ten where the French were already arriving in in an advanced state. France has no more detachments, Marshal St. Arnaud, former than two, and the other powers none.

On minister of war, being in command, and under Thursday 300 ships and 100,000 men must have him General Canrobert and General Bosquet; been assembled on one spot. The fleet carried a brigade of cavalry under General d'Allonville, 1100 guns and 10,000 men. The weather, and reserves under Prince Napoleon, General moreover, was magnificent, and the impression Forey, and General Cassargnalles. The numwhich the spectacle presented sublime." ber of the French troops was at that time

Those people in London who had not been to 20,000, or twice as many as our own. The the naval review were soon to witness what choice of Gallipoli as a basis of operations was to them came nearer in significance—the de- that of the Emperor of the French, who had PUBLIC EXCITEMENT-PALMERSTON, COBDEN, AND BRIGHT. 41 determined that to fortify that place would Sea and also a part of the eastern shore bebe to prevent the Russians from crossing the longed to Russia; the southern, the Asia Balkan; but as a basis of operations it was Minor, and the greater part of the western too far from the Turkish armies and from shore was the territory of Turkey. The Black Constantinople. The emperor had, however, Sea itself was therefore little other than a instructed General St. Arnaud that though lake, but it was the only outlet for Russia on Gallipoli should be the strategical point and the south, its own sole escape being the deep the place of depôt for arms, ambulances, and and narrow channel of the Bosphorus, sevenprovisions, that need not prevent the troops teen miles long and repeatedly contracted to from marching forward or lodging one or two not more than half a mile in breadth, but divisions at the barracks at the west of Con- deep enough to carry large ships of war close stantinople or at Scutari; while, if, after to the shore throughout its entire course. This having advanced towards the Balkans, a move- channel passes between Constantinople and ment in retreat should become necessary they Scutari, and, flowing into the Sea of Marmora, would regain the coast of Gallipoli instead of may be said to reappear as a westward waterthat of Constantinople, because the Russians way under the name of the Dardanelles, which would never venture from Adrianople to Con- flow for forty miles till they reach the Medistantinople with an army of 60,000 good terranean. It is little to be wondered at that troops on their right flank. These instruc- the sultans of Turkey had always claimed the tions and the attitude afterwards assumed by right to exclude foreign ships of war from the French general looked a little too much both these channels,-a right which was conlike taking the initiative of command of the firmed by the five great powers of Europe in entire allied army for the taste of some people the treaty of 1841, which was the latest of here, but matters soon assumed a regular several treaties having the same object. By course. Lord Raglan did not arrive at Galli- its provisions the sultan had power to close poli till May, when more active measures than the straits against all foreign vessels of war, merely protective dispositions had to be adopt- and at the same time was bound to exclude ed. The war may, in fact, be said to have any such force in time of peace. In time of begun much as it continued. The results were war, however, he might admit a foreign fleet; attributable more to the soldiers than to the and this proviso enabled him, in such a congenerals. The French and English worked tingency, to shut up the western outlet of together harmoniously in a cheerful hearty Russia, and actually to confine the Russian spirit of emulation in making the seven miles fleet to the Black Sea. No other equitable of line of entrenchments on the crest of the arrangement would have been possible except ridge from the Gulf of Saros to the Sea of that of leaving the straits entirely open to the Marmora, just as they afterwards fought like navies of the world, and that would have illbrave comrades whenever there was fighting suited Russia, since it would have abolished to be done, and they were allowed to support the exclusive policy which left her influence or relieve each other amidst the tempest of foremost in Eastern Europe, and enabled her shot and fire. When the works were finished eagerly to watch foran opportunity of absorbing the forces moved to the Bosphorus, the French not only the straits, but Constantinople itself, occupying the European side near Constan- all events of holding both in subjection tinople, and our men landing on the eastern by her influence on the Ottoman government. side of the narrow Strait of Scutari.

The positions taken by the allied fleets and We have already tried to show that it is no the allied armies can only be estimated by part of the purpose of these pages to give proreference to the map of Europe, and an ac- minence to deeds of war, or to show to each quaintance with the conformation of the ter- reader the soldier standing in front and beritory where hostilities were likely to be coming the figure commenced. The northern shores of the Black “ That hides the march of men from us."

And yet such was the position which the came uppermost; and his humour, the quality nation chose to take during the earlier part which made him popular, and often not only of the Crimean war, that comparatively little saved him from defeat but secured his success, attention was paid even to some important had in it much of the Irish quality. It was measures brought before parliament, and amusing, althongh it is somewhat painful, other equally important occurrences in society. to note the thrill of aversion with which

Our soldiers and sailors deserved all the people holding certain dogmatic opinions were honour that they received, for they were affected by some of Lord Palmerston's sayings, actuated by a simple desire bravely to do that were uttered in perfect good faith as their duty, and they did it nobly; but the maxims of practical experience and without war fever had hold of the body of the nation. any reference whatever to so-called religious People suffering from its delirium, would doctrines. This of course does not wholly talk of little else than the Crimea and Sebas- apply to his answer to the Presbytery of Edintopol. Lord Palmerston had, as he was sure burgh, who had written to be informed whether to do, made a distinct reputation as home it was proposed, on account of the epidemic secretary. He gave his mind to the work of cholera, to appoint a day of national fast with his usual originality and blunt deter- and humiliation. His reply gave great ofmined common sense, and he was as indifferent fence at first, and it was probably designed as as ever to opinions with which he had no a smart rebuke. “ There can be no doubt," sympathy. Yet by his never failing bonhomie it said, “ that manifestations of humble reand shrewd wit he contrived to avoid making signation to the Divine will and sincere enemies. Only very earnest and deeply serious acknowledgments of human unworthiness are people, who would not accept his worldly never more appropriate than when it has philosophy for true wisdom, were long at pleased Providence to afflict mankind with variance with him, and even these could some severe visitation ; but it does not appear scarcely be proof against his inveterate good to Lord Palmerston that a national fast would

a humour. Between him and Cobden and be suitable to the circumstances of the present Bright, and men of their school, there could be moment. The Maker of the universe has no real agreement, and Palmerston himself established certain laws of nature for the did not pretend that any such agreement was planet on which we live, and the weal or woe possible. He seems almost to have gone out of mankind depends upon the observance or of his way to make himself appear as flip- the neglect of these laws. One of these laws pant and irreverent as he was accused of connects health with the absence of those being, for the purpose of showing how little gaseous exhalations which proceed from overhe cared for the remonstrances and the op- crowded human beings, or from decomposing position of Mr. Bright; and though during his substances whether animal or vegetable; and home secretaryship he said and did things these same laws render sickness the almost which were afterwards incontrovertible, he inevitable consequence of exposure to these contrived to say them in such a way as to

noxious influences. But it has at the same appear to carry a contemptuous expression to time pleased Providence to place it within the strait-laced and orthodox persons who (as power of man to make such arrangements as he clearly saw) regarded him with suspicion, will prevent or disperse such exhalations so as while they sought to influence his proceedings. to render them harmless, and it is the duty of In cases where most other ministers would man to attend to these laws of nature and to have thought it prudent merely to make exert the faculties which Providence has thus a brief statement or to give a simple reply, given to man for his own welfare. The recent Palmerston could not refrain from giving his visitation of cholera, which has for the moment reasons, for the sake, as it would seem, of been mercifully checked, is an awful warning challenging an adverse opinion. There was given to the people of this realm that they have an Irish side of his character which constantly I too much neglected their duty in this respect,

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