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In the debate in the previous year on the use. In that respect you stand in a far better bill that was thrown out by the Lords, Mr. position for undertaking what, if church-rates Bright had said, “ There are many who have are abolished, you must undertake, than do aspired to legislate upon this subject, but the great body of your Dissenting brethren. have ed in attempts at conciliation, Have you less zeal, have you less liberality and I think we must all feel conscious that than they have? Do not you continually we must either remain as we are or adopt the boast in this house that you are the owners bill which is now before us. I confess that I of the great bulk of the landed property of am altogether against any kind of dodge by the country? Are you not the depositaries which this matter may be even temporarily of political power, and do you not tell us that settled. I think that if this church be a when a Dissenter becomes rich he always walks national establishment, you cannot by law away from the chapel into your church? If insist that its support shall be drawn from this be so, am I appealing in vain to you, or only a portion of the population. I agree with reasoning in vain with you, when I try to you altogether in that. If I were a church- encourage you to believe that if there were no man I would never consent to it, and, not church-rates the members of


church and being a churchman, I wholly repudiate it. your congregations would be greatly improved, The dissensions to which I have referred have and that, as has taken place in the parish in prevailed, prevail still, and cannot terminate which I live, your churches would be better as long as this impost exists. What is its supported by your own voluntary and liberal natural and inevitable result? It must be to contributions than they can ever be by the create and stimulate the pride of supremacy penny per pound issuing from the pockets of in the dominant church, and at the same time men who do not attend your church, and who produce what I shall call the irritation of sub- are rendered ten times more hostile to it by: jugation and injustice on the part of that the very effort to make them contribute to its great portion of the people who support their support.” Then referring to the successful own ministers and places of worship, and who efforts of the Wesleyan Methodists, Mr. Bright think that they ought not to be called upon spoke of their doing marvels “in erecting to support those of any other sect or church. chapels, paying ministers, establishing schools Now, is it necessary that this should continue? -raising the dead, if you like-for men who I often have occasion in this house to give were dead to religion have been made Chrishope to honourable gentlemen opposite. They tians; and they have preached the gospel in are probably the most despairing political every county, I might almost say in every party that any country ever had within its parish, in the kingdom.” borders. They despair of almost everything. Mr. Bright also asked what would be the They despaired of agriculture. Agriculture condition of the population, the religious triumphs. They despair of their church, yet establishments, the education throughout Engwherever that church has been left to its own land and Wales, but for the liberality of the resources and to the zeal of its members, its sects who were not members of the Church of triumph has been manifest to the country and England; and having referred to former exto the world. Are you made of different periences of the Irish tithe and to the condimaterial from the five millions of people who tion of the Welsh Dissenters, he said: “But go to the Dissenting chapels of England and go a little further north, to a land where men Wales? You have your churches—I speak of are not supposed to misunderstand their own the old ones, and not of those recently erected interests; I refer to the country on the other by means of voluntary contributions — you side of the Tweed. You have an established have your churches, which you

call national, church there. Many years ago you had two and you have them for nothing. You have considerable secessions from its pale which your ministers paid out of property anciently became powerful sects. They have since united bequeathed or intrusted to the state for their | themselves, and their power bas proportionately increased. But lately, within the recol- take advantage of that majority when lie lection of every member of this house--for it belonged to it. is but seventeen years ago, there was another Lord J. Russell said the question was not great secession; and from what men fancied one of abstract right, but of the advantage was the ruin of the Established Church of of the church. He did not think that the Scotland there arose a new church, offering, I exemption of Dissenters would be a settlement will say, to the world, an example of zeal and of this question. By assenting to that plan munificence such as has not been witnessed in you parted with the principle of a national this country during the lifetime of the present church; while the difficulty of carrying it into generation. Not long ago, while in Scotland, operation would be insuperable. He argued ... I found that the Free Church, which that it would be possible to keep up the fabric comprises probably not more than one-third of the churches by voluntary contributions, of the population who pay any attention to and that if you took away £250,000 a year the religious matters, raised voluntarily, during churches would not fall into decay. Those the year when I made the inquiry, a larger who were attached to the Church would do sum than the whole annual emoluments of the well to allow this cause of difference between Established Church of Scotland. It has built, Churchmen and Dissenters to be removed. If I think, something like seven hundred churches that were done, no step against the Church throughout that part of the kingdom, and as would be taken for years; but if this bill many manses or dwellings for its ministers. were rejected the result would be a conIt has also established schools in almost every tinued agitation, and that a Dissenting agitaparish. And I tell the house with the utmost tion-and he knew how powerful and well sincerity that I believe I never questioned organized that was-which would continue any man in Scotland as to the effect of the till church-rates were finally abolished. Disruption who did not admit that, painful as The second reading of the bill was carried it was, and utterly as he and many others by 281 to 266, a majority which showed such might have opposed it, still it has been full of a falling off from that of the previous one that blessings to the people of that country.” the opponents of the measure redoubled their

These having been the expressions of Mr. exertions, and on the third reading the numBright's opinions in 1860, it was not to be won- bers were equal and the speaker decided vered at that he should have supported Sir against the bill by his casting-vote, on the John Trelawney's renewed attempt in 1861. ground that such an equality demanded an What the Dissenters felt in this question, he opportunity for further discussion. said, was that it was “a struggle for supremacy, In the following year (1862), on the 14th and not a question of twopence in the pound of May, the question was again brought bea supremacy on the part of a great establish- fore the house, but was lost by 287 votes to ment which was as much political as religious." 286, an amendment proposed by Mr. Est

Mr. Disraeli said that if the bill were carried court being carried, to the effect that it would its first effect would be to deprive parishes of be unjust and inexpedient to abolish the the power of self-legislation, a step which ought ancient customary right exercised from time not to be favoured by the professors of popular immemorial by the ratepayers of every parish principles. The law as it stood was founded in England, to raise by rate amongst themon the principle of affording facility for reli- selves the sums required for the repair of gious worship to the people of this country; their church, until some other provision should but it was declared to be a grievance to the have been made by parliament for the disDissenters. Now a Dissenter was not an alien, charge of those obligations to which, by custom but an Englishman with all his feelings and or statute, the churchwardens on the part of rights, and it was his duty to yield to that the parish were liable. majority to which it was a part of our constitutional system to (lefer, as it was his right to While on the subject of the church and

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church-rates we may refer for a moment to an was again heard of from quite a different occurrence which afforded a significant illustra- quarter. tion of the question of ritualistic practices, and Henry Edward Manning, formerly Archalso of the importance of the views expressed deacon of Chichester, had now been nominated in Mr. Gladstone's letter to the Scottish as the Roman Catholic provost of Westminster. bishops. During the autumn of the year 1859 Those who had known most of his opinions the church of Saint George in the East, Lon- were probably not surprised at his secession don, had become notorious, for the remark- from the Church of England; those who were able observances of an elaborate ritual which acquainted with the power of his personal were carried on there under the direction of influence and his intellectual attainments, may the rector, the Rev. Bryan King, who had reasonably have expected that he would be gone so far as to refuse to allow time for the appointed to fulfil an important office in the afternoon lecture by the Rev. Hugh Allen, Church of Rome. an evangelical clergyman well known for his The youngest of four sons of Mr. William labours in the poor neighbourhood of White- Manning, a London merchant, who was for chapel. The innovations on the usual mode many years M.P. for Lymington and governor of conducting the service, and the introduction of the Bank of England, Henry Edward of vestments and ceremonies which the con- Manning had been educated at Harrow and mon people pronounced to be “popish,” gave at Baliol College, Oxford, where he obtained great offence to a large part of the congrega- the highest classical honours. Soon afterwards tion, and were resented by a still larger num- he was elected to a fellowship of Merton ber who did not belong to that or any other College, which he vacated on his marriage congregation, but who took this opportunity, with a daughter of the Rev. John Sargent, to manifest their opinions by creating a riot rector of Lavington and Graffham in Sussex. in the church every Sunday. The Bishop To this living Mr. Manning succeeded on the of London unsuccessfully endeavoured to ar- death of his father-in-law, and there he pubbitrate in the case. The scenes which were lished treatises on The Unity of the Church enacted were

a public scandal : the ser- and The Rule of Faith, both in accordance vices were interrupted by the hooting and with the views which he had long professed. yelling of the mob, which fought to gain For he had been one of the most active among possession of the seats: the police, even when the leaders of the “ Anglo-Catholic” or Tracthey endeavoured to interfere, were powerless tarian movement which originated at Oxford to prevent the profanity and violence of the in 1833, and had so greatly attracted the struggling crowd within the building, and the regard of all those with whom he came in contumult was increased by the barking and tact that, in some respects, he occupied as howling of dogs introduced for the purpose of influential a position as that of Newman or being set on the officiating priests and chor- Pusey. In 1840 he was appointed Archdeacon isters. The bishop at length, assuming an of Chichester, to the surprise of those who authority which he did not legally possess, knew that the bishop from whose hands he ordered the church to be closed for a time; received the nomination held opinions entirely but on its being reopened the rioting was at at variance with his own. If the appointment once resumed, even though the vestments and was intended to keep him within the pale of ceremonies which were the alleged cause of the Anglican Church, it failed. Unlike some them were discarded, and it continued until of those who have since brought dissension the rector was exchanged to another parish. and reproach into their communions, he had

“ the courage of his convictions,” as Newman Any mention of the relation of religion to has had. The Gorham controversy of 1850 social progress at this time should remind us is understood to have been the immediate that the name of a man who had once held a occasion of his secession. His last public act distinguished position in the English Church as a minister of the English Church was his VOL. IV.



appearance at a large meeting held to protest working together for the purpose of advancing against the decision of the privy-council in temperance, morality, and charitable effort. that case. He afterwards, in conjunction with Archdeacon Wilberforce of Yorkshire and Dr. Perhaps in relation to some of the extravaMill of Cambridge, drew up and published a gances of the period now under review, we formal protest, and at about the same time should not pass altogether unnoticed the introrelinquished his preferments.

duction of what was called “Spiritualism," Mr. Manning had long been a widower but which has since been more correctly desigwithout children, and on his secession he nated “Spiritism," an importation from Amespent the winter of 1850-1851 in retirement, rica, which had in it very little that was really after which he was admitted to the Roman


and probably not much that could be Catholic communion by the Rev. Mr. Brown- altogether dissociated from what was delusion bill at Farm Street Chapel near Berkeley on the one hand and imposture on the other. Square. Soon afterwards he was made a The claim of certain persons who called themmember of the priesthood, entered upon a

selves “mediums” to obtain for a company course of studies in the Collegio Pio at Rome, assembled in a dark room, and sitting with and on leaving, received the cap of Doctor of their hands on a table, communications from Divinity from Pope Pius.

departed spirits, had a certain resemblance to He became noted as a preacher in Rome, the ancient Greek or Roman divination of the but on his return to England undertook no tripod; and a large number of persons were public charge beyond occupying a confessional to be found ready not only to become the in the church of the Jesuits in Farm Street dupes of designing “mediums” of “spiritualand frequent occasional preaching, until he istic” manifestations, but to join in dark was appointed to the direction of a new mission séances and adopt the extraordinary pretenserved by the members of the congregation sions by which they fell into a condition of of St. Charles, in the poorest part of West- spasmodic or even of chronic delusion. minster, and subsequently to the mission of This is not the place to discuss the possithe church of St. Helen, afterwards “St. Mary bility of remarkable physical impressions reof the Angels,” Bayswater. He again visited sulting from little known, nervous, or mental Rome in the winter of 1856, and on his return conditions, or the peculiar influence of animal in the following year, was nominated by the magnetism about which we have yet so prope to the provostship of Westminster, of much to learn: but it may be stated that which he became Roman Catholic Cardinal self-styled spiritualistic “phenomena” were Archbishop after the death of Dr. Wiseman, placed outside scientific investigation by the in February, 1865. The consecration took professors of the “ new manifestation" themplace in the Roman Catholic Chapel, Moor- selves, while repeated impostures, the erifields. There was little external resemblance dent weakness of the victims, and the irrebetween the somewhat reserved, thin, and verent absurdity of the demonstrations were ascetic-looking Cardinal Manning and his sufficiently apparent to men accustomed to portly, rubicund predecessor, about whom deal with evidence, to prevent the claims of something has been said in a previous page. the spiritists being generally accepted. At the The peculiar social influence which Dr. Man- same time there were so many persons of disning had displayed at Oxford, however, was tinction and of social importance who took up still there, and though able to maintain his the craze that the mental balance of the counhold on the people over whom he was officially try seemed to be disturbed, and religion itself appointed to the spiritual control, he has been was likely to suffer because of the degrading able to meet the promoters of social progress superstitions and the obvious deceptions which and public beneficence on common ground, were associated with the thoughts of immorand to be one of the foremost advocates of tality. Many of the advocates of Spiritism that true Christian unity which consists in claimed for it, that it supported a belief in a SPIRITISM-IMPOSTURES-FARADAY-SCIENTIFIC PROGRESS.



future state, without reflecting that numbers the less insignificant vagaries exhibited by the of its most trusted exponents had been de- mediums as communications from the noble tected in scandalous impostures, and that the spirits of the just in the world beyond the manifestations attributed to the spirits, even grave. Some exposures which were subseof the great and good, were so trivial, and quently made in a trial where Mr. Home or often so repulsive, that had they been true Hume was the defendant, as well as the dethey could scarcely be regarded otherwise tection of several impositions, served to disthan as evidences of an immortal imbecility. credit the spiritist professors, but for a long

The arch-medium of the period was one time the craze maintained a sinister influence Home or Hume, who came, it was believed, and was the cause of much domestic calamity from America, and perhaps the attitude of the and social mischief. more sensible portion of the community may be illustrated by the reply of Professor Faraday The quotation which we have made from to Sir Emerson Tennant when he was invited Faraday's letter indicates the enormous rato take part in one of Home's séances. Fara- pidity with which the application of electricity day had already turned his keen attention to to industrial operations had spread. We have the claims of the spiritists, and now said:- already glanced at some of the prominent inven

“I do not wish to give offence to anyone, or tions and improvements which marked the adto meddle with this subject again. I lost vances of scientific discovery: but any compremuch time about it formerly in the hope of hensive record, however brief, of the progress developing some new force of power, but made in almost every department of engineerfound nothing worthy of attention. I can ing and manufacturing skill would extend only look at it now as a natural philosopher: these pages beyond their proper limits. The and because of the respect due to myself I invention of Mr. Henry Bessemer in 1855-6, will not enter upon any further attention or for producing a special kind of steel hy passinvestigation, unless those who profess to have ing cold air through liquid iron, had been of a hold upon the effects agree to aid to the great importance in our engineering works, uttermost. To this purpose they must con- and the adoption of iron-plated ships had sent (and desire) to be as critical upon the necessitated the production in our arsenals matter, and full of test investigation in regard and shipyards, of engines and tools of enorto the subject, as any natural philosopher is mous power, by which the metal could be in respect of the gernis of his discoveries. How treated as though it were wood—and planed, could electricity, that universal spirit of mat- drilled, and pressed into shape with marvelter, ever have been developed in its relation lous rapidity and precision. In the domestic to chemical action, to magnetic action, to its ranks of life, improvements in the sewingapplication in the explosion of mines, the machine, which had first been introduced in wearing of silk, the extension of printing, the America by Howe, soon resulted in a comelectro-telegraph, the illumination of light- plete revolution of the business of the cheap houses, &c., except by rigid investigation tailor and the seamstress. Washing-machines, grounded on the strictest critical reasoning, and various ingenious appliances of domestic and the most exact and open experiment? And conveniences, many of them of American inif these so called occult manifestations are not vention, came into use; and no such rapid utterly worthless, they must and will pass development bad taken place in the larger through a like ardeal.” It must be remem- operations of mechanical industry since the bered that Faraday was no sceptic in religion.

invention of the steam-hammer by Nasmyth, He was a devout member of a very small and

and its introduction in 1812. simple sect of Christians who professed to In other countries the progress of great enfound their belief on the doctrines of the New terprises was also remarkable, and it may be Testament; it is not surprising, therefore, that remembered that, in 1861, the tunnel through he could not accept the unexplained but none Mont Cenis, which had previously been car

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