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re-establish the ancient rule under the King of natives that the new cartridges were to be Delhi, a feeble old man upwards of eighty soaked in unclean grease, and for a highyears

of

age, whose sons were ready to assert class Hindoo, or even a Mohammedan, to place their claims and to take an active part in the in his mouth anything so defiling would have revolt.

been abominable. Not a single cartridge It will, of course, be seen that the inevit- had been issued to the troops at this time, able influence of better government, greater and when it was known that so much anfreedom, and the teachings of a higher religion tipathy had been expressed on account of in abolishing slavish customs, as well as in the greasy matter used in their construction, destroying degrading superstitions, differs none were supplied, though at the same time essentially from the effects of that contemp- it was denied that the fat of cows or pigs had tuous disregard which does not scruple need- been used. Of course it may be said that lessly to outrage opinions and observances, those in authority should have been well acthat, however absurd they may appear to be, quainted with the Hindoo caste and the imare yet part of a widely spread, or even a portance which the Brahmins attached to national, social, and religious organization. The keeping themselves undefiled. The mistake main body of Sepoys of Oudh were believed of proposing to use cartridges which were preto have held their allegiance to the British pared with any kind of grease, when the men government, while only the legitimate intlu- were compelled to put them into their mouths ences inseparable from the new rule were in that they might bite them before loading their operation, and until the numerous and busy rifles, was either inexcusable folly and ignorpromoters of sedition succeeded in persuading ance, or a specimen of that indifference to them that not only was their nationality and which reference has been made. The greased their religion to be superseded, but that by an cartridges were not issued; but unhappily the act of immediate outrage their caste was to be suspicious Asiatic temper was aroused, and derided, and their most sacred obligations ready to flash out on the least sign of the defiled.

hated thing against which cunningly devised It would be impossible to determine at what warnings had been circulated with extraorparticular moment this representation wrought dinary rapidity. Some cartridges made at the mutiny; but the authors of it were not Semapore differed slightly in the colour of slow to seize with adroit alacrity on one par- the paper from those formerly used, and at ticular occurrence to which they pointed as Barrackpore where these were given out disthe first attempt to ruin the Brahminical content began to manifest itself. The men caste, and to make those who held it worse were assured that the difference in colour was than pariahs-excommunicated and accursed. not the effect of grease, that not a particle of

The introduction of the Enfield rifle made fat of any sort had been used in their manuit necessary to use a new kind of cartridge, in facture, and that there was not the slightest the manufacture of which some kind of grease desire to insult or to change the religion of or oil had to be used in order to render it the native soldiers. To allay suspicions a effective. How this was made known it would chemical examination of the cartridges was be useless to conjecture, but it was said that in ordered in order to prove that they were in the course of some dispute between a Mo- no way defiled with the unclean substance; hammedan and a Brahmin, the latter referred but the emissaries of the conspiracy were still to his caste, when the former retorted, “Your busy in the ranks, and on the 25th of Februcaste, indeed! the English government will ary, 1857, a regiment of men on parade resoon make you bite cartridges greased with cow fused to receive their ammunition. The same and pig fat, and what will become of your night they broke open the huts where their caste then?” Whether this was one of the arms were piled, took possession of the rifles inventions of the time matters little. It is and ammunition, and carried them to their certain that the report spread among the lines. The colonel summoned the cavalry

a

MEERUT-DELHI-LAHORE.

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shelter, and it was supposed that the native scending the ladders, after which the enemy troops would protect them; but the wretches appeared in great numbers on the top of the only waited till the place was filled with these walls, where an incessant fire was kept up on defenceless refugees, upon whom they began them by the two gunners, Buckley and Scully, firing when there were no means of escape.

who loaded and handled their guns with steady Some few of the poor creatures got away precision, firing round after round as long as by dropping down into the ditch from a a shot remained, though the Sepoys kept up a bastion of the tower, and with the help of volley of musketry within forty or fifty yards. two or three of the officers escaped to the When the last round was fired Lieutenant bushes and the jungle, whence they were Willoughby gave the order for exploding the afterwards rescued by an escort of cavalry magazine, and Scully immediately obeyed by from Meerut. In a house near the great firing the trains. A terrificexplosion took place, mosque of Delhi a number of Europeans had and those who escaped from beneath the ruins taken refuge, and as they had no water to rushed out through the sally-port on the river drink, they begged to be taken to the palace. front, Lieutenant Willoughby being so seriThe rebels swore that if they would lay down ously wounded that he died shortly afterwards, their arms, water should be given them, and but the two other lieutenants surviving. Delhi that they should be taken in safety to the could then only be retaken by the operations king. They did so, and were immediately of a besieging army determined to force a seized, placed in a row, and shot without mercy.

On the 11th of May news of the mutiny at The principal magazine in Delhi was under Meerut reached Lahore. Sir John Lawrence the care of Lieutenants Willoughby, Forest, was away at Rawul Pindee, in the upper part and Raynor. Directly they heard of the of the district, but Mr. Robert Montgomery, revolt, these officers ordered the gates to be the judicial commissioner, was a man capable closed and barricaded, while inside the gate of acting on an emergency. Not a moment leading to the barrack were placed two six- was to be lost in keeping the mutiny out of pounders, loaded with grape, beside which the Punjaub, which was the direction from stood gunners with lighted matches in their which the insurrection must be stamped out; hands ready to fire. The principal gate of the

while the loss of it would have been more magazine was defended by two guns with than a disaster, and might have resulted in at chevaux de frise on the inside, and two six- least the temporary paralysis of our ability to pounders commanding the gate, and a small cope with the enemy, and the possible necesbastion in the vicinity. Within sixty yards sity for slowly reconquering a large part of of the gate were three more six-pounders, and India infected by the rebellion. The first a howitzer which could be so managed as to act thing to be done was to recapture Delhi, and upon any part of the magazine in its neigh- with such a force as would effectually defeat bourhood. Arms were given to the native and punish the insurgents. The immediate troops who were inside the magazine, but they question was: Had the native soldiers at received them so reluctantly that it was evi- Meean Meer, a large military cantonment fiveor dent they only wanted an opportunity to six miles from Lahore, already been tampered join the mutineers. These arrangements had with till they were ready for revolt? Nobody scarcely been made when guards from the could tell, and it was necessary to act with palace came and demanded possession of the decision. The probabilities were that messages magazine in the name of the King of Delhi. of sedition might have reached those regiNo answer was given to this summons, and ments, and though there was a danger of soon afterwards scaling-ladders were placed driving them to rebellion by harshly assuming against the wall. The troops inside immedi- that they were already disaffected, there was ately clambered up the sloped sheds of the a still greater risk in leaving them in a magazine, and joined the insurgents by de- position to spread the revolt through the plied to them, which were of the same kind without opposition, and immediately began to as those they had been using for several attack with swords and carbines every Euromonths. These men were sentenced to ten pean whom they met. After several civil years' imprisonment, and were marched off officers had been killed, notice was sent to the chained and handcuffed to the jail. The brigadier, and a regiment of native infantry European troops at Meerut consisted of de- with two guns was marched down from the tachments of the 60th Rifles, 6th Dragoon cantonment. It passed through the Cashmere Guards (carabineers), and the Bengal artillery, Gate in good order, but once in the city it met who were posted about 3 miles from the some of the mutineers, and instantly the Sepoys native camp. The court-martial was held on of which it was composed ran to the side of a Saturday, and on the next evening (that of the road and left the officers to the fire of the Sunday) the native regiments suddenly rose enemy. All the officers were shot down, and in furious mutiny, fired upon their officers, and the regiment then joined the mutinous Sepoys, marched off to the jail to release the prisoners. who were drunk with bhang, in the work of The prison was set on fire, and above 1000 carnage, riding up to their victims at full convicts set free. These with the rabble of gallop and shooting them without mercy. the town joined the mutineers and committed A crowd of residents in great terror made horrible atrocities on the European residents- their way to the Flagstaff Tower in front of the ladies and little children being stripped, mur- cantonments. A company of native infantry dered, and their bodies hacked and slashed was stationed there, and a large party of ladies with swords. Nearly every European house and gentlemen with several officers who were was attacked, and a great number of officers well armed went up to a round tower which were killed. The alarm first reached the commanded the road. But the regiment there troops when they were preparing for church was also mutinous. The explosion of a magaparade, and they immediately marched on the zine in the city was the signal for them to native lines and poured in a fire of grape

and rush to arms and join the insurgents. The musketry. One regiment of native infantry best chance was for the Europeans to make an and the cavalry which was also stationed there effort to escape, and most of the ladies got fled towards Delhi; and though the cara- away in conveyances escorted by the gentlebineers pursued them and cut many of them men on horseback, the larger part of them down a large number escaped. Had they reaching Kurnaul, while others sought a refuge been all killed the mutiny might have been at Meerut. But elsewhere within the walls less terrible and would have been sooner sup- of Delhi, the scene was one of horror. The pressed. But the night was dark, the insur- aged king was at the palace, and many Eurogents set fire to the bungalows, and the women peans had fled thither to claim his protection. and children required immediate protection. With his knowledge and in the presence of The 11th Native Infantry took no part in the his two sons they were brutally cut down or mutiny, but they remained neutral except in shot-ladies being stripped and forced to the matter of protecting their own officers. walk about naked before they were hacked They neither helped to prevent the station to pieces, their infants having been tossed on being burned, nor interfered when women and the points of bayonets before their eyes. The children were being hacked to pieces or were mutiny had now grown to a wild frenzied lust frantically seeking for some place of conceal- for blood. No cruelty seemed too horrible ment. On Monday morning the 11th of May, for the Sepoys to perpetrate. The English the Sepoys of the 3rd Light Cavalry who had officers who stayed with their regiments as an escaped from Meerut reached the walls of act of duty, and strove to restrain them from Delhi, and these were but the forerunners of joining in the revolt, were mostly shot down the great army of insurgents, which afterwards or stabbed to death. In a fortified bastion came from all quarters to the city ready for near the Cashmere ce, a number of Euroany outrage. They entered the gates of Delhi peans, mostly women and children, had sought MEERUT-DELHI-LAHORE.

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shelter, and it was supposed that the native scending the ladders, after which the enemy troops would protect thein; but the wretches appeared in great numbers on the top of the only waited till the place was filled with these walls, where an incessant fire was kept up on defenceless refugees, upon whom they began them by the two gunners, Buckley and Scully, firing when there were no means of escape. who loaded and handled their guns with steady Some few of the poor creatures got away precision, firing round after round as long as by dropping down into the ditch from a a shot remained, though the Sepoys kept up a bastion of the tower, and with the help of volley of musketry within forty or fifty yards. two or three of the officers escaped to the When the last round was fired Lieutenant bushes and the jungle, whence they were Willoughby gave the order for exploding the afterwards rescued by an escort of cavalry magazine, and Scully immediately obeyed by from Meerut. In a house near the great firing the trains. A terrificexplosion took place, mosque of Delhi a number of Europeans had and those who escaped from beneath the ruins taken refuge, and as they had no water to rushed out through the sally-port on the river drink, they begged to be taken to the palace. front, Lieutenant Willoughby being so seriThe rebels swore that if they would lay down ously wounded that he died shortly afterwards, their arms, water should be given them, and but the two other lieutenants surviving. Delhi that they should be taken in safety to the could then only be retaken by the operations king. They did so, and were immediately of a besieging army determined to force a seized, placed in a row, and shot without mercy.

On the 11th of May news of the mutiny at The principal magazine in Delhi was under Meerut reached Lahore. Sir John Lawrence the care of Lieutenants Willoughby, Forest, was away at Rawul Pindee, in the upper part and Raynor. Directly they heard of the of the district, but Mr. Robert Montgomery, revolt, these officers ordered the gates to be the judicial commissioner, was a man capable closed and barricaded, while inside the gate of acting on an emergency. Not a moment leading to the barrack were placed two six- was to be lost in keeping the mutiny out of pounders, loaded with grape, beside which the Punjaub, which was the direction from stood gunners with lighted matches in their which the insurrection must be stamped out; hands ready to fire. The principal gate of the while the loss of it would have been more magazine was defended by two guns with than a disaster, and might have resulted in at chevaux de frise on the inside, and two six- least the temporary paralysis of our ability to pounders commanding the gate, and a small cope with the enemy, and the possible necesbastion in the vicinity. Within sixty yards sity for slowly reconquering a large part of of the gate were three more six-pounders, and India infected by the rebellion. The first a howitzer which could be so managed as to act thing to be done was to recapture Delhi, and upon any part of the magazine in its neigh- with such a force as would effectually defeat bourhood. Arms were given to the native and punish the insurgents. The immediate troops who were inside the magazine, but they question was: Had the native soldiers at received them so reluctantly that it was evi- Meean Meer, a large military cantonment fiveor dent they only wanted an opportunity to six miles from Lahore, already been tampered join the mutineers. These arrangements had with till they were ready for revolt? Nobody scarcely been made when guards from the could tell, and it was necessary to act with palace came and demanded possession of the decision. The probabilities were that messages magazine in the name of the King of Delhi. of sedition might have reached those regiNo answer was given to this summons, and ments, and though there was a danger of soon afterwards scaling-ladders were placed driving them to rebellion by harshly assuming against the wall. The troops inside immedi- that they were already disaffected, there was ately clambered up the sloped sheds of the a still greater risk in leaving them in a magazine, and joined the insurgents by de position to spread the revolt through the province. There was to be a festival at La- buildings, and fired into the mess-room of the hore on the night when the intelligence of the officers. One or two officers were afterwards mutiny reached the commissioner-a grand shot dead; and it was not until a part of the ball and supper—and the entertainment was 32nd had charged the rebels, and the artillery not postponed. It was in full swing while opened upon them, under the personal directhe leading civil and military officials held tion of Sir Henry Lawrence, that they gave brief but earnest council. It was decided at way and quitted the cantonments. They reonce to disarm the native troops. A parade tired to Moodripore, where they were joined was ordered to be held at daybreak at Meean by the 7th Light Cavalry, who murdered one Meer, and when the four columns of Sepoys of their officers on the spot. came on the ground, so well had the military The state of Lucknow now became threatendisposition been made, that the head of the ing in the extreme; but Sir Henry Lawrence columns came in front of twelve guns charged hoped by vigorous measures of repression to with grape, the artillerymen standing ready strike terror into the minds of the inhabitants to fire, and the European soldiers behind with and prevent a general rising. Numbers of loaded muskets. The word of command was men convicted of tampering with the troops given to the Sepoys to pile arms.

There was

were hanged on a gallows erected in front of nothing for it but to obey, or to be swept by the Mutchee Bhawn, and two members of the fire from the cannon, and shot down by a the royal family at Delhi, and a brother of volley from the British infantry. The arms the ex-king of Oudh, were arrested and imwere piled and borne away in carts under the prisoned there. The Residency itself was guard of European soldiers. Similar precau- crowded with women and children, and every tions were taken at Mooltan, in the lower prov

house and outhouse was occupied. Preparaince, and the Punjaub was saved. The great tions for defence were continued, and thousands point, then, was to attack Delhi, and Lord Can- of Coolies employed at the batteries, stockades, ning, knowing that there was not a moment to and trenches, which were everywhere being lose, boldly determined on an expedient which, constructed. The treasure and ammunition, though it required indemnification from the of which, fortunately, there was a large supply, government, was the act of a man eminently were buried, and as many guns as could be capable of grasping even such a desperate collected brought together. The Residency situation as that in which he found himself. and Mutchee Bhawn presented most aniThe termination of hostilities with Persia had

mated scenes. There were soldiers, Sepoys, fortunately released the forces from Herat, prisoners in irons, men, women, and children, under Sir James Outram, Colonel Jacob, and hundreds of servants, respectable natives in Colonel Havelock, and they were hastening their carriages, Coolies carrying weights, onward to the seat of the mutiny, but further heavy cannons, field-pieces, carts, elephants, reinforcements were needed in less time than camels, bullocks, horses, all moving about that in which troops could arrive from Eng- hither and thither, and continual bustle and land. Lord Canning knew that a force had noise was kept up from morning to night. been despatched to China to put an end to the There was scarcely a corner which was not in war there: but the Chinese war could wait, some way occupied and turned to account. while delay in India might be fatal: he Sir Henry Lawrence was, as we have seen, therefore intercepted the troops which were governor of Oudh, to which he had removed on their way to Canton, and pressed them from taking part in the government of the into the more imminent service of the sup- Punjaub in consequence of some difference of pression of the Indian mutiny.

opinion between him and his brother John. At the end of May the mutiny broke out in Like the rest of the mutineers the irregular the cantonments at Lucknow, amongst the cavalry stationed near Lucknow had refused lines of the 71st N. I., and soon became gen- to bite their cartridges, and their discontent eral. The Sepoys burned down some of the was communicated to the troops in the city

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