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ried for some distance by manual labour, was ing discovery of the north-west passage, continued by means of powerful drilling-ma- which cost himself and his companions their chines. In England the activity of inven- lives. At anyrate the north-west passage had tion and application appeared to be universal been made in 1851 by Captain Maclure in the and to affect every department of social life. Investigator. Mr. Bessemer had beside his invention for In Australia explorations of the interior producing a peculiar kind of steel, given much had not had any very important result since attention to the construction of river steamers. the tracing of the rivers Murray, Darling, and Marine engineering advanced greatly, and in Murrumbidgee by Major Mitchell in 1836; the department of river and ocean-going ves- but the discoveries were, at all events, suffisels the improvements were of the utmost im- cient to prove that there was no open tract portance. Indeed the great increase of our where water could be procured, or the needs shipping, and consequently the position which of a large exploring party adequately provided we held as carriers for the world, was asso- for. ciated in its advantages with the augmentation The trade with Japan was opened up by of our imports and exports already noticed. English enterprise, and the Japanese govern

The total tonnage entered and cleared at ports ment, after some difficulties, subsequently in the foreign trade in 1850 was 14,000,000 became exceedingly friendly; but it was in tons, and in 1860 this had increased to Africa that the most important discoveries 24,000,000 tons. The English tonnage en- took place. In 1857 Captain Burton and Capgaged in vessels with cargoes in 1850 was tain Speke, starting from Zanzibar, had reached 9,000,000 tons, in 1860 it had increased to a great lake connected with the Nile, which 14,000,000 tons. The development of the was named the Victoria Nyanza, and much steam marine was one of the great causes of later, in 1864, another large lake was discovthis remarkable growth of commercial enter- ered by Samuel, afterwards Sir Samuel, Baker, prise, but this again greatly depended upon who named it the Albert Nyanza; but long the development of international commerce before this the achievements of Livingstone and the enterprise of exploration and discov- had become known in England. This famous ery, which opened up new channels for trade missionary, who, as a youth, had followed the and promoted the national interests. There veteran Moffat to the land of the Bechuanas were several exploring expeditions set on in 1810, had just completed fresh enterprises foot during this time, and still more endea- at Tette on the east coast of Africa, to be folvours were made to open up new commercial lowed by an expedition to the Zambesi, prorelations.

vided for by the government. With this,

accompanied by Dr. Kirk and several scienThe expedition of the Fox steamer, fitted tific observers, he set out in March, 1858, out by Lady Franklin in 1857 and commanded after a stay of two years in England, from by Captain M'Clintock, had brought home which he had been previously absent for tidings of the lost Franklin expedition, of the seventeen years during his long missionary abandonment of the Erebus and Terror in wanderings in " the Dark Continent." the ice, the departure of the 105 survivors David Livingstone was one of those rare under the command of Captain Crozier to- beings—a practical enthusiast. Having quite wards the Great Fish River, and the death of early in life made up his mind to a career, he Sir John Franklin on the 11th of June, 1847. began at once to take the means which lay Many relics of the lost crews had been recov- nearest to him for preparing for the work, ered. On the 28th of May, 1860, the gold and whatever he did or learned, he had the medal of the Geographical Society was pre- end he had proposed to himself distinctly in sented to Lady Franklin and to the commander, view. His father was employed in the linen -then Sir Leopold M'Clintock,—and Lady factories of Blantyre, near Glasgow, where Franklin claimed for her husband the crown- David himself wrought first as a piecer-boy

EXPLORATION-AFRICA-LIVINGSTONE.

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and afterwards as a spinner; but like many “not an uncommon sight to see a black sitting another Scotch lad he worked hard at his in the evening, with his fire stick in one hand calling during the summer and in winter at- and a pen in the other, writing in a beautiful tended the college classes. Young Livingstone hand a petition to a commandant.” Having was as assiduous at Anderson's College, Glas- been accepted as a candidate for missionary gow, as he was industrious at the Blantyre work he was summoned to London to undergo mills. By the time he was sixteen years old the usual examinations before the directors he had a good knowledge of Horace and Virgil, of the society, and was then sent with other and had read with avidity such books as Dr. probationers to a training establishment at Dick's Philosophy of Religion and Philosophy Chipping Ongar, in Essex, where he pursued of a Future State, besides dipping pretty in- his studies in languages, for which he showed telligently into scientific works, and indeed remarkable aptitude. It was a simple life that any other books he could get hold of except he led during his probation before being novels, with which he had no concern. He ordained to the work that lay before him, and had probably even then some idea of being a “the pale, thin, modest, retiring young man, missionary, for soon afterwards he distinctly with a peculiar Scotch accent,” as one of his desired to prepare himself for becoming a companions described him to be-was ready pioneer of Christianity in China; with the not only to learn but to labour, for we find him hope that by teaching the true religion to the grinding the corn to make the brown-bread inhabitants of the far East he might lead to for the household, chopping the wood for the the material benefit of some portions of that fires, and either alone or in

company great empire. As one step towards the fulfil- of his fellow probationers taking long walks ment of his wish he commenced studying of sixteen or eighteen miles. When once his medicine, in which he ultimately attained so natural reserve yielded to friendly advances proficiency and passed the necessary examina- | he was found to be peculiarly frank, kindly, tions. At the same time, taking Patrick's and helpful, and the variety of his early Plants of Lanarkshire as a manual, he made studies

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many opportunities of showsome progress in botany, and explored both the ing practical fitness for the work of the pioneer, botany and the geology of the district. At the while his healthy religious freedom was equally age of nineteen he was attending the medical in favour of his ability to carry the gospel to and the Greek winter classes in Glasgow, and those who had never heard its message of the divinity lectures of Dr. Wardlaw in the liberty and peace. It was no longer to China summer; but he was still at work at the that he directed his attention. “The opium factory, where he placed his book on the war” and other occurrences had for a time in“ spinning - jenny” so that he could catch terfered with missionary work in that country, sentence after sentence while he went on with and he had been already looking toward his labour, and keep up constant study undis- Africa, when, in 1840, just as he had passed turbed by the roar of machinery. In 1838 he into manhood, he was appointed to a South offered his services to the London Missionary African station. For eight or nine years he Society, on account, he said, of the unsectarian laboured zealously at Kolobeng in the interior character of that institution, which "sends out beyond the Orange River, while Robert Mofneither Episcopacy nor Presbyteranism, but fat was pursuing his arduous duty in the the gospel of God to the heathen.” This early same region at Kuruman, then the most disexpression was perhaps as illustrative of the tant outpost of Christianity till Livingstone broad,simple character of Livingstone's religion pushed onward two hundred miles further as the remarkable reference which he long | north. It was no wonder that these two men afterwards made to the deserted and ruined became cordially united in the work which convents at Loanda, when he spoke of them as they had so earnestly undertaken, and their “decayed missionary establishments;" and they friendship was consolidated by the marriage of had justified the title, for he mentions it was the young missionary with Moffat's daughter,

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who, with three native teachers, formed his trade and advancing human progress and sole staff from 1845 to 1819, when he united civilization. the work of the explorer to that of the teacher, But Livingstone was preparing for further and started in search of Lake Ngami, to researches. Supported by encouragement and which, in company of his wife, he made his practical aid both from our own and from the " great journey” in 1852. In the ten years Portuguese government, with personal expresprevious to 1855 he had led some indepen- sions of sincere interest from the queen and dent expeditions into the interior of Southern Prince Albert, and after the public recogniAfrica, and had become acquainted with the tion of his services at a banquet at the Lonlanguages, habits, and religious notions of don Tavern, and the subscription of a Livingseveral savage tribes at that time unknown to stone testimonial fund by the leading merEnglishmen. He had twice crossed the Afri- chants, bankers, and citizens of London, he can Continent a little south of the tropic of set out with the other members of his expediCapricorn, from the shores of the Indian tion to the eastern coast of Africa, where the Ocean to those of the Atlantic. In 1855 the Zambesi falls into the ocean. Here two small gold medal of the Royal Geographical Society steamers were placed at their disposal and they was awarded to him for his services to science. ascended the river to the interior. The results There is no space in these pages to follow the of the explorations were the discovery of the details of his discoveries -- nor is it necessary, minor lakes, Nyassa and Shirwa, and after since he published a full account of his travels traversing a great extent of country 300 in books which have been widely circulated miles to the north-west of Nyassa, the finding and are still read with deep interest. Before of the mouths of the Zambesi, and exploring his return to England in 1856 it was calculated the immense surrounding territory. Tbe that Livingstone must have passed over no less premature attempt of the mission afterwards than 11,000 miles of land, for the most part sent out, chiefly by Oxford and Cambridge, untrodden by any European, and up to that to establish a station on the banks of the time believed to be inaccessible. He returned, river, failed; first, by the death of Bishop as his friend and admirer, Sir Roderick Mur- Mackenzie, who fell a victim to the climate, chison, said, “ as the pioneer of sound know- and afterwards by the hopelessness of the ledge who, by his astronomical observations,had endeavour and the necessity for its abandondetermined the sites of various places, hills, ment by Mackenzie's successor- -Bishop Tozer rivers, and lakes, hitherto nearly unknown, --but the discoveries were made, and the counwhile he had seized upon every opportunity try is no longer a terra incognita. The reader of describing the physical features, climatology, who would learn the particulars of Livingand even geological structure of the countries stone's researches on this expedition may find which he had explored, and pointed out many them in the explorer's own“ narrative " of the new sources of commerce as yet unknown to discovery of a large tract of fertile soil, rich the scope and enterprise of the British mer- in cotton, tobacco, and timber, though subchant.” Lord Ellesmere too spoke of the ject to periodical drought; and of the estabscientific precision with which the unarmed lishment of an excellent port, the capacities and unassisted English missiouary had left bis of which had been overlooked by previous mark upon so many important stations in travellers. Some of his conclusions have been regions hitherto blank upon our maps. In a disputed by other writers, but the enormous letter to the Times Livingstone strongly re- value of his discoveries could not be denied. commended the encouragement of the growth In this expedition, which had been prepared of cotton in the interior of Africa, as one of by members of the Geographical Society, and the means of opening up commercial inter- in which he was assisted by the advice of course between this country and the tribes of Captain Washington, hydrographer to the adCentral and Southern Africa, and of gradually miralty, Commander Bedingsfield, R.N., Dr. but certainly and finally suppressing the slave- Kirk of Edinburgh, Mr. Baines the African

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