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HAYTI-SOULOUQUE AS "FAUSTIN I.”
with coats only, many without either coats or collar, and imperial cloak of the emperor, after breeches. The soldiers that had been lucky which were blessed the crown, cloak, and ring enough to procure shoes were more fortunate
of the empress. Then came the president of than their officers. There was a large tent the court of cassation (the supreme court of erected on the “Champ de Mars" capable of Hayti) accompanied by the deputies, and precontaining from ten thousand to twelve thou- sented to Soulouque the constitution of Hayti, sand people. At a distance of four hundred demanding of him to swear not to violate it; yards there was another, erected immediately upon which he placed the crown on his head, behind the government palace, which served and placed the Bible on the pages of the conas a robing-chamber for the imperial family. stitution, and said, “I swear to abide by the On the east-end stood a platform on which constitution, and to maintain the integrity and there was a Catholic altar; the rest of the independence of the empire of Hayti.” Then tent was partitioned off for the deputies, the master of the ceremonies cried aloud, nobles, ladies of honour (black), consuls, and “Long live the great, glorious, and august foreign merchants; the troops assembled and Emperor Faustin the First.” So ended the formed into a square, and a double line was pomp and pageantry of crowning this "nigger" stationed along the route leading to the palace, emperor. The accounts of it caused much in order to protect their majesties from vio- amusement in England, and when Louis Nalence. Then came the senators and deputies, poleon was crowned the occasion was not fordukes, earls, and ladies of honour, who were gotten by caricaturists and jokers. But there led to the place assigned to them by the was more than joking on the subject of the master of the ceremonies. Their majesties French emperor, for it must be remembered were to make their appearance at six o'clock that while Louis Napoleon was challenging a.m., but with true negro punctuality they did the admiration of most of us by his release of not arrive till nine. They were announced the grand old Algerian chief Abd-el-Kader by the discharge of artillery, music, and loud on parole, he was endeavouring to spread his and long vivas from the spectators, and none nets all over Europe with an eye to political shouted more lustily than the foreign mer- conspirators. Lord Malmesbury, our foreign chants, while at the same time they inwardly minister, nicknamed M. le Comte de Malmescursed Soulouque and his government for ruin- bury and much laughed at about “my French ing the conimerce of the country. Their majes-cook,” introduced into the Upper House an ties were preceded by the vicar-general. Her alarning bill for the extradition of “offenders,” majesty first made her appearance, attended including Englishmen, in favour of France. by her ladies of honour, under a canopy like It is enough to say that his lordship had to that which is seen at Roman Catholic cere- withdraw the measure, but it looked at one monies on the occasion of the procession of the time very near to getting passed. holy sacrament. She wore on her head a tiara, and was robed in the most costly apparel. At the time of which we are now speaking Before her husband was elected president she there was considerable excitement in relation had been a vender of fish. Soulouque him to Arctic enterprise, more particularly as to self then followed, accompanied by all the the fate of Sir John Franklin and the crews distinguished nobility, under a similar canopy, of the Erebus and Terror, which had sailed in wearing a crown that, it is said, cost thirty search of the north-west passage in 1845 and dollars, and having in his hand two sceptres. had not since been heard of. From 1847 onTheir majesties were led to the prie-dieu, wards, expeditions, both by land and sea, had where they first said their prayers, and they been despatched in search of the missing were then conducted to the throne. The ships, at a cost of about a million sterling to ceremonies then commenced by the vicar pro- the country. In the spring of 1852 the brig nouncing a solemn benediction on the crown, Renovation, of North Shields, came home sword, sword of justice, sceptre, cloak, ring, with a report that the captain and men had
seen two ships embedded in ice soinewhere off | betting and “betting-offices.” It was not yet Newfoundland. This brig was herself in the hour for the legislature to interfere with danger at the moment, and the captain so ill these precious institutions, and it is not yet a that he could hardly do more than "groan;" settled thing in all minds that it had any busibut the tidings naturally caused much discus- ness to interfere, or that it has done any good sion in England. The general conclusion, by meddling. But there never was any doubt after this discussion and comparing of notes, that the results of the “betting-oflice” system was that the whole story was the result of an were shocking. The thing began, probably, illusion not unfrequently occurring to nautical in a cigar-shop, with some such words in the observers of distant icebergs or masses of ice. window as “The Races! A List Kept Here.” A high authority expressed this opinion :-“I But after a time these places of resort were think,” he wrote, "they were 'country ships,' openly styled betting-offices, and a horrible as we whalers call them--formations upon an “roaring trade” was done. Servant-girls, iceberg which deceive even practised eyes. shop-boys, clerks, all and sundry, went and To place ships in such a position by the pro- betted, large numbers of the wretched advencess of freezing into an iceberg would require turers stealing the money of their employers thirty to forty years, and floe ice would have in order to “speculate." Courts of justice all been broken up with the western ocean swell over the country had a dreary tale to tell. In before it had even reached Cape Farewell. one town in the north of England as much as Not a piece of sufficient size would be found £50,000 was lost on one horse; and it was to contain even one ship, much less two. No found that very poor people had pawned iceberg of one-fourth of a mile would reach blankets and children's clothing to procure such a position; it must have been two pieces money for this kind of gambling! Meanof iceberys, and the vessel being five miles while the honest friends of the “turf," as it distant could not observe the water over the is called, were concerned in helping to expose detached ice. We have the experience of the this nuisance, for jockeys and stable-boys eleven whalers wintered on the ice; they all were frequently bribed by the proprietors of broke from their icebergs long before they these dreadful dens, to betray the secrets of reached Cape Farewell.”
their masters with regard to particular horses. Sir Edward Belcher expressed his belief The cry, once taken up, did not cease for long that two ships had been seen, not on, but be- until something was done. yond the iceberg, and that they were not the Erebus and Terror. No reliance, he said, It has already been hinted that the accession could be placed on the position or correctness of the Tory party to power was followed by of the objects seen over a field of ice. He in- one or two signs of a return to what were restanced a case which occurred to Captain Sir garded as repressive measures by the Radical Edward Parry, who, with a shooting party in side. There has always been a tendency among the Arctic regions, saw what every one of the high-and-dry politicians of the church-and-king party would have taken his oath was a herd school to limit that right of public meeting and of moose deer, until they came up to them, discussion which is so dear to Englishmen. after nearly a whole day's exertion, and found Now Mr. Home-Secretary Walpole was one they were a flock of ptarmigan. All this, of the best men that ever lived, and a sound however, while it added to what some people constitutional lawyer, a Christian gentleman might call “the poetry of the case,” kept the who would not for his life do a thing that he subject alive in the mind of friends at home, believed to be unjust. But he was not a man and it never died out till the expedition in of robust feeling and intelligence, and had the Fox under Captain M'Clintock.
somewhat feminine views on points of order.
Unfortunately he had excuse, or what looked One of the “social” topics which in 1852 like excuse, for interfering with certain meetbegan to attract serious attention was that of ings in the open air at the East-End of
EFFECTS OF AUSTRALIAN GOLD.
London, and he directed the police to check tion type had been written by Mr. Phillips or stop them. These were largely Sunday when young, and this unsavoury work—The meetings of artisans to discuss politics and Loves of Celestine and St. Aubert—was dug up religion, and were almost entirely “officered,” and brought into public notice for the purpose so to speak, by republicans and atheists. But of showing the inconsistency of the author; whatever power the law gives its adminis- while his defence of Courvoisier was made trators in such cases, it would have been the most of against him. Those personalities wiser for the new Tory government to "let are, however, a trifle. The important fact is, things slide,” than to interfere in a way which that the Liberal papers all over England, inthey were not prepared to follow up, and cluding some religious papers like the Nonconwhich was sure to provoke an outcry. Prac- formist of Mr. Edward Miall, took up the tically, their interference did only harm, and case, and made it the text of an argument for had to be given up; though the police re- permitting others than Quakers and Separatreated in due order; and the Sunday “orat- tists to “affirm." From this time forward the ing" in Bonner's Fields, beyond Bethnal Green, subject assumed a prominence that it neverlost. went on again finely.
In this connection may be noticed the rapid The gold discoveries in Australia were havincrease among the working-classes of the ing many startling effects both at home and in party now known as Secularists. For some the colonies, the derangement of the currency time previously Mr. Holyoake, who had led the and a rise in prices being among them. This anti-Christian and anti-theistic party, had felt was expected; but no human being was prethat it was a bad thing for them to be called pared for the escape of “Meagher of the “atheists,” and he succeeded in organizing the Sword,” one of the Irish patriots whom we had party of Secularism, and in establishing that sent to Australia for his share in the rising as the current name of the anti-religious of 1848. Mr. Meagher had the partial liberty body whose chief apostle he was. The point of a ticket-of-leave at the time of his escape, of the change of style lay in this, that a but did not violate its literal conditions. It man might adopt the formula of secularism ran as follows:-"I undertake not to escape without being an atheist, though, we may from the colony so long as I hold this ticketadd, it was exceedingly improbable that of-leave.” Having made previous preparations he should, and secularism utterly ignores all for his flight, with a horse saddled in his stable, questions of God and a future life.
and being armed with pistols, he addressed a Just at this time it happened that Mr. letter to the magistrate of Ross, about twenty Holyoake appeared as the "bail” in a bank- miles distant, and a township of the district ruptey case before Mr. Commissioner Phillips out of which he was not permitted to go.
The of Courvoisier celebrity-and declined to place in which he resided was the wild bush. take the usual oath. Being asked if he did In his letter he returned his ticket-of-leave not believe in a God, he replied that he was and said he would remain at his house that “not prepared to answer the question with day till twelve o'clock, when the leave expired, the brevity the court would require.” To the in order to give the authorities an opportunity question what he called himself he answered of arresting him if they could. When the that if he must take a name he should call magistrate read the letter he was astounded, himself
a Secularist. After a little more and he immediately ordered the chief of twaddle on both sides Mr. Commissioner police, who happened to be present, to proceed Phillips dismissed him with ungrammatical at once to arrest Meagher. The chief of police abuse: “Go and attend to your secularism, sir.” replied he would not do any such thing, as
Now Mr. Holyoake was an able man and a he was an Irishman, and that young gentlejournalist, and had friends and allies, so the man was an Irishman. “But you must do case made a great noise. An immoral and it,” retorted the magistrate. “Faith, I will irreligious novel of the worst French-revolu- not,” replied the Irishman; “I will resign
first." “But I will not accept your resig- | great privacy and retirement in the vale of
A very short time before the escape of looked a curious mixture of Romanist and
THE ACHILLI SCANDAL--WALPOLE'S MILITIA BILL.
Church. Father Newman, now Cardinal New- were obliged to give hush-money to the father man, was then lecturing at the Oratory, Bir- of one of your victims, as we learn from the mingham, and delivered an impassioned and official report of the police of Viterbo. You bitterly ironical attack on the character and are reported in an official document of the career of Achilli, which was included in a Neapolitan police to be known for habitual pamphlet on the "Logical Inconsistency of incontinency;' your name came before the the Protestant Point of View.” This attack civil tribunal at Corfu for the crime of aduicontained the libel for which Father Newman tery. You have put the crown on your was now indicted. It charged Achilli openly offences by, as long as you could, denying with the very worst offences that could be them all; you have professed to seek after alleged against a minister of religion ; with truth when you were ravening after sin. Yes, deliberate atheistic treachery and hypocrisy, you are an incontrovertible proof that priests and with the grossest immorality. The libel may fall and friars break their vows. You alleged—and this was proved at the trial- are your own witness; but while you need that he had been deprived of his office as a not go out of yourself for your argument, priest by his clerical superiors, and it was neither are you able. With you the argustated that he had then lived almost publicly ment begins; with you, too, it ends; the in Italy with the wife of a chorus-singer. beginning and the end you are both. When But publicity or privacy was-according to you have shown yourself you have done your the libel—all one to Achilli, and the sacristy worst, and your all; you are your best arguof a church was mentioned as the scene of ments, and your sole. Your witness against some of the evil acts of wbich he was accused. others is utterly invalidated by your witness
Two of his wife's English servant-girls, one against yourself.” of thera little more than a child, came forward It would be impossible to quote any of the to give evidence against him. Protestants evidence, except that which related to Dr. found it difficult to believe that a man making Achilli's being deprived of all ecclesiastical the most solemn professions of piety and functions for ever, and some of the less imporpurity could be guilty of the iniquities tant testimony of Lord Shaftesbury and other with which he was charged; but a very Englishmen. The trial lasted three days. black story was brought out by Sir A. Cock- Lord Campbell summed up by merely reading burn for the defence. An account of Achilli's his notes with a few connecting remarks, and career, true or false, was published in the the jury found a verdict for the crown. This great Roman Catholic organ the Dublin Re- was received with repeated cheers, which, it vieu, and was left unnoticed for fifteen months. was noted, Lord Campbell did not attempt to A few passages, much condensed, from Dr. stop. The Times wrote an indignant article, Newman's terrible indictment may be placed maintaining that the administration of justice on record here.
in England had received a terrible blow in a “You speak truly, 0 Achilli, and we cannot trial the like of which had not been seen answer you a word. You are a priest; you since the first triumphs of Titus Oates. At have been a friar; you are, it is undeniable, the same time Achilli's residence was besieged the scandal of Catholicism and the palmary by congratulating visitors. argument of Protestants, by your extraordinary depravity. You have been, it is To return for a moment to some of the true, a profligate, an unbeliever, and a hypo- movements which distinguished the portencrite. Not many years passed of your con- tous session of 1852, it may be mentioned ventual life, and you were never in choir, that the Militia Bill, introduced by Mr. Walalways in private houses, so that the laity pole and warmly supported by the Duke of observed you. You were deprived of your Wellington, was generally held to be an improfessorship, we own it; you were prohibited provement on that of Lord John Russell, and from preaching and hearing confessions; you was at the time largely accredited to Lord