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noise gradually lessened, and at nightfall the blood of these poor wretched creatures. Porcxecutioners could lock the doors and retire tions of their dresses, collars, children's socks, from the building, with the feeble moans of and ladies' round hats lay about, saturated a few half-slaughtered women ringing in with blood; and in the sword-cuts on the their ears.

Three at least survived till the wooden pillars of the room, long dark hair morning (the 16th), when the doors of the was carried by the edge of the weapon, and slaughter-house were once more opened, and there hung their tresses-a most painful sight. the naked bodies and dismembered limbs I have often wished since that I had never dragged ignominiously across the compound been there, but sometimes wish that every to a dry well situated behind some trees which soldier was taken there, that he might witgrew near by. The three (says the writer ness the barbarities our poor countrywomen here quoted) prayed for the sake of God that suffered. Their bodies were afterwards an end might be put to their suffering. dragged out and thrown down a well outside Their prayer was heard. Their bodies were the building, where their limbs were to be cast with the others into the well, and the seen sticking out in a mass of gory confusion.” bloody work fitly finished by the slaughter of A thrill of horror at these fiendish outrages, two fair-haired children, who in some un- a moan of lamentation that they had occurred known manner had escaped the sword the before help could reach the victims, a lightning night before, and were moving in childish flash of fury against the wretches who had terror about the well. One person was of committed such crimes, went through England, opinion that the man who threw them in, first and had been already experienced by the took the trouble to kill the children-others Europeans and the army in India. The thought not."

avenging sword was already impending over “I have seen the fearful slaughter-house." the assassins, and the footsteps of the general writes the Times' correspondent, “and also who directed it was on the track which they one of the First Native Infantry men, ac- had marked with blood. Sir Colin Campbell, cording to order, wash up part of the blood that stout veteran of the Crimea, had been which stains the floor, before burying the appointed by the government in London, quantities of dresses, clogged thickly with commander-in-chief of the Indian forces, and blood; childrens' frocks, frills, and ladies' was who was sent out, to hasten, with underclothing of all kinds; also boys' trousers, fresh troops, to the relief of the forces already leares of Bibles, and of one book in particular, engaged. He lost no time about it. A few which seemed to be strewed over the whole hours after he had received orders he emplace, called Preparation for Death; also barked, and he reached Calcutta on the 14th broken daguerreotype cases only, lots of them, of August, where he at once issued an address and hair, some nearly a yard long; bonnets to the army—an army which, after it had been all bloody, and one or two shoes. I picked considerably reinforced, amounted to fewer up a bit of paper with on it ‘Ned's hair, than 5000 men. But another general was with love,' and, opened, I found a little bit sternly treading on the heels of the enemy tied up with a ribbon.”

before Sir Colin arrived at the scene of action. An officer in Havelock's corps thus describes The name of Henry Havelock was already the appearance of the place when the aveng- known in India; but in a few weeks it was to ing army entered the town on the 17th:-“I sound like a stirring trumpet blast not only was directed to the house where all the poor over the East, but throughout England, so miserable ladies had been murdered. It was swift and brilliant was the heroic march of alongside the Cawnpore Hotel, where the the small force that he led to victory and to Nana lived. I never was more horrified. The the execution of the sentence for which the place was one mass of blood. I am not ex- world was waiting. There was in General aggerating when I tell you that the soles of Havelock something of the staid, grave Purimy boots were more than covered with the tan type of soldier, but with much underlying

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sweetness. He was more than sixty years old, | walls, and houses of solid masonry, approached and had for thirty-four years been serving in the East. He was in the Burmese war of 1824, and the Sikh war of 1845. Always of a serious temperament, Havelock had been known, even when he was a Charterhouse school-boy, by the half-endearing sobriquet of "old phlos," meaning old philosopher; and his religious training as a member of the Baptist communion had tended to deepen and intensify his earnest character by the sanctions and influences of religion. It may be said that Havelock's was a very rare, if not a unique character, among officers in the army in modern times. Not because there are not good and religiously disposed gentlemen holding her majesty's commission, but because his earnestness and example were exerted for the purpose of influencing the men under his command, and did influence them, so that at all events drunkenness and profane language were not tolerated in their ranks, and the observances of religion held a definite, and, as it appeared, an honoured and sacred place among their daily engagements. Perhaps never since the old Puritan or the Huguenot times had there been an entire regiment with the characteristics which distinguished "Havelock's Saints," as they were called; and they carried the resemblance still further when fighting had to be done by doing it with all their might. They seemed to go to their terrible work as Cromwell's Ironsides went to theirs, or in the manner of the French refugees at the Battle of the Boyne.

by swamps, fronted by hillocks, villages, and large groves, which were occupied by the enemy, who began to cannonade the advanc ing fronts of the British, and to threaten their flanks with cavalry and infantry. But Havelock, by a rapid disposition of his men, and the quickness and range of the fire from the Enfield rifles, was able to push his artillery forward, and commence a tremendous volley, under cover of which the British line advanced, and the enemy, abandoning three of their guns, fell back on the town, from which, however, they were subsequently driven and pursued when they endeavoured to make a stand, so that at length they broke in disorder and fled, leaving twelve cannon and numbers of dead upon the field. The victorious column then marched on to Cawnpore, driving out the rebels at the various places on which they encountered them, in a series of sharp engagements which lasted till they were within eight miles of the city. It was on hearing of the advance of the British column that Nana Sahib ordered the massacre of the women and children. He then took up a position at a village where the Grand Trunk road united with the road leading to the military cantonment of Cawnpore. His intrenchments rendered both roads impassable, and his guns had been drawn up all along his position, which consisted of a series of villages. It was evident that he expected the British to attack in front, but Havelock was too able a soldier to fall into such an error. He halted his troops for two or three hours in the mango groves, that they might rest from the burning heat and cook their rations. Then moving them off so that they could defile round the left, so ranged them, that the guns were at intervals ready for attack or defence. It was a difficult manoeuvre, for the enemy, perceiving it, began to play shot and shell from the whole of his guns; but our men advanced in the face of the heavy fire, took the guns, drove out the mutineers, and afterwards entirely routed them. At daybreak, before our column had recommenced its march, a tremendous explosion was heard. It was the magazine at Cawnpore, which the miscreant Nana Sahib

Unhappily General Havelock had not reached Calcutta in time to make an effort to avert the horrible tragedy at Cawnpore; but immediately on his arrival he went to Allahabad to organize the troops which had arrived there in small detachments from various places as quickly as the imperfect means of transport would allow. With 1200 men he pushed forward at once, half way to Cawnpore, and on the road was joined by Major Renard, who, with 800 men, had been suppressing the revolt in that neighbourhood. The whole force was about 1400 British bayonets, eight guns, and about 500 of the native troops. A force of the mutineers 3500 strong occupied Futtehpore, a place full of garden inclosures, strong


had blown up as he quitted the place, where, it is said, he stayed long enough to order the murder of one woman, who had escaped or survived the massacre; he then fell back upon his fortress at Bithoor; but he feared to stay there, for he knew that his life was not worth a moment's purchase if the British should force it and capture him.

We have already indicated the horrible spectacle that awaited Havelock's column when the men entered Cawnpore. Among the stories current afterwards was a report that the soldiers had picked up and divided among themselves a tress severed from the head of one of the murdered girls, and had sworn that for every hair a Sepoy should die. If that vow was ever made, it was kept to the full.

General Neill, who was afterwards killed on the entry of the troops into Lucknow, soon arrived from Benares, and was left in charge at Cawnpore while General Havelock continued his march. That march was marked by a series of tremendous conflicts, which commenced immediately after crossing the Ganges and through the part of the Oudh territory towards Lucknow. The troops of Nana Sahib, that is to say, the army of the mutinous Sepoys, had occupied strong positions on the route, and had planted their artillery so that, with their vastly superior numbers, they had a tremendous advantage. But the spectacle at Cawnpore would, if anything had been needed, have fired our men to even more daring than that of attacking with the impetuosity of anger what might have seemed to be overwhelming forces. They rushed at the foe, broke through intrenchments, sprang upon the earthworks, and, with ringing cheers and unbroken spirit, drove the flying Sepoys into full retreat, capturing their guns and giving no quarter.

The column was worn out with fatigue, and had to recross the river to Cawnpore, where they joined General Neill's troops, who were being menaced from Bithoor by a strong body of rebels-a body of Nana Sahib's troops -who had occupied a plain densely covered with thickets, flanked by villages, and intersected by streams; while behind were the nar




row streets and brick houses of Bithoor. other battle had therefore to be fought by the weary column, and it was fought and won, the enemy being driven out and the guns captured, though the want of cavalry prevented pursuit.

These were the kind of battles fought in that horrible mutiny, and nine of them had been Havelock's share. His column was reduced to 700 men, and he fell back on Cawnpore for breathing time and to wait for reinforcements, which Sir James Outram was bringing from Calcutta. Sir James Outram, who was returning from the Persian war, which had been brought to a conclusion, was sent to Oudh as chief-commissioner with full civil and military power, and had he marched to Cawnpore in that capacity he would have superseded Havelock and snatched from him his well-earned laurels; but with a noble sense of justice which the general must have deeply appreciated, he wrote to tell of his coming, and concluded the letter by saying: "To you shall be left the glory of relieving Lucknow, for which you have already struggled so much. I shall accompany you only in my civil capacity as commissioner, placing my military service at your disposal, should you please, and serving under you as a volunteer."

On the 19th and 20th of September the relieving force had crossed the Ganges-infantry, artillery, and a few cavalry, in all about 2500 men and with 17 guns. They had to fight their way by another series of engagements, and the troops, tired, ill-fed, and after marching in a deluge of rain, had to rest under their tents before advancing on the town.

It was not till the 25th of September that the welcome clamour of the relieving force aroused the sufferers at Lucknow, who had been besieged by the rebel Sepoys for eightyseven days. The fighting during the day was so severe that at nightfall Sir James Outram proposed to halt till morning within the courts of the Mehal. "But," writes General Havelock, "I esteemed it to be of such importance to let the beleaguered garrison know that succour was at hand, that with his ulti


mate sanction I directed the main body of the Agra, and the exploits which were followed by 78th Highlanders, and the regiment of Feroze- the continuation of the march of the column pore, to advance. This column rushed on under Brigadier Hope Grant to Cawnpore, with a desperate gallantry, led by Sir James and thence to the Alumbagh on the 8th of Outram and myself, and Lieutenants Hudson November, contributed largely to the rapid and Hargood of my staff, through streets of success of the operations which stamped out flat-roofed loopholed houses, from which a the mutiny. perpetual fire was kept up; and, overcoming By the end of September eighty ships had every obstacle, established itself within the successively reached Calcutta from England, inclosure of the Residency. The joy of the carrying 30,000 troops. As the regiments garrison may be more easily conceived than arrived they were sent up the country to described; but it was not till the next even- Cawnpore as quickly as possible, but it was ing that the whole of my troops, guns, tum- not till the 9th of November that Sir Colin brils, and sick and wounded, continually | Campbell was able to march from Cawnpore exposed to the attacks of the enemy, could for the final relief of Lucknow, then hemmed be brought step by step within the enceinte in by overwhelming numbers of the rebels. and the adjacent palace of the Fureed Buksh. On the 15th of November, the march of Sir To form an adequate idea of the obstacles Colin Campbell to the Residency was teleovercome reference must be made to the graphed from the Alumbagh, and, not heedevents that are known to have occurred at ing the danger, many gallant fellows mounted Buenos Ayres and Saragossa. Our advance the tower of the fortress to watch the onward was through streets of houses such as I have career of that cloud of fire and smoke which described, and thus each forming a separate marked the position of the veteran's army. fortress. I am filled with surprise at the Most of us have heard the story of the success of the operation, which demanded the Scotch nurse who was in the fortification when efforts of 10,000 good troops. The advantage hope had almost left the beleaguered garrison, gained has cost us dear. The killed, wounded, and who suddenly started up, declaring that and missing--the latter being wounded sol- she heard the sound of the pibroch of the diers, who, I much fear, some or all, have Highland regiments, and that the British were fallen into the hands of a merciless foe- on the march to deliver then. amounted, up to the evening of the 26th, The troops under Sir Colin Campbell must to 535 officers and men."

have been miles distant at that time; but, if Amongst those who were killed was Gen- the story be true, the prophecy was fulfilled, eral Neill, shot dead by a bullet, and surely for the army of relief came in almost without no better or braver soldier fell in India that stopping, and the Highland regiments swept year. Although the beleaguered garrison at down on the cowardly foe with irresistible the Residency was thus nominally relieved, it force whenever they were ordered to the charge, was impossible to extricate the helpless mass their bagpipes sounding the notes of war, and of women and children, and non-combatants, the men answering with wild cheers. from their perilous position by attempting to Early on that morning the British troops march back upon Cawnpore. The generals, advanced to attack the Secunderbagh north of therefore, determined to remain at Lucknow, the canal. By a running fight which lasted strengthening the garrison by the troops they two hours, they gained a position at the Dilkhad brought, and to wait until Sir Colin hoosa and Martiniere, the former, which means Campbell, the new commander-in-chief, should “Heart's delight," being a palace of brick, in a come up and secure their safety. During this kind of park, the latter a school, both strong time the column known as Greathed's Column positions near the canal, and on the road to the had been performing prodigies of valour very heart of the Residency. So important were against the rebels in various places, and it these points, that at three o'clock in the aftermay be said that the brilliant victory at noon the enemy attempted to dislodge the

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British forces, but after a severe struggle were Shannon alongside an enemy's frigate. This repulsed heavily, and on the 16th, the com- brought the day's operations to a close.”

” mander-in-chief advanced straight across the Next day a building, called the mess-house, canal, after a fierce fight, in which the re- which was of considerable size and defended bels suffered enormous loss. On the head of by a ditch and loopholed mud wall, was taken the column marching up a lane to the left, fire by storm; “and then,” says the commanderwas opened by the rebels, and a sharp fight in-chief, “the troops pressed forward with commenced on both sides, lasting for about great vigour, and lined the wall separating an hour and a half. It was then determined the mess-house from the Motee Mahal, which to carry the place by storm through a small consists of a wide inclosure and many buildbreach which had been made. “This," wrote ings. The enemy here made a last stand, the commander-in-chief, was done in the which was overcome after an hour, openings most brilliant manner by the remainder of having been broken in the wall, through the Highlanders, with the 53d and the 4th which the troops poured, with a body of sapPunjaub Infantry, supported by a battalion pers, and accomplished our communications of detachments under Major Barnston. There with the Residency. I had the inexpressible never was a bolder feat of arms, and the loss satisfaction, shortly afterwards, of greeting Sir inflicted on the enemy, after the entrance of James Outram and Sir Henry Havelock, who the Secunderbagh was effected, was immense. came out to meet me before the action was at More than 2000 of the enemy were afterwards an end. The relief of the besieged garrison carried out. Captain Peel's royal naval siege- had been accomplished.” While the comtrain then went to the front, and advanced mander-in-chief was thus winning his way to towards the Shah Nujjeef, together with the the Residency, by his own admirable strategy field battalion and some mortars, the village and the resistless gallantry of his troops, Gento the left having been cleared by Brigadier eral Havelock and the garrison pent up within Hope and Lieutenant-colonel Gordon. The its walls were not idle. Mines were driven Shah Nujjeef is a domed mosque with a gar- under the outer wall of the garden in advance den, of which the most had been made by the of the palace, which had been already breached enemy. The wall of the inclosure of the in several places by the rebels; and also under mosque was loopholed with great care. The some buildings in the vicinity; and as soon entrance to it had been covered by a regular as it became known that Sir Colin Campbell work in masonry, and the top of the building was attacking the Secunderbagh these mines was crowned with a parapet. From this, and were exploded. Two powerful batteries, which from the defences in the garden, an unceasing had been erected in the inclosure, masked by fire of musketry was kept up from the com- the outer wall, were then brought into play, mencement of the attack. This position was and poured shot and shell into the palace. At defended with great resolution against a heavy last the advance sounded. “It was imposcannonade for three hours. It was then sible," wrote General Havelock, “ to describe stormed in the boldest manner by the 93d the enthusiasm with which the signal was Highlanders, under Brigadier Hope, supported received by the troops. Pent up in inaction by a battalion of detachments under Major for upwards of six weeks, and subjected to Barnston, who was, I regret to say, severely constant attacks, they felt that the hour of wounded; Captain Peel leading up his heavy retribution and glorious exertion had returned. gans with extraordinary gallantry within a Their cheers echoed through the courts of the few yards of the building to batter the mas- palace responsive to the bugle sound, and on sive stone walls. The withering fire of the they rushed to assured victory. The enemy Highlanders effectually covered the naval bri- could nowhere withstand them. In a few gade from great loss. But it was an action minutes the whole of the buildings were in almost unexampled in war. Captain Peel be- our possession, and have since been armed haved very much as if he had been laying the with cannon and steadily held against all

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