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native escort, had been murdered by insur- the native troops deserted to the enemy, and gents in Cabul. They had been attacked in he was severely defeated at Maiwand, and the residency by a crowd of fierce but cowardly had to fall back in confusion on Candahar, foes, who came upon them like a horde of wolves. which was closely invested by Ayub Khan. The Englishmen, seeing nothing for it but to Reinforcements were delayed for want of fight, made a swift sudden sally and drove transport, the crisis was becoming danback the crowd that thronged the gate, and gerous, when Sir Frederick Roberts set out then rapidly retired, leaving some of the enemy with his army of 10,000 men on a forced march dead-many of them driven headlong by from Cabul to Candahar, a distance of about blows from the fist, for the officers were not 300 miles, through a difficult and hostile completely armed. Even repeated sallies like country. The heat was tremendous, and this were of no avail, the mob, pressed for- there was some fighting to be done on the ward by increasing numbers, closed upon way, but in three weeks the journey was acthem; they were overwhelmed and slain. It complished. The men, without hesitation, was war then, of course, and there was no attacked the enemy, and gained a brilliant time to lose. The forces that came to stop victory, which re-established the prestige and the British advance were defeated with heavy the temporary power of the British arms, and loss, and General Sir Frederick Roberts held enabled us to place the administration, as Cabul with the troops under his command, well as the ameership, in the hands of Abdul Sir D. Stewart reoccupying Candahar. Ya- Rahman Khan, and to retire from Cabul, koob Khan abdicated, and with some of his leaving “the scientific frontier” to remain advisers was sent to Peshawur. This caused an expression without much practical meana general insurrection in the country round ing. Cabul, the leaders of which ordered an attack The gallantry and remarkable generalship on the forces of Sir Frederick Roberts, who of Sir Frederick Roberts was perhaps not so had retired to the cantonments of Sherpur completely recognized as some subsequent to await reinforcements. Before any

successes by other generals have been, but he rived our troops had beaten their assailants, was honoured with the thanks of the queen whose leaders fled, and Shere Ali Khan, the and the country, and his name and that of Afghan governor of Candahar, having re- his army is still associated with the deed of mained loyal to the English, was left as in- prowess which alone seemed to give some pendent ruler, while Sir D. Stewart marched lustre to a war undertaken without counting with part of his force to Cabul to assume the cost and singularly barren in results. supreme command. On the way he met and Alas! there was, if possible, a still worse defeated an Afghan army, probably raised by and less honourable enterprise before the the fugitive chiefs, near Ghuzni. He then country in what was known as the Zulu war. continued negotiations which made Abdul It is so recent that a few lines only need be Rahman Khan, son of Afzul Khan, Ameer of devoted to it. Cabul.

The various states of South Africa differed It was to General Sir Frederick Roberts, so considerably that it was not at first easy to however, that the great achievement of the unravel their claims, still less their alleged campaign was due; and, but for the skill and grievances. There were Cape Colony and almost unparalleled boldness of that com- Natal directly under British control. There mander and the unyielding courage of his was the Transvaal, the territory north of the men, a great disaster might at the last have Vaal river, a Dutch republic, with a populabefallen the British arms. In June, 1880, tion of 40,000 Europeans and 250,000 Kafirs Ayub (a brother of Yakoob Khan), who and natives. There was the Orange Free had taken up his position at Herat, marched State, formed by Dutch settlers who emigrated against Candahar with a large force. General from Cape Colony because they disliked British Burrows advanced to oppose him, but some of rule, and whose independence had been recog

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LIEUT. GEN. SIR FREDERICK S. ROBERTS, G. C. B.

FROM A PHOTOGRAPH BY THE LONDON STEREOSCOPIC CO.

BLACHIE & SON LONDON. GLASGOW & EDINB TRGB

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nized. On the north side, beyond the Limpopo out Sir Theophilus Shepstone, who, without river, the Transvaal bordered on the vast waiting for an exact decision either there or wilderness of the interior, where Moffat and at home, proclaimed the annexation. It unLivingstone visited the Bechuanas and other dertook to arbitrate on Cetewayo's claim, and great tribes. Next to the Orange State lay after finding in his favour sent out Sir Bartle Basutoland and Natal, under British rule, and Frere, who, as lord commissioner, instead of bordering on Natal the country of the Zulus. doing prompt justice, kept back the award, The inability of the Boers of the Transvaal treated the Zulu chief with marked dislike, to defend themselves against the Zulu Kafirs and at length, after having exasperated him, induced the British government to offer to and aroused his suspicions by delay, demanded take charge of the additional territory in the as a condition of the award that the Zulu presumed interest of the European population troops should be disarmed and disbanded, and as against the numerical superiority of the return to their homes. This demand not being natives. Some of the native tribes were inmediately complied with Zululand was insufficiently organized to be regarded rather vaded by British troops; but we had underas uncivilized communities than as

valued the ability of Cetewayo and the strength savages, and though we had in 1874 put of those whom we had converted into enemies. down a so-called insurrection under the chief News of a defeat at Isandula came here at a Langalibabele, and punished him with im- time when the pendulum of public opinion prisonment, it was thought by many that we was about to swing back. The spirits of those acted in a high-handed manner.

who had been boasting and singing, and deIt may be mentioned here that Dr. Colenso, claring “by Jingo,” felt a little dashed at the the Bishop of Natal, was deeply and conscien-disaster; and though, when Lord Chelmsford, tiously interested in the wellbeing of the who was in command, retrieved his position Zulus, and repeatedly denounced, while he so completely that on the arrival of Sir Garnet more than once mitigated or prevented, the in- Wolseley the war was over, and Cetewayo was justice and misunderstanding under which quickly made a prisoner, the blow loosened they suffered.

the hold of the government, and “imperial The Boers of the Transvaal had been de- policy” was spoken in lower tones. One event feated by one chief, Secocoeni, and were in which gave a darker shadow to the war in constant peril from the Zulus, and yet they Zululand was the death of the young prince would not treat them with consideration. Judg- imperial, the son of the late Napoleon III. ing from recent events it would seem that and the widowed Eugenie, ex-empress of the some of the Zulu chiefs, Cetewayo, for instance, French. The youth, who was of good and was little less worthy of respect and concilia- fair promise, had studied in a military school tion than the subjects of the South African at Woolwich, and offered to serve as a volunVolksraad; but Cetewayo, as the greatest chief teer on Lord Chelmsford's staff. He went out and ruler of the Zulus, detested the Boers, who with a small reconnoitring party, which was had, he believed, injured him, and who held surprised by the enemy, who slew him with territory which he with justice claimed to be- their assegais. long to his people, while he was frankly anxious The determmation to annex the Transvaal to be on friendly terms with the English, and met with no better result than the invasion to pay allegiance to the English sovereign. of Zululand. The soldiers who came to reinUnder these circumstances the British govern- force the Boers found themselves among enement made what appears to have been the mies, and friendly annexation was intergreatest possible mistake with respect to both preted into armed invasion, ending in defeat parties. In response to some vague represen- which it would have been ignominious to tation it proposed to the Boers that the Trans- avenge. The mistakes of 1877–79 had to vaal should be annexed to British territory be remedied by another government, by the that it might have due protection, and sent I long-deferred release and restoration of Cete

VOL. IV.

84

wayo, and the abandonment of hostilities solicitation of France, and because of the apagainst the people of the Transvaal, who had peals of the prodigal khedive. Subsequently apparently been the victims of misrepresenta- the affairs of this involved exchequer retion.

quired the appointment of an extra liquidaBefore passing from the Eastern question a tion commission, and in 1881 the capital debt word must be said about Egypt. One of the under various “loans” amounted to above earlier manifestations of the policy afterwards £98,000,000, with a floating debt of £5,000,000. adopted by the government was the purchase It will readily be understood that the adminfrom the khedive in 1875 of the 176,000 istration of many of the chief offices by Euroshares which he held in the Suez Canal. peans gave rise to much dissatisfaction. How There were 400,000 shares altogether, and he far this may have influenced the commenceheld nearly half of them, but he was nearly ment of the insurrection under Arabi Pasha ruined by extravagance and debauchery, in 1882 it would be difficult to say. and they came upon the stock -exchange, The dual control virtually ceased to exist where the British government bought them when France held back from supporting the for £4,000,000 sterling. A few people there authority of the khedive against the relel were who had grave doubts of the wisdom of general, with whom it was believed he was the investment, but the majority first thought treacherously in accord till the insurrection in of it as a subtle thing, an artful move of Dis- Alexandria rendered it necessary for our govraeli’s, and afterwards as a rather bold, char- ernment to send a fleet under Admiral Sey. acteristic way of showing foreign nations that mour to protect European residents, and the we meant to keep our hold upon the road to acts of the insurgents compelled us to suppress the East. As a matter of fact it was, perhaps, what had by that time become a rebellion. worth while to give to England a large interest in a commercial undertaking in which We must now return to affairs in parliaour trade was certain to play a prominent ment and the country which have marked the part, and to be able to hold some influence progress or the vicissitude of later years. over M. de Lesseps, a somewhat self-asser- Reference has already been made to the Irish tive and arrogant personage, as recent events party and the Home.Rulers, who were directed have shown.

in parliament by Mr. Butt until his death. But we soon had a more distinctive influence Had he lived it may well be believed that in Egypt by what was known as the dual con- their proceedings would have been less unreatrol, which gave to France and England the sonable, and in a parliamentary sense more administration of the financial affairs of the reputable; but they had already begun a country in the interests of the European “policy of exasperation,” as he hinself had creditors. In 1876 Mr. Goschen and a repre- named it, and it was marked by wilful and sentative of France unravelled the tangled | irrational obstruction of the whole legislative skein of Egyptian finance, arranged the loans business of parliament for the purpose of so that creditors could be paid at some sacri- coercing the government or of perpetuating fice, placed the khedive on a fixed allowance, the confusion and disaffection by which proand brought the whole of Egyptian finance fessional political agitators seek to profit. under European control, taking the regulation. The conspiracy to obstruct the business of the of railways, the collection of the revenues, dis- government first conspicuously succeeded in bursements of the state, care of the funds, and 1877, on the 31st of July, when the house, payments of debts, the Egyptian minister of determined not to be controlled by a haudfinance being quietly deposed. This arrange- ful of men who endeavoured to pervert ment concluded by the appointment of con- its fornis, voted over and over again against trollers-general by England and France. The repeated motions for adjournment, and sat for scheme was opposed by Lord Derby, but was twenty-six hours.

. I to by Lord Salisbury at the pressing In 1879 the O'Conor Don introduced a bill

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