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who were willing to lay down their arms, should receive a safe passage to Allahabad.

The mutiny broke out at Cawnpore on the forenoon of the 7th of June, and from that day to the 24th an almost incessant fire had been kept up on the intrenched camp. It was on the last-mentioned day that this message was sent by Nana Sahib, offering in effect to allow all in the camp to go to Allahabad in safety, if they would abandon the intrenchment and give up the treasures and stores. What else was to be done? Allahabad was in the hands of the English. To the offer was added a promise of food and boats to carry the garrison, the women and children. There were many sick, and several dying. Some of the women and children who had died had been thrown at night into a well outside the intrenchments. There was no possibility of giving them burial. Scarcely a corner of the buildings had escaped the shot and shell of the enemy, who at last had thrown live-hot shells and had thus set fire to the barracks, which burned so fiercely that it was difficult to remove any of the women and children, and about forty of the sick and helpless perished. All the medicines were destroyed. Tents had been struck to preserve them from the bombardment. Who would have neglected a chance of release? The proposal was assented to by General Wheeler, and for the two days following, the frightened residents in the intrenchment enjoyed comparative quiet to prepare for the journey.

"On the 26th," wrote Lieutenant Delafosse (one of only four survivors of this treacherous scheme), "a committee of officers went to the river to see that the boats were ready and serviceable; and everything being reported ready, and carriages for the wounded having arrived, we gave over our guns, &c., and marched on the morning of the 27th of June, about seven o'clock. We got down to the river and into the boats without being molested in the least, but no sooner were we in the boats, and had laid down our muskets and taken off our coats to work easier at the boats, than the cavalry gave the order to fire. Two guns that had been hidden were run out and opened on us immediately, while Sepoys came

from all directions and kept up a fire. The men jumped out of the boats, and, instead of trying to get the boats loose from their moorings, swam to the first boat they saw loose. Only three boats got safely over to the opposite side of the river, but were met there by two field-pieces, guarded by a number of cavalry and infantry. Before these boats had got a mile down the stream, half our small party were either killed or wounded, and two of our boats had been swamped. We had now only one boat, crowded with wounded, and having on board more than she could carry. The two guns followed us the whole of the day, the infantry firing on us the whole of that night." Those in the boats who were not killed by the fire of the Sepoys were seized and carried back to Cawnpore, where the men were all shot, and the women carried to a building which had been formerly used as an assembly-room, and kept close prisoners. They were not kept long in suspense as to their fate. The Nana having learned on the 15th that the British troops had carried the bridge over the Pandoo Nuddee, and that nothing could stop the irresistible march of Havelock's column, issued, through the Begum, a frightful order to slay the entire company. His instructions were but too faithfully obeyed. The Begum approached the building in which the Europeans were confined, accompanied by five men, each armed with a sabre; two of them appeared to be Hindoo peasants, two were known to be butchers, Mohammedans, and one was dressed in the red uniform of the Maharajah's body-guard. "The horrible work commenced by half-a-dozen Sepoys discharging their muskets at random through the windows upon the defenceless victims. The five men armed with sabres were then observed to enter the building quietly, and close the doors. What next took place no one was spared to relate. Shrieks and scuffling were heard at significant intervals, acquainting those outside that the hired executioners were earning their pay. The one in the red uniform was observed to come to the door

twice, and obtain a new sabre in exchange


for one handed out hacked and broken. The



had blown up as he quitted the place, where, row streets and brick houses of Bithoor. Anit is said, he stayed long enough to order the other battle had therefore to be fought by the murder of one woman, who had escaped or weary column, and it was fought and won, the survived the massacre; he then fell back upon enemy being driven out and the guns captured, his fortress at Bithoor; but he feared to stay though the want of cavalry prevented purthere, for he knew that his life was not worth suit. a moment's purchase if the British should force These were the kind of battles fought in it and capture him.

that horrible mutiny, and nine of them had We have already indicated the horrible been Havelock's share. His column was respectacle that awaited Havelock's column duced to 700 men, and he fell back on Cawnwhen the men entered Cawnpore. Among pore for breathing time and to wait for reinthe stories current afterwards was a report forcements, which Sir James Outram was that the soldiers had picked up and divided bringing from Calcutta. Sir James Outram, among themselves a tress severed from the who was returning from the Persian war, head of one of the murdered girls, and had which had been brought to a conclusion, was sworn that for every hair a Sepoy should die. sent to Oudh as chief-commissioner with full If that vow was ever made, it was kept to the civil and military power, and had he marched full.

to Cawnpore in that capacity he would have General Neill, who was afterwards killed on superseded Havelock and snatched from him the entry of the troops into Lucknow, soon his well-earned laurels; but with a noble arrived from Benares, and was left in charge sense of justice which the general must have at Cawnpore while General Havelock con- deeply appreciated, he wrote to tell of his tinued his march. That march was marked coming, and concluded the letter by saying: by a series of tremendous conflicts, which “To you shall be left the glory of relieving commenced immediately after crossing the Lucknow, for which you have already strugGanges and through the part of the Oudh gled so much. I shall accompany you only territory towards Lucknow. The troops of in my civil capacity as commissioner, placing Nana Sahib, that is to say, the army of the my military service at your disposal, should mutinous Sepoys, had occupied strong posi- you please, and serving under you as a voluntions on the route, and had planted their teer.” artillery so that, with their vastly superior On the 19th and 20th of September the numbers, they had a tremendous advantage. relieving force had crossed the Ganges-inBut the spectacle at Cawnpore would, if any- fantry, artillery, and a few cavalry, in all tbing had been needed, have fired our men about 2500 men and with 17 guns. They had to even more daring than that of attacking to fight their way by another series of engagewith the impetuosity of anger what might ments, and the troops, tired, ill-fed, and after have seemed to be overwhelming forces. They marching in a deluge of rain, had to rest rushed at the foe, broke through intrench- under their tents before advancing on the ments, sprang upon the earthworks, and, with town. ringing cheers and unbroken spirit, drove the It was not till the 25th of September that fying Sepoys into full retreat, capturing their the welcome clamour of the relieving force guns and giving no quarter.

aroused the sufferers at Lucknow, who had The column was worn out with fatigue, been besieged by the rebel Sepoys for eightyand had to recross the river to Cawnpore, seven days. The fighting during the day was where they joined General Neill's troops, who so severe that at nightfall Sir James Outram were being menaced from Bithoor by a strong proposed to halt till morning within the body of rebels—a body of Nana Sahib's troops courts of the Mehal. “But," writes General -who had occupied a plain densely covered Havelock, “I esteemed it to be of such imwith thickets, flanked by villages, and inter- portance to let the beleaguered garrison know sected by streams; while behind were the nar- that succour was at hand, that with his ultiVOL. III.


mate sanction I directed the main body of the Agra, and the exploits which were followed by 78th Highlanders, and the regiment of Feroze- the continuation of the march of the column pore, to advance. This column rushed on under Brigadier Hope Grant to Cawnpore, with a desperate gallantry, led by Sir James and thence to the Alumbagh on the 8th of Outram and myself, and Lieutenants Hudson November, contributed largely to the rapid and Hargood of my staff, through streets of success of the operations which stamped out flat-roofed loopholed houses, from which a the mutiny. perpetual fire was kept up; and, overcoming By the end of September eighty ships had every obstacle, established itself within the successively reached Calcutta from England, inclosure of the Residency. The joy of the carrying 30,000 troops. As the regiments garrison may be more easily conceived than arrived they were sent up the country to described; but it was not till the next even- Cawnpore as quickly as possible, but it was ing that the whole of my troops, guns, tum- not till the 9th of November that Sir Colin brils, and sick and wounded, continually | Campbell was able to march from Cawnpore exposed to the attacks of the enemy, could for the final relief of Lucknow, then hemmed be brought step by step within the enceinte in by overwhelming numbers of the rebels. and the adjacent palace of the Fureed Buksh. On the 15th of November, the march of Sir To form an adequate idea of the obstacles Colin Campbell to the Residency was teleovercome reference must be made to the graphed from the Alumbagh, and, not heedevents that are known to have occurred at ing the danger, many gallant fellows mounted Buenos Ayres and Saragossa. Our advance the tower of the fortress to watch the onward was through streets of houses such as I have career of that cloud of fire and smoke which described, and thus each forming a separate marked the position of the veteran's army. fortress. I am filled with surprise at the Most of us have heard the story of the success of the operation, which demanded the Scotch nurse who was in the fortification when efforts of 10,000 good troops. The advantage hope had almost left the beleaguered garrison, gained has cost us dear. The killed, wounded, and who suddenly started up, declaring that and missing--the latter being wounded sol- she heard the sound of the pibroch of the diers, who, I much fear, some or all, have Highland regiments, and that the British were fallen into the hands of a merciless foe- on the march to deliver then. amounted, up to the evening of the 26th, The troops under Sir Colin Campbell must to 535 officers and men."

have been miles distant at that time; but, if Amongst those who were killed was Gen- the story be true, the prophecy was fulfilled, eral Neill, shot dead by a bullet, and surely for the army of relief came in almost without no better or braver soldier fell in India that stopping, and the Highland regiments swept year. Although the beleaguered garrison at down on the cowardly foe with irresistible the Residency was thus nominally relieved, it force whenever they were ordered to the charge, was impossible to extricate the helpless mass their bagpipes sounding the notes of war, and of women and children, and non-combatants, the men answering with wild cheers. from their perilous position by attempting to Early on that morning the British troops march back upon Cawnpore. The generals, advanced to attack the Secunderbagh north of therefore, determined to remain at Lucknow, the canal. By a running fight which lasted strengthening the garrison by the troops they two hours, they gained a position at the Dilkhad brought, and to wait until Sir Colin hoosa and Martiniere, the former, which means Campbell, the new commander-in-chief, should “Heart's delight," being a palace of brick, in a come up and secure their safety. During this kind of park, the latter a school, both strong time the column known as Greathed's Column positions near the canal, and on the road to the had been performing prodigies of valour very heart of the Residency. So important were against the rebels in various places, and it these points, that at three o'clock in the aftermay be said that the brilliant victory at noon the enemy attempted to dislodge the

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British forces, but after a severe struggle were Shannon alongside an enemy's frigate. This repulsed heavily, and on the 16th, the com- brought the day's operations to a close.” mander-in-chief advanced straight across the Next day a building, called the mess-house, canal, after a fierce fight, in which the re- which was of considerable size and defended bels suffered enormous loss. On the head of by a ditch and loopholed mud wall, was taken the column marching up a lane to the left, fire by storm; "and then,” says the commanderwas opened by the rebels, and a sharp fight in-chief, “the troops pressed forward with commenced on both sides, lasting for about great vigour, and lined the wall separating an hour and a half. It was then determined the mess-house from the Motee Mahal, which to carry the place by storm through a small consists of a wide inclosure and many buildbreach which had been made. “This," wrote ings. The enemy here made a last stand, the commander-in-chief, was done in the which was overcome after an hour, openings most brilliant manner by the remainder of having been broken in the wall, through the Highlanders, with the 53d and the 4th which the troops poured, with a body of sapPunjaub Infantry, supported by a battalion pers, and accomplished our communications of detachments under Major Barnston. There with the Residency. I had the inexpressible never was a bolder feat of arms, and the loss satisfaction, shortly afterwards, of greeting Sir inflicted on the enemy, after the entrance of James Outram and Sir Henry Havelock, who the Secunderbagh was effected, was immense. came out to meet me before the action was at More than 2000 of the enemy were afterwards an end. The relief of the besieged garrison carried out. Captain Peel's royal naval siege had been accomplished.” While the comtrain then went to the front, and advanced mander-in-chief was thus winning his way to towards the Shah Nujjeef, together with the the Residency, by his own admirable strategy field battalion and some mortars, the village and the resistless gallantry of his troops, Gento the left having been cleared by Brigadier eral Havelock and the garrison pent up within Hope and Lieutenant-colonel Gordon. The its walls were not idle. Mines were driven Shah Nujjeef is a domed mosque with a gar- under the outer wall of the garden in advance den, of which the most had been made by the of the palace, which had been already breached enemy. The wall of the inclosure of the in several places by the rebels; and also under mosque was loopholed with great care.

The some buildings in the vicinity; and as soon entrance to it had been covered by a regular as it became known that Sir Colin Campbell work in masonry, and the top of the building was attacking the Secunderbagh these mines was crowned with a parapet. From this, and were exploded. Two powerful batteries, which from the defences in the garden, an unceasing had been erected in the inclosure, masked by fire of musketry was kept up from the com- the outer wall, were then brought into play, mencement of the attack. This position was and poured shot and shell into the palace. At defended with great resolution against a heavy last the advance sounded. “It was imposcannonade for three hours, It was then sible," wrote General Havelock, "to describe stormed in the boldest manner by the 93d the enthusiasm with which the signal was Highlanders, under Brigadier Hope, supported received by the troops. Pent up in inaction by a battalion of detachments under Major for upwards of six weeks, and subjected to Barnston, who was, I regret to say, severely constant attacks, they felt that the hour of wounded ; Captain Peel leading up his heavy retribution and glorious exertion had returned. guns with extraordinary gallantry within a Their cheers echoed through the courts of the few yards of the building to batter the mas- palace responsive to the bugle sound, and on sive stone walls. The withering fire of the they rushed to assured victory. The enemy Highlanders effectually covered the naval bri- could nowhere withstand them. In a few gade from great loss. But it was an action minutes the whole of the buildings were in almost unexampled in war. Captain Peel be- our possession, and have since been armed haved very much as if he had been laying the with cannon and steadily held against all attack.” Sir Colin Campbell's great object now lated to the wildest ferocity, and ready for was to cffect the removal of the non-combat- any cruelties. These conditions were severely ants from the Residency, including the sick and felt when our troops set out for the recapture wounded, without exposing them to the fire of Delhi. General Anson, who was then comof the enemy. For this purpose he formed a line mander-in-chief, had gone to Sinula just of posts on the left rear of his position, which before the outbreak of the mutiny at Meerut, were maintained unbroken, notwithstanding and when tidings of the revolt reached him many attacks and a vigorous fire kept up by he hastened down to Umballah, where he colthe rebels.

lected as many troops as could be spared and “Having led the enemy to believe that proceeded toward Delhi. He only reached immediate assault was contemplated, orders Kurnaul, where he died of cholera on the were issued for the retreat of the garrison 27th of May, and was succeeded in command through the lines of our pickets at midnight by Major-general Reed, an aged officer, whose on the 22d. The ladies and families, the broken health unfitted him for much active wounded, the treasure, the guns - it was service. On the 8th of June, Reed reached thought worth while to keep, the ordnance the camp of Major-general Sir Henry Barnard stores, the grain still possessed by the com- at Alleepore, where a large number of troops missary of the garrison, and the state prisoners, had assembled; and at the same time Brigahad all been previously removed. Sir James dier-general Wilson came up from Meerut Outram had received orders to burst the guns with as strong a force as he could bring towhich it was thought undesirable to take gether, having defeated a body of insurgents away; and he was finally directed silently to on the way, and taken twenty-six guns. On evacuate the Residency of Lucknow at the the 8th of June the combined force set out hour indicated. The dispositions to cover after midnight, and as General Reed had their retreat and to resist the enemy, should fallen sick the command devolved on General he pursue, were so ably carried out that the Barnard. The enemy occupied a fortified enemy was completely deceived, and did not position with a heavy battery before the city, attempt to follow. On the contrary, he began but they were charged with the bayonets of firing on our old positions many hours after the 75th Regiment and driven from their guns. we had left them. The Dilkhoosa was reached Sir Henry Barnard then divided his forces, at 4 a.m. on the 23d inst. by the whole force." the column under General Wilson marching Thus the relief of Lucknow was effected. The along the main trunk-road, while he led his triumph was saddened by the death of Sir men through the ruined and deserted canHenry Havelock, who, already worn out by tonments to a ridge held by mutineers with the tremendous exertion he had undergone, their artillery. A short sharp fight sufficed had also been suffering from dysentery, which to drive them back, for our men had already at last became incurable. He was removed learned the fate of their countrywomen, and to the Dilkhoosa, in the hope that a change they smote fiercely and unsparingly. The to a more salubrious air might mitigate the place was carried, and at the same time disease; but he died in a few days.

Wilson's column, with the impetus of ven

geance, had charged its way through highWe njust for a moment return to Delhi- walled gardens and climbed over obstacles, the core and centre of the mutiny. We have without pausing in its effort to reach the seen how, before the arrival of reinforcements murderers, who were driven before it, and from England, and the co-operation of forces compelled to retreat in confusion into the city. brought together from distant stations, the The Ghoorkas, a hardy tribe of hill soldiers, mutiny had to be met by a mere handful of aided our troops with admirable courage and men, who found themselves opposed to a vast loyalty, which they continued to display body of rebels led by a trained army with throughout the campaign. The two generals weapons, ammunition, and artillery; stimu- met at a place called Hindoo Rao's House, a


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