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and Australian traveller, and by his ever- Stockport Ragged Industrial, told his pupils faithful friend and companion, his devoted of your journeys and adventures, and the wife, he was enabled, to use the expression motives by which you were actuated. One of of Sir R. Murchison, “ to reach the high the lads said, “ Let's give him some money!” watersheds that lie between his own Nyassa and with one consent they resolved to do so, and the Tanganyika of Burton and Speke, and immediately commenced a subscription. and to establish the fact that those lakes did Some gave all their money, and others, who not communicate with each other; and that, had no penny, sold their marbles to obtain it. if so, then there was, to say the least, a high If you could see the lads, and knew who and probability that the Tanganyika, if it did not what they are, you would be as much astonempty itself to the west, through the region ished as myself, and you would admit the of Congo, must find an exit for its waters offering is not only spontaneous, but as munifinorthwards by way of the Nile.”

cent as the one presented you at the Mansion Many of the particulars of this slight House.--Rejoicing in your honours as homage sketch of Livingstone's explorations appeared done to the cause of the Saviour, I am, dear in the Times of January 28th, 1874, in a sad sir, yours very respectfully, obituary notice. But to the shadowed page

Rev. Dr. Livingstone.

John THORNTON. recording his death we may again have to turn. It is sufficient here to state that, in 1865,

Mission House, Bloomfield Street, be left England for the third and last of his

London, 234 January, 1857. journeys to Central Africa; where, under the My dear Sir,- I beg you will assure the auspices of the Geographical Society, he was boys, who so generously expressed their apto seek a solution of the old mystery—the probation of my labours in Africa, that noreal sources of the Nile. It will not be out thing has delighted me more since my return of place to recall two or three simple incidents to England than their honest, spontaneous among the honours and congratulations that deed. I give them all my warmest thanks, welcomed the missionary explorer during his from a heart overflowing with emotion, and stay in England in 1857–58.

wishing that God may abundantly bless them The city of Glasgow made him free of its with His favour and love. I have very little time-honoured guild; the burghers of Hamil- time to write to any one, as I am engaged in tou, his birthplace, were proud to present to the preparation of a narrative of my late exhim the freedom of their busy town; and the plorations, and must keep my word with one manager and people of the Blantyre works, hundred and ten poor native Africans, who where he wrought as a piecer-boy, were only accompanied me from the centre of the country too happy to meet and entertain him. Con- to the east coast, and now await the fulfilment gratulatory addresses poured in upon him from of my promise at Tette. I ought to be back all quarters, and he received invitations out to them in April, but I fear, after all I can of number to attend public meetings, to be do, I must be about two months later than got up especially to honour him; but none of my appointed time in April. Were it not these attentions were so affecting and signifi- for this, I should try and visit the boys and cant as the spontaneous offering of the boys speak with them; but as this can scarcely be, of the Stockport Ragged School, and the man- I would just commend them all to the care of ner in which it was received and responded our blessed Lord Jesus, and ask them to try to. Here are the letters which explain the Him as their friend and guide through life. simple occurrence.

They may make Him their confidant, for He Wycliffe Villa,

listens to every prayer wafted to Him from Stockport, January, 1857. the lowliest bosom. “In Him we live, and My dear Sir,-I think it will give you move, and have our being;” and He is as tenpleasure to receive the inclosed thirty postage der and compassionate to every one of them, stamps. Mr. Jackson, the master of our and knows all their cases and cares, as if they were the only persons in the world. And of these reports should do injury to religious then, if they are like Him, they will all show belief, while others were rather disgusted at love to every one about them, and to every- being suspected of having had so repulsive an thing beautiful, and good, and true.


At the end of the year 1859, however, the
' He prayeth best who loveth best,
All things, both great and small;

“missing link” had become a byword because
For the dear Lord to whom we pray, of the agitation caused by Dr. Darwin's
He made and loveth all."

theory of “the origin of species” by natural

selection, which very few people had given Thanking you and them again for your

themselves the trouble to examine or to undermost friendly feelings, and hoping that they

stand, but about which there was an almost may not again deprive themselves of any

universal outcry of praise, ridicule, fear, or comfort, I am, dear sir, yours most truly,

condemnation. A very large number of those DAVID LIVINGSTONE.

who are sometimes spoken of as " the religious Mr. John Thornton, Stockport.

world” were at once in violent hostility to the While on the subject of Africa we may theory, which, without hesitation, was declared glance at a singular controversy which was to be opposed to revealed truth, and to be derevived in 1859, the associations of which are structive of the very foundations of faith. It more important than the discussion itself. As did not seem to occur to these reasoners that early as 1847 several rumours had reached their own faith could have little foundation if England of the discovery in Central Africa of it could be upset by a mere scientific speculaan enormous ape, the conformation of which tion, and the more thoughtful minds were not was said to approach so nearly to that of man indisposed to wait for further explanations of that it might be regarded as the link between what the eminent naturalist meant, before prothe human being and the brute creation. This nouncing that either revelation or belief was creature, it was said, frequently walked up- endangered by his theorizing. There were, on right; was of such enormous strength that it the other hand, people who repelled the notion was scarcely afraid of the lion; could climb of the development of species, because it was, trees, from which it would reach down its long they thought, opposed to the true dignity of arm, clutch a passing native by the throat, man as an intelligent, emotional, and reand strangle him in its powerful grasp. It flecting being, with a spiritual nature. Men

, had been known to arm itself with an enor- like Kingsley, and of course a great many of mous bludgeon, and to lie upon a branch less calibre, were at first vehemently against waiting to stun other animals as they passed it. While they treated such speculations with beneath, or even furtively to attack the serious rebuke and sarcasm, the wits and elephant. Its muscular force was prodigious, humorists, whether they accepted the theory its fierceness terrible, and though it showed or not, found in it an endless theme for jests little intelligence, and was called by the negroes and comic illustrations. The rash critics who, “the stupid old may,” it was supposed to pos- like Kingsley, knew enough of patural history sess a kind of malicious and self-protecting to give the subject some subsequent examinacraft. Only some part of the skeletons and the tions, afterwards mitigated and many of them crania of the animals were first sent here, but tacitly revoked their former conclusions. On in 1839 a young specimen was captured and strict examination the theory-and it was only forwarded to Europe. Professor Owen lectured put forward as a theory-became much less upon the formation of the "gorilla," as it dangerous to sacred beliefs and the truths of was called, and pointed out the differences revelation than had been supposed. Those who between its structure and that of the lowest had already necessarily accepted the scientific

The newspapers were full of conclusions from geological discoveries had it, and serious orthodox people felt some alarm to reflect that an absolutely literal interlest the confirmation, or supposed confirmation, pretation of our version of the first book of the

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Scriptures need not be insisted on as a test of could say in a lecture at the Royal Institution, orthodoxy, and numbers of men of science that so rapidly had these conclusions been known to be devout and pious Christians were accepted and established that he began to ready to give their admiration, if not their im- think they would shortly require for their mediate adhesion, to the extensive generaliza- welfare a little healthful opposition. This of tion which had resulted in speculations so

a somewhat humorous way of wide and yet so inclusive as those of Darwin. putting it; but it is a very striking fact that The theory of natural selection, that is, of the a statement which, when first definitely put preservation of favoured races in the struggle forth in November, 1859, was received with a for existence, represented that during a long storm of ridicule, indignation, and even execourse of descent, species of plants and animals cration, soon came to be regarded with quiet atare modified by the selective preservation of tention, and though it continued to be opposed slightly varied forms, adapted somewhat better on scientific as well as on religious grounds, than their fellows to the circumstances in gained considerably by the reaction which sucwhich they are placed. The modification of ceeded its first reception. Educated and even species was not an absolutely new doctrine, half educated people who had been among and even Darwin, who carried it out to what those who raised the outcry against the prohe believed to be legitimate conclusions, did pounder of the theory and had loaded him not confidently assert how far it would extend. with epithets, began to be a little ashamed of He did not assert, he merely indicated by ex- having so treated a man who was known to pressing his own convictions. He had put | be a devout believer in religion, and who forth a suggestion, and though his own observa- concluded his treatise by saying: “From tlie tions had led him to regard it as a conclusive war of nature, from famine and death, the discovery, he left it to be verified by others as most exalted object which we are capable of he thought he had verified it to himself. “I conceiving, namely, the production of the cannot doubt,” he said, “that the theory of higher animals, directly follows. There is descent, with modification, embraces all the grandeur in this view of life, with its several members of the same class. I believe that powers, having been originally breathed by animals have descended from at most only the Creator into a few forms or into one; and four or five progenitors, and plants from an that whilst this planet has gone cycling on, acequal or lesser number.” But speculatively cording to the fixed law of gravity, from so he went farther. Analogy would lead me simple a beginning endless forms most beautione step farther,” he said, “namely, to the ful and most wonderful have been and are belief that all animals and plants have de- being evolved.” scended from some one prototype; but this Charles Darwin may be said to have been inference is chiefly grounded on analogy, and a born scientific investigator. His father was it is immaterial whether or not it be accepted. Dr. R. W. Darwin, F.R.S., his grandfather The case is different with the members of each the famous Dr. Erasmus Darwin, author of great class, as the Vertebrata, the Articulata, the Botanic Garden and Zoonomia. From &c.; for here we have distinct evidence that Shrewsbury grammar-school he went to Edinall have descended from a single parent.” burgh University for two years, and thence

This of course is not the place to discuss the to Cambridge, where he took his degree in probable truth or error of such conclusions; 1831, when he was twenty-two years old. In we have only to concern ourselves for the the same year, having heard that Captain moment with their historical relations, and to Fitzroy, who was about to sail on a voyage of note that the opinions of the greater number circumnavigation in her majesty's ship Deagle, of Darwin's opponents were soon afterwards had offered to share his cabin with any commodified or retracted. In less than ten years petent naturalist, Darwin applied for the apProfessor Huxley (who was one of the earliest | pointment. His “Journal of Researches into and most ardent advocates of the same theory) | the Geology and Natural History of the

Various Countries visited during the Voyage of H.M.S. Beagle round the world" is the delightful record of this journey, and shows how ardently the young naturalist had pursued his studies in zoology and geology, and how widely they had reached in various areas of inquiry, though botany was the favourite pursuit. This voyage vastly increased the scientific knowledge of the young inquirer, but it permanently injured his health, and sowed the seeds of weakness of the chest and heart, the disease of which he died. But Darwin, though he was frequently an invalid, performed an amazing amount of work requiring great patience and arduous attention, and he lived to be seventy-three, having read two papers before the Linnæan Society only a year before his death, at about the time of the publication of a remarkable work on earthworms, respecting which his investigations had shown the enormous importance of the part they play in the world, by gradually covering the surface of the earth with a layer of mould.

Darwin received the gold medal of the Royal Society in 1853, and the Wollaston Palladian medal of the Geological Society in 1859. In 1875 the University of Leyden conferred upon him the honorary degree of M.D., and in 1877 the University of Cambridge made him. a Doctor of Laws. He married in 1839 the granddaughter of Josiah Wedgwood, F.R.S., the well-known manufacturer of artistic earthenware. We have noted that his work on the Origin of Species had, even at the period which we are now considering, begun to find acceptance with many, and was no longer mentioned with such detestation as it had met with on its first appearance. Of that book he afterwards said: "It seemed to me sufficient to indicate that by this work 'light would be thrown on the origin of man and his history,"" for this implied that man "must be included with other organic beings in any general conclusion respecting his manner of appearance on this earth." These words occur in a more recent and even more startling book, the Descent of Man, in which Darwin dealt at length, and boldly, with that subject on which he had hitherto deemed it well

to be reticent, and presented man as descending from a hairy quadruped, furnished with a tail and pointed ears, and probably a climber of trees, and traced back the chain of descent until he found as the progenitor of all the vertebrate animals, some aquatic creature with brain, heart, and other organs imperfectly developed. This book gave another shock to those (a great majority of course) who had not accepted the conclusions of the former one; but it is to be noted that it was received with very different demonstrations as a theoretical contribution to science, by a man, who had already implied that he would not stop short in tracing the development of the higher organizations from the extremest point of animal life, and who saw in this theory a nobler conception of Divine creative power than in that usually received and adopted.

Whatever opinions may be held on the subject, it cannot be doubted that the minute investigations and avowed conclusions of Dr. Darwin and of Mr. Huxley-who may rather be regarded as his independent colleague and supporter than as his follower-have done much to change the scope and method of scientific inquiry and experiment, in relation to the remoter forms of animal and vegetable life and organization.

We must now return to glance at what was going on in parliament, and that reminds us that we have not quite done with the financial statement of 1860, and with all that was involved by the adoption of the terms of the commercial treaty with France. We have already seen that some agitation had been made at various periods for the abolition of the taxes on paper. On the 2d of February, 1859, a demonstration against the retention of excise or any other duties on paper had been made at Exeter Hall. Mr. Milner Gibson presided, and was supported by a number of influential gentlemen. Mr. William Chambers of Edinburgh made a telling speech, and was followed by Dr. Watts, who represented that the paper-duty was a tax on literature, an obstruction to education, an impediment to commerce, and a hindrance to production; that it interfered with the process of manufacture,




repressed industry, and injured the public | tinct injustice. The controversy on this ques

The meeting called upon Mr. Gib- tion was long and sometimes violent, and it was son still further to press the House of Com- admitted at the time that there was inequality mons on the subject of the abolition of the of interests from which English paper-makers duties, so that in the ensuing session arrange- would suffer, but on the other hand it was ments might be made to dispense with the argued that the general benefits to be derived tax. A petition to the House of Commons from the treaty could not be rejected, much was then unanimously adopted.

less could the avowed principles of free-trade The abolition of these taxes came not un- be disavowed for the sake of maintaining the naturally into the scheme of the commercial balance of advantage for one particular industreaty, and the provisions of the budget of try. Looking at the question from the point 1860 included the remission not only of the of view of the consumer it was asked why the excise duty on paper, but of the import duty benefits of our free-trade policy should be on paper coming from abroad.

restricted because of the remaining “ protecThat duty had been three-halfpence a pound, tive" legislation of the French government, and some of the principal paper-makers in and why an import duty should be maintained the country represented that it was no more on

French paper

for the purpose of making than sufficient to enable them to hold their paper in England dearer than it otherwise owo against foreigu competition. The reply would be. The opponents of the Paper Duties to this was that the abolition of the excise Bill, which formed, as it were, a separate part duty not only required, but, by the terms of of the general financial measure, were active the commercial treaty, demanded, the remis- and were able to secure the support of influension of the import duty on paper coming from tial friends, so that although the second readFrance. One of the clauses of that treaty pro- ing was carried in the House of Commons by vided that we should have the right of placing a majority of 53, that majority was reduced an import duty on French goods of sufficient to 9 on the third reading. This result enamount to counterbalance any excise duty couraged an effort to oppose the bill in the which might be laid on the same class of goods House of Lords, and the effort was for a time in England, and it was argued that this successful. Lord Monteagle (formerly Mr. should be honourably interpreted to mean Spring Rice and Whig chancellor of the exthat the abolition of the excise duty on an chequer) gave notice of a motion to reject the article required the free admission of the same bill, and Lord Derby and Lord Chelmsford kind of article from France. This was regarded agreed to support him. as rather a strained interpretation of the pro- A crisis was imminent, because, if the Lords vision of the treaty, but the paper-makers had claimed the power to reject this portion of the another argument in the fact that while it was financial scheme of the chancellor of the exproposed to remit the import duty on French chequer, they thereby demanded the authority paper, the French would maintain such a large to interfere with, or reimpose, the taxation of export duty on their rags (the raw material of the country in opposition to the Commons. paper), that they could not be obtained in the There were those, and among them the aged English market except at a price which placed | Lord Lyndhurst, who argued that, though the our manufacturers under a considerable dis- Peers bad not exerted authority to alter a advantage. Hitherto there had been a prohi money bill, they had a right to refuse their bition of the export of rags from France, and assent to a repeal of taxation, and that this though an export duty was to be adopted in- was an instance in which the exercise of that stead of absolute prohibition, the abandonment right would be justified. Lord Cranworth, of the duty on foreign paper coming to this the lord chancellor, on the other hand, urged country while the supply of foreign rags to that the proposed course, if not strictly speakEnglish paper-makers was saddled with a duty ing an unconstitutional proceeding, was so which greatly enhanced their cost, was a dis- thinly separated from it that the distinction

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