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The proclamation of emancipation, defective the enormous resources and the numerical as it was in its expression of intention, was a superiority of the North. A few months afterserious blow to the South. It changed the wards they also became aware that the Federal aspect of the war from that of an effort on government was discovering the weak points the part of the North to maintain the Union of its military organization, and had appointed to that of a struggle by the South to maintain more efficient generals to take command of its negro slavery, and it can scarcely be denied forces. Early in 1862 the large army which that this was the true origin of the conflict. General M'Clellan had been occupied in A new element of enthusiasm seemed to have organizing and disciplining was making ready been roused among the Federals, at the same to advance, and some successes had attended time that they were profiting by the reverses the Federals-one of them being the important that had been inflicted on them by the supe- operations of Commodore Farragut on the rior military skill of their opponents; while Mississippi, which led to the surrender of New the South was already preparing for efforts Orleans, but in the first considerable battle which would necessitate the abandonment of General Sidney Johnston succeeded in surpristhe plantations from which they had derived ing and defeating the Federal General Grant their wealth, and the slave labourers on which, at Pittsburg Landing. Grant had, with his were now invited by the Federal government army and river fleet, taken some forts, and to migrate into free states, or to refuse to though he was beaten and a part of his camp work except under entirely new conditions. was captured, he was able to hold his own by

On the 10th of April (1863) Jefferson Davis the assistance of some gun-boats which forced issued a manifesto warning the people of the the Confederates to retire to their lines after Confederate States against too sedulously cul- i losing their general. For some time after this tivating their usually valuable cotton crops; to a series of disasters occurred, apparently the lay aside thoughts of gain and to devote them- result of the timidity and incompetency of some selves to securing their liberties, without of the Federal commanders, and though some which those gains would be valueless. The advantages were gained and the Confederates wheat harvest, which would be gathered in evidently could not hold the line of the Ohio, the following month, promised an abundant and on the Mississippi retained only the strong yield; but even if that promise should be ful- position of Vicksburg, the balance of the tilled, the difficulty of transportation, enhanced actual war ap red to be against the North, by the previous rainy winter, would embarrass even their naval superiority having been military operations and cause suffering among rendered doubtful by the exploits of the Conthe people should the crops in the middle and federate Merrimac, a vessel which had been northern portions of the Confederacy prove coated with iron rails and re- named the deficient. No uneasiness might be felt in Virginia. This vessel destroyed two or three regard to a mere supply of bread for men. It wooden men-of-war, scattered terror into a was to the supply of the large amount of corn fleet of transport and store-ships, and threw and forage for live stock, and for the animals shells into the lines of the Federal army in the used in military operations that efforts should neighbourhood of Norfolk. Being met by the be directed. The fields should be devoted iron-clad Monitor, which arrived on the scene exclusively to the production of food for man of action from New York, a naval duel ensued, and beast, and corn should be sown broad- both vessels had to retire to repair damages, cast in proximity to canals, rivers, and rail- and the Virginia was so much injured that roads, while every endeavour should be directed she was abandoned and blown up by her to the prompt supply of districts where the armies were operating.

The efforts of the Federals were directed to The Confederates were already beginning to the capture of Richmond, the Confederate feel that all their determination and courage capital, but the delays of General M'Clellan would be needed to sustain the struggle against and the inefficiency of General Pope enabled



the Confederate Generals Lee and Stonewall advancing with his army. Grant still tlıreatJackson to frustrate their movements, and ened Richmond. On the 14th of January, the latter took Harper Ferry, where the gar- 1865, Wilinington was taken, and the last comrison of 12,000 men surrendered, giving up munication of the Confederates with the seil an enormous quantity of artillery and stores. was cut off. No more vessels could run the M'Clellan was removed from the command blockade, and Sherman had turned his vieand was succeeded by General Burnside, torious march north ward, wasting the country who sustained a severe defeat at Fredericks- as he went as one of the means of forcing the burg. General Hooker then took his place South to submission by depriving it of reas commander of what was called the army of

The end was near. On the 1st of the Potomac, and he also was defeated. The April, Petersburg and Richmond both capiConfederates gained some minor advantages tulated to Grant. Lee was defeated in his until General Grant, who had displayed far last battle, and was allowed to surrender. greater military talent than his colleagues, The officers were placed on parole, and the laid siege to Vicksburg on the land side, and, troops were permitted to return to their homes with the assistance of the flotilla of Admiral on condition of submitting to the Federal Farragut, reduced the garrison to such ex- authority. General Johnstone entered into tremities that it capitulated, and General similar conditions with Sherman, who had Meade, who had succeeded General Hooker, carried the war successfully through Georgia took up a position at Gettysburg, from which and North and South Carolina. There were the Confederates vainly endeavoured to dis- no longer any Confederate forces in the Atlanti lodge him.

States, and the Southern commanders on either It is unnecessary to follow the changing side of the Mississippi gave in their submisfortunes of the combatants, “the vulgar and sion. Jefferson Davis, who had left Richmond unscientific and senseless butchery” as Cobden when it capitulated, was arrested and placed had called it. The skill and daring of General in confinement in Fortress Monroe, from which Sherman, the calm pertinacity and determina- he was allowed to depart when the war was tion of General Grant, began to tell on the at an end. The commanders of the Confedeside of the North. The Federal forces were rate armies were permitted to remain at liberty, concentrated against their opponents, and and a few civilians who were for a short time Grant was made lieutenant - general with imprisoned were soon released. Mr. Lincoln the entire command of the forces. He ap- had prosecuted the war to the end for the pointed Sherman to the command of the wes- purpose of restoring the constitution of the tern army, and himself kept the direction of United States, and had effected it at enormous the Virginian campaign with a determination cost; but he had more than once endeavoured to take Richmond at any odds. It became a to negotiate a peace, and it was well known struggle to the death, in which numbers added that the conclusion of hostilities would be folto improved generalship ultimately gave the lowed by an amnesty if he had his will. Now victory to the North after another year of that the war was really over there was no dismovements and counter-movements, and of play of animosity. Not a single execution took battles, in which the number of the slain was place for political offences; not one victim was appalling

claimed for the purpose of satisfying vengeance In 1864 Mr. Lincoln was re-elected as against those whose crime had been that of president by an overwhelming majority, and secession, though secession had been designatel this meant the prosecution of the war. It treason to the state. The humanity and genewas computed that at the end of that year rosity of the American nation again asserted the North had nearly a million men in arms, itself, and was displayed even after the perwhile the Southern forces probably amounted petration of a horrible crime might have been to not more than 200,000. Sherman had re- made an excuse for measures of retaliation. ceived the capitulation of Savannah, and was For the man who throughout that long national

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crisis had kept in view what he believed to be regularly and afterwards interruptedly, he his duty without animosity and without pre- died at about twenty minutes past seven the sumption; the man who had grieved over the next morning. rebellion, even while he set himself to suppress The assassin had been recognized as one it; the man who had abstained from invective John Wilkes Booth (the son of an actor once against England, and had understood better well known in England as a rival of Edmund than his colleagues how little the noisy de- Kean), a man whose dramatic vanity, added clamations of a violent and ignorant multitude to political fanaticism, led him to perpetrate really represent genuine national convictions, the crime in this manner. He had two was not spared to see the complete restoration accomplices, one of whom it was discovof the Union. On the 14th of April, 1865, 'ered had, at the time that Mr. Lincoln was Abraham Lincoln fell by the hand of an assassinated in the theatre, made his way to assassin while he was witnessing a dramatic the residence of Mr. Seward, who was lying performance at Lord's theatre in Washing- ill in bed. Having obtained admission by ton.

representing that he brought some medicine The president at about nine o'clock had from Mr. Seward's physician, which he was to accompanied Mrs. Lincoln to the theatre, and see administered, he hurried to the sleepingoccupied a box in which another lady and room on the third floor where his intendeid gentleman were present. About half-past ten, victim was lying. Meeting Mr. Frederick during a pause in the performance, a man Seward there he attacked him, striking him entered the box, the door of which was un- over the head with such force as to fracture guarded, and, hastily approaching the pre- his skull. He then rushed into the room sident from behind, discharged a pistol at his where the daughter of the patient and a male head. The bullet entered the back of the attendant were sitting, and after stabbing head and passed nearly through. The assassin the latter struck at Mr. Seward with a knife then leaped from the box to the stage, brand- or dagger twice in the throat and twice in the ishing a large knife or dagger, and exclaiming face, inflicting terrible wounds. By this time Sic semper tyrannis !and escaped at the Major Seward, the eldest son of the secretary, back of the theatre. The screams of Mrs. and another attendant, entered the room, but Lincoln first disclosed the fact to the audience the desperado wounded both and contrived to that the president had been shot. The report make his escape. The victims of the assault of the pistol, though it rang through the house, afterwards recovered, but were for a long time had not seemed to excite much attention; but in great danger; and it was found that a knot when they knew what had happened the of conspirators were associated with Booth and people rose, and numbers rushed towards the premeditated the assassination of several prostage where the murderer was seen, and ex- minent members of the government. Bootlı, claimed, “ Hang him! hang him!” There with an accomplice named Harrold, who had was a scene of wild excitement: the per- probably kept the way open for him to escape formance came to an end, and the “leading from the theatre, had horses waiting, and fled lady” of the piece, Miss Laura Keene, who from the capital, but they were afterwards stood at the side of the stage when the fatal tracked to a barn near Port Royal in Maryshot had been fired, endeavoured in vain to land, where Booth was seen moving with restore the dying president to consciousness. the aid of crutches, as he had broken his He was removed to a private house opposite ankle in his leap from the president's box to the theatre, and the surgeon-general of the the stage, his spur, it was said, having caught army and other medical attendants were in the folds of the Union flag. After some called, but death was inevitable. He had parley Harrold surrendered, but Booth, being been shot through the head above and armed, refused to do so, and the barn was fired below the temporal bone, and though for by the troops, one of whom shot him dead as several hours he continued to breathe, at first he was endeavouring to extinguish the flames.


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Some of the other conspirators were after- ! As early as October, 1862, an announcewards arrested and executed.

ment of the betrothal of the Prince of Wales

to the Princess Alexandra of Denmark had The great conflict was at an end, and the : aroused the popular interest, and on the 7th now reunited States had to count the cost. of March, 1863, the public reception given to The expenditure, according to the report pre- the princess on her arrival in this country sented to congress in the early part of 1864, was the occasion of a display of national enhad been raised from about £16,000,000 in 1860 thusiasm which had probably never been to above £17,360,000 in 1561, £117,216,000 ' equalled, since it was associated with a genuine in 1862, and to nearly £184,000,000 in 1863, and tender interest that quickly developed when 2,480,846 men had been called into into a lasting regard for her to whom the military service on the Federal side. In the magnificent welcome was accorded. ensuing year (1864) an enormous addition was A vague but prevailing sentiment had demade to this already vast expenditure. Before termined the public mind that an alliance of the fall of Richmond it was computed that the heir to the English throne with the daugh252 battles had been fought, of which 17 ter of the royal house of Denmark was natural were naval engagements. The whole country and appropriate, and every one was already was suffering from the effects not only of the prepared to give the princess a right royal drain upon its resources, but of the terrible reception. Such preparations as could be slaughter which had made so many homes


made to give to the streets of the metropolis desolate, and the devastation which had yet a festal aspect were adopted, with the usual to be repaired. The fall of Richmond, after rather incongruous result. Banners, flags, a siege which lasted for 1.452 days, during wreaths, triumphal arches, festoons, mottoes, which several desperate engagements took and more or less significant devices adorned place, was itself less a triumph than an ex- the whole route through miles of tortuous ample of the relentless arbitration of the sword. I thoroughfares; and as much as could be done When the Federal troops, under General by various unconnected local authorities was Grant, entered the city it was a scene of utter achieved for the purpose of making an extra wreck and wasteful destruction. The houses display in the main roads and open spaces were deserted-furniture, merchandise, and of the metropolis. But the real spectacle was the contents of shops and warehouses lay in the vast multitude of people. Every avenne promiscuous heaps in the streets, which were in which a glimpse of the procession could be deep with mud; and at several points both obtained was filled with an orderly but enthuthe property that had thus been destroyed and siastic assembly. Every house and shop-front the houses themselves had been set on fire, on the route was converted into tiers of priso that the flames sp read, and but for prompt vate boxes, from which smiling faces shone and strenuous exertions the whole place, or at with hospitable greeting. From the ridges of any rate the larger portion of it, would have the roofs to the very basements, people clusperished. Perhaps no other nation in the

tered. Even on steeples and the cornices and world could have sustained such a prolonged parapets of great buildings determined sightand destructive internal war; and it may

be seers seemed to cling for hours during that added that while none but a nation of immea- keen March morning; and at every available surable activity, vast extent of undeveloped point platforms were erected, where school territory, and superb reserves of material children sat and sometimes sang, or where wealth, could so rapidly have recovered from ladies' gala dresses added colour and brightexhausting calamities, history has presented ness to the scene. It needed only the presence no other example of the ready conciliation and of the princess for whom the vast population generous forbearance which, within a brief waited, to make the occasion historical- and period, reunited the hostile states under one from the first moment of her appearance the owledged constitution.

hearts of the people seemed to go out to her.

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The Prince of Wales had been to Gravesend Sea-kings' daughter as happy as fair, to meet his affianced bride, and the train that

Blissful bride of a blissful heir,

Bride of the heir of the kings of the sea, brought them and their suite to Bricklayers'

O joy to the people and joy to the Throne, Arms Station travelled slowly, that the people Come to us, love us, and make us your own: who assembled at every point of the line

For Saxon or Dane or Norman we,

Teuton or Celt, or whatever we be, where a glimpse of the princess could be ob

We are each all Dane in our welcome of thee, tained might not be utterly disappointed.

Alexandra! From the Old Kent Road, over London Bridge, through the city, along the Strand, Pall Mall, The Princess Alexandra Caroline Mary Piccadilly, to Hyde Park, and to the railway Charlotte Louisa Julia, eldest daughter of station at Paddington, where they took the Christian, Duke of Glucksburg, and Louise, train to Windsor, one great triumphant shout the daughter of the Landgrave William of of happy and appreciative greeting to the Hesse-Cassel, was only nineteen years


age, royal pair outrang the bells that pealed in and was declared to be one of the most charmevery steeple.

ing princesses in Europe, an opinion which On the 10th the marriage was solemnized was completely endorsed by public opinion in at St. George's Chapel, Windsor, and the cere- England. Her elder brother, Frederick, was mony, with its brilliant surroundings, was ex- a general in the Danish army, her younger ceedingly imposing, apart from the intense brother, Prince William, who came next in interest which was everywhere manifested on age to herself, was a midshipman in the Danthe occasion. Not in London only, but in ish navy; and then followed her sisters, the every important town throughout the country Princesses Maria and Thyra, and her younger the day was observed as a holiday. Official brother Prince Waldemar. and social banquets were held, and the streets were illuminated. In London the illumina- At the time of the royal marriage the diffitions were magnificent, and an

culties in Greece had nearly terminated. After crowd of pedestrians and persons in vehicles the settlement of the cession of the Ionian filled all the great highways, the bridges, and Islands the Hellenic people became dissatisfied the public squares, until the morning broke with a form of government which seemed and the last lamps flickered in the dawn. destined to perpetuate confusion instead of The injunction of the poet-laureate had been securing a national constitution, and deter

a fully carried out by the nation. He had mined to elect a sovereign, and to follow the written an ode of welcome:

example of Great Britain and Belgium in establishing a limited monarchy.

onarchy. Several Sea-kings' daughter from over the sea,

European princes were mentioned for the Alexandra!

honour of acceding to the throne, but some Saxon and Norman and Dane are we, But all of us Danes in our welcome of thee,

hung back, and others were ineligible. Among Alexandra!

them all the national choice seemed most Welcome her, thunders of fort and of fleet! firmly fixed on our own Prince Alfred, a Welcome her, thundering cheer of the street!

nomination which her majesty and our govWelcome her, all things youthful and sweet, Scatter the blossom under her feet!

ernment, while thanking the Greeks for the Break, happy land, into earlier flowers !

high compliment, felt compelled to decline, as Make music, O bird, in the new-budded bowers!

it was contrary to the British constitution for Welcome her, welcome her, all that is ours !

an English prince to become sovereign of Warble, O bugle, and trumpet blare ! Flags, flutter out upon turrets and towers !

another independent nation. The election then Flames, on the windy headland, flare !

ensued, and Prince William of Denmark, then Utter your jubilee, steeple and spire !

about eighteen years of age, was unmistakably Clash, ye bells, in the merry March air !

elected, and on the 31st of March, 1863, was Flash, ye cities, in rivers of fire ! Welcome her, welcome the land's desire,

made King of Greece by the Hellenic national Alexandra! issembly, under the title of George I.




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