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AUSTRIA'S LATER MOVE-SIEGE OF SILISTRIA. righteously. At the end of the year the de- were deferred the Russian government would termination for war had not abated. There have time to strengthen the defences of the was a general demand that a blow should be place and to increase the garrison. The allied struck at Russia by direct invasion of the troops, he argued, were fresh, eager, and ready Crimea for the purpose of seizing Sebastopol. for enterprise. If they remained inactive till This was the course recommended by the the following spring their health might give Emperor of the French, and Lord Palmerston way, their spirits flag, their mutual cordiality had by a circular addressed to the cabinet con- and good understanding be cooled down by siderably influenced the action of the govern- intrigues, jealousies, and disputes; while public ment. He believed that some heavy blow opinion, which now stood by the two governshould be struck at the naval power and terri- ments and bore up the people of the two torial dimensions of Russia, and that if that countries to make the sacrifices necessary for were not done during the year it would be the war, might take another turn, and people come much more difficult, and that the repu- might grow tired of the burdens which had tation of England and France would materi- produced no sufficient and satisfactory result. ally suffer. It had become evident enough Palmerston's firm conclusion was that our that the whole brunt of conflict would be left only chance of bringing Russia to terms was to the two nations. Prince Albert, deploring by offensive and vot by defensive operations. the war in a letter to his stepmother, the We and the French ought to go to the Crimea Dowager-duchess of Coburg, said, “If there and take Sebastopol and the Russian fleet the were a Germany and a German sovereign in moment our two armies were in a position to Berlin it could never have happened.” And go thither. Sixty thousand English and French the opinion was probably shared by the ma- troops would accomplish the object in six jority of the people of England.

weeks after landing. There was, he said, not

the slightest danger of the Russians getting to The invasion of the Crimea would have ap- Constantinople. The Turks were able to prepeared less difficult but for the necessity to vent that; but even if they could not, the support Omar Pacha in raising the siege of Austrians would be compelled by the force of Silistria, which had been invested by the circumstances to do so. Austria had, as usual, Russians. The garrison of that place was been playing a shabby game. When she suffering from the effects of a prolonged resist thought the Russians likely to get on, and ance, but the allied forces were not able at while she fancied England and France needed that time to transport troops to the scene of hastening, she bragged of her determination action, and Lord Raglan was expecting to to be active against Russia. As soon as she hear that the defenders had been compelled found our troops at Varna she changed her to surrender. Palmerston had, as Cobden tone, and according to a despatch received by implied, miscalculated the defensive strength Lord Clarendon, stated that she should not of the Russian fortifications. He thought enter the principalities, and that the Russians there were not more than 40,000 of the troops must be driven out by the English and French. of the czar in the Crimea, and that if 25,000 She could hardly think us simple enough to English and 35,000 French could be landed do her work for her; but the best way to somewhere in the large bay to the north of force her to act would be to send our troops Sebastopol, they would be able to take the off to the Crimea. fort on the hill on the north side of the har- These were Palmerston's conclusions, but bour, and would then command the harbour, they were not altogether accurate—he had feet, and town. The capture or destruction of not received an intimation of the latest events. the Russian fleet would of course imply the When the czar refused to retire from the surrender of the Russian troops forming the principalities, Austria had concluded a congarrison of the place, or their evacuation of vention with the Porte, by which she began to the Crimea by capitulation; but if the attack move a large and well-disciplined army into the principalities for the purpose of restoring there result was so speedily effectual. These officers, the state of affairs which had existed previous Captain Butler and Lieutenant Nasmyth, both to the Russian invasion. This was followed belonged to the East India Company's service, by two striking and unexpected events. The and had offered themselves at Silistria as resistance of the Turks to the continued as- volunteers. Their services were at once acsaults of the Russian forces had excited a good cepted as invaluable, and to their abilities no deal of surprise and admiration. The whole less than to their courage the defenders owed efforts of the Russian generals were now the success of the defence. The Russians had directed against Silistria, and at the very

time to prepare their own defences against the exwhen its fall was considered to be imminent, pected attack of the allied forces from Varna, and after the Duke of Newcastle here received and they had so to concentrate their troops as intelligence that it was about to surrender, to be able to retreat in case of not holding there came news that the garrison there had their ground. They therefore determined on repeatedly repulsed the besiegers. Urgent a grand assault on the 13th of June, and after representations had come from Silistria itself a tremendous cannonade and the explosion of that the place must be taken unless the de- mines, the Russian order was given to advance; fending force could be supported by the allied but the men were suffering from sickness, they forces, but Lord Raglan had found it impos- were dispirited and unwilling, and the assault sible for want of the means of land transport was postponed to the following day. When to move any of his troops from Varna to the the time came they were twice driven back scene of action. As many as 70,000 Russians from the earthworks. In vain their comwere engaged under Prince Paskiewitsch in manders threw themselves in front of the the siege and bombardment of Silistria, and wavering and halting troops. Prince Paskietremendous preparations had been made for witsch was slightly and Prince Gortschakoff taking a place which was in reality the gate seriously wounded, and so were Count Orloff, through which Turkey was to have been in- General Luders, and General Schilders, who vaded. The chief fortifications of Silistria had taken Silistria in the war of a quarter of were earthworks, the principal of which was a century before. Nearly all the leaders were about 2000 yards in advance of the ramparts, struck down, and others had to take the comwhile about midway was another. All the mand when, on the 18th, the Russians adconventional resources of a siege were brought vanced to the assault towards a gap twelve against them, but were ineffectual. As often yards long which had been made in the Turkas the enemy entered they were driven back ish parapet. The breach seemed to promise a in spite of mines and a storm of artillery, and successful attack, but on reaching it they disthe works were repaired almost as soon as covered that a new wall had been constructed they were destroyed. Nothing could overcome behind it, manned by ready troops and bristthe dogged obstinacy of the fighting Turks. ling with guns. They fell back, and as they Omar Pacha, fully alive to the importance of retreated the Turks rushed out and repaired the position, sent reinforcements to the almost the damage on the outer wall amidst a heavy overwhelmed garrison, and on the 4th of June fire of musketry. With all the enormous ap30,000 men went to the rescue, broke through pliances for a regular siege, and with the loss the Russian lines, and entered the outworks. of 12,000 men either during the assaults or by Four days afterwards 1000 Turkish soldiers disease, the Russians had not been able to get stole in at midnight over the corpses of the beyond even the first earth work. They were Russians who had fallen in heaps during the disheartened, and the siege was raised without repulse. The end was near, and it was per- much further attempt. Lieutenant Nasmyth haps to be attributed to the presence of two survived the terrible conflict to receive the British officers to whom the Turks yielded rewards of his gallantry, but his fellow-officer the command when their own general Mussa Captain Butler died of the exhaustion of enPacha was slain by a cannon-ball, that the demic fever brought on by his exertions and LORD LYNDHURST DENOUNCES THE CZAR.


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the privations which he in common with the away with confidence. Confidence generally rest of the garrison had to endure.

ends in credulity. This is true of statesmen No one was more surprised than Lord Rag- as of individuals. My lords, the history of lan at the news that the siege of Silistria had Russia, from the establishment of the empire. been raised, and soon afterwards another re- down to the present moment, is a history of verse was given to the Russian arms by the fraud,duplicity, trickery, artifice, and violence. complete defeat of General Soimonoff at Giur- The present emperor has proclaimed hiniself gevo on the 7th of July, after which the whole protector of the Greek Church in Turkey, just of the Russian forces precipitately retired be- as the Empress Catherine declared herself yond the Pruth, their movements having pro- protector of the Greek Church in Poland. By bably been accelerated by the preparations means of that protectorate she fomented dismade by Austria, added to the necessity for sensions and stirred up political strife in the giving all their resources to the defence of country. She then marched into Poland under Sebastopol and the prevention of the advance the pretence of allaying tumults, and stripped of the allied armies in the Crimea.

the kingdom of some of its fairest provinces.

We know the ultimate result; it is too familiar The retreat of the Russians from Silistria to require more particular reference. made the invasion of the Crimea easier, because “Look at another instance of Russian policy the Turkish garrison was released, and there of more recent occurrence. Russia agreed to was no longer need to send troops from Varna a treaty with Turkey, by which she recognized to their assistance. In any case an attack on the independence of the Crimea. NevertheSebastopol would have taken place; all Eng- less she stirred up insurrections in that counland seemed to be crying out for it, and the try, under the old pretence of protecting one popular voice was represented in the House party against another, and when the opporof Lords by no less a personage than the aged tunity offered she sent Suwaroff, one of her Lord Lyndhurst, who spoke with much fire most barbarous generals, into the Crimea, who and enthusiasm, his words being hailed with murdered the inhabitants and despoiled them repeated cheering.

of their territory, while a line of Russian ships “Look," he said, “at her whole conduct, and invested the coast, and cut off all communicathen, if any person can be credulous enough tion with Constantinople. At the very moto trust in any statement of Russia, or in any ment when this was being done Russia was engagement into which she may enter contrary not only at peace with Turkey, but was actuto her own interests, all I can say is, that I ally negotiating a treaty of commerce with admire the extent of his faith. Let me recall her. . . . Russia has doubled her European to your lordships' recollection what took place territories within the last fifty years, and yet at St. Petersburg. . . . Sir H. Seymour heard she is bent on possessing herself of Khiva. that Russian troops were being collected on The loss of two armies does not deter her from the Russian frontier: he was satisfied with prosecuting this purpose, although the place bis authority, and he mentioned the circum- cannot be of the slightest value to her, except stance to Count Nesselrode. The count con- as affording her the means of annoying us in tradicted the statement; he said to Sir H. respect to our Eastern possessions. In this Seymour: “Do not believe what you hear, be- way does Russia go on for ever. Take the lieve only what you see; all that is taking most recent instance. While Nicholas was place is only a change in the position of our pretending to act the part of protector of armies, which is usual at this season of the Turkey, and trying to cajole the sultan with year. I assure you, you are mistaken. ..!! professions of friendship and esteem, he was Is this the system, and are these the persons at the time planning the partition of his emon whose assurances we are to depend. ...? pire. This is the emperor with whom you are

“When the interests of millions are at stake, now dealing, and on whose statements and when the liberties of mankind are at issue, 1 representations we are to rely."


On the subject of the object of the war and The bitter attacks on his personal sincerity of material guarantees he said :

(for he was accused of acting under a senti“This will depend a good deal on the events ment of friendship for the czar) or his honest of the war. This, however, I unhesitatingly patriotism he would not stoop to reply to. declare, that in no event, except that of ex- Of his attitude with respect to the war he treme necessity, ought we to make peace


said: out previously destroying the Russian fleet in “It is true, my lords, that I have, perhaps the Black Sea, and laying prostrate the forti- more than any other man in this country, fications by which it is defended.

struggled to maintain a state of peace. I have * My lords,” said the old orator in conclusion, done so because I thought it a duty to the “I feel strongly on this subject, and I believe people of this country, a duty to God and man, that if this barbarous nation, this enemy of all first to exhaust every possible measure to progress except that which tends to strengthen obtain peace before we engaged in war. I and consolidate its own power, this state may own, though I trust my conscience acquits which punishes education as a crime, should me of not having done the utmost, that I only once succeed in establishing itself in the heart regret not having done enough, or lest I may of Europe, it would be the greatest calamity have lost some possible means of averting that could befall the human race."

what I consider the greatest calamity that can This was strong enough, and it roused Lord befall a country. It has been said that my Clarendon into the declaration on the part of desire for peace unfits me to make war; but the government, that all Europe was not to be how and why do I wish to make war? I wish disturbed, great interests were not to be in- to make war in order to obtain peace, and no jured, the people were not to have fresh weapon that can be used in war can make the burdens imposed upon them, great social and war so sure and speedy, to attain peace, as commercial relations were not to be abruptly to make that war with the utmost vigour and torn asunder, and all the greatest powers of determination." Europe were not to be united in arms for an insignificant result.

A plan for the attack of Sebastopol had The effect of these declarations was some- been sketched by the Emperor of the French, what damaged by what followed. Lord and received by the Duke of Newcastle, who Derby rose and delivered a violent harangue, stated that it met with his approval as well as which was little more than a repetition of the that of Lord Raglan, Lord de Ros, and Lord emphatic protest of Lord Lyndhurst, and the Clarendon. It could not be carried out in Earl of Aberdeen then thought fit to reply in the early part of the campaign, while Conterms so mild and reluctant, that they in- stantinople had to be protected by the whole creased the suspicion that he was coldly force, but now it became more feasible, and prosecuting a war, which, as it was now un- at a cabinet council at Lord John Russell's avoidable, must be prompt and effective. So house at Richmond it was determined to quick were the indignant remonstrances at adopt a draft of instructious, urgivg a prompt his supposed desire to defer hostile operations,

Sebastopol and the Russian fleet. that he had to defend himself by references It was understood that the final decision was to his expressed opinions at the time of the to be left to Lord Raglan and Marshal St. treaty of Adrianople. There were still so Arnaud after they had consulted with Omar many men who held moderate views, and who Pacha; but, perhaps with the peculiar indefinite deplored the war, that the prime minister blundering which characterized so many of was able for a time to convince the house

the immediately practical details in relation that he had acted throughout only with a to the war, this decision does not seem to have desire to avoid war as long as possible, and been very clearly expressed. The document with no intention of abating the demands or may have been drawn with anxious care and the just claims of the nation against Russia. | attention, but if we are to believe Mr. King

attack upon

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