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vibrate when, on the 13th of December, 1882, | Kingsley, the scholar and writer, who had the premier received from all parts of the country, from great political and social bodies! as well as from private individuals, and from societies and schools of men, women, and children, warm and enthusiastic congratulations on having completed fifty years of parliamentary life, chiefly passed in active and often in strenuous efforts for the advancement of the welfare of the country.
On the 21st of April, 1881, all England mourned the death of Benjamin Disraeli, Earl of Beaconsfield. From the queen upon the throne to the cotter's child sitting on the door-step the intelligence was received with a sentiment that arose from a sense of national loss; but many, including her majesty, felt also that they were bereaved of a true and genial friend.
In an early page of this book,1 written on the day following his death, some record will be found of a political career which was perhaps the most remarkable of modern times. Of his personal and intellectual characteristics numerous illustrations will be found in these volumes.
Earl Russell had quietly gone to his rest full of years on the 28th of May, 1878. He was in his eighty-sixth year, and, though he was still honoured, he had so long been out of the sphere of practical statemanship that, as the Times said, his death removed from the world the shadow of a great name.
Thiers had died in 1877, and Victor Emmanuel in 1978; and events had been so many and so quick that it seemed but yesterday that Napoleon III. had come in his second exile to England, and had there been laid in the mausoleum at Chislehurst. Thirlwall, the great Liberal bishop, had died in 1875; and the witty, able, and courtly Bishop of Winchester two years before him. In 1870 the sudden death of England's great novelist, Charles Dickens, had brought to thousands of men, women, and children the sense of a personal loss. Lord Lytton, the brilliant speaker and writer of romance, died in January, and John Stuart Mill, the logician and political economist, in November, 1873. Canon 1 Vol. i. p. 320,
once lived in a luminous mental haze of "Christian Socialism," passed into the lan-1 of light and love in the first month of 1975, In the previous year intelligence of the death of Livingstone had come from Unyanyembe. In 1870-1871 Mr. Stanley, a young and ener getic American, was sent out by the proprietor of a New York newspaper to endeavour to discover Livingstone, from whom for a long time nothing had been heard. Mr. Stanley found him at Ujiji, and accompanied him on a journey. Livingstone afterwards went on an expedition to the unexplored regions southwest of Lake Tanganyika. After much tolsome travelling, and having suffered greatly from dysentery, he died on the shore of Lake Bangweolo, May, 1873.
There had been many great and seri us losses beside these. In the ten years with which our record closes, Sir Arthur Heps Harriet Martineau, Lord Lawrence, Sir Rowland Hill, Lord Westbury, Landseer, Lei Clarendon; and later George Henry Lewes, George Eliot (Miss Evans), Anthony Troilope, and others whose names have already appeared in the course of this narrative, had left the conflict in which they had borne a part.
No sooner had the new ministry been formed by Mr. Gladstone than it had serious difficulties to contend with. The outrages committed in Ireland drove the government to abandon for the moment all attempts at a policy of conciliation. The remnant of the Ribbonmen, the Fenians, and the Land Leame were manifesting a hostility which could only be put down by that force which it was admitted was not a permanent remedy, but at the same time might be a painfully necessary expedient.
There had been 1253 outrages in the previous year, and most of them in the later months of the year. Houses had been broken into, incendiaries had been at work, cattle had been maimed and tortured, horrible and brutal attacks had been made, not on men only, but on women and children. Tenants who had paid an amount of rent unauth rized by the Land League, landlords who
THE "TACTICS OF EXASPERATION.”
demanded payment or had ejected tenants, | Members of each party came in detachments occupiers of farms or dwellings from which to relieve those who had carried on the struggle. former tenants had been expelled for non- It was an absurd and monstrous spectacle, to payment of rent, and persons who had agreed see a few men, by merely technical opposition, to work for anybody who had paid his rent wilfully preventing legislation and delaying or refused to join the League, were liable to the entire work of the session against the assault, or to continued persecution by which great majority of the house. At length the life was endangered. None dared to claim speaker declared, amidst the support of the compensation for outrages committed on them: majority, that a new and exceptional course no one dared to prosecute. Anarchy was ap- of procedure was imperatively demanded, and proaching, and only those who defied the law that he was satisfied he should carry out the were safe from the bullet of the assassin or wishes of the house if he declined to call on the assault of the ruffian. any more members to speak. The question was then put, amidst cries of privilege from the Home Rulers, who were vehement in demanding all the privileges of precedent, protection, and law, to enable them to defy and deride all law and order. Leave was then given to bring in the bill.
The government was obliged to act, and to act swiftly and sternly. The remedy was summary: for it was to give power to the lord-lieutenant to issue a warrant for the arrest of any person whom he might suspect of treasonable or agrarian offences, and to detain him as a prisoner without trial till September, 1882. This part of the Protection of Life and Property Bill was, of course, vehemently opposed by the Irish party, while many Liberals advocated the introduction of remedial instead of coercive measures. Mr. Bright (chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster) reminded the house, amidst assent from the Home Rulers, that he had formerly stood up for Ireland, and said that he had not at these times thought all the proposed coercive measures necessary, the basis of his hostility to them having been that they were not accompanied by any remedial measures, or even by any admission of grievances; but now a land bill was promised and would be brought in. The state of terrorism in Ireland was made patent to everybody, by letters from all classes of persons, and by the speeches of the leaders of the movement itself, who boasted that the Land Leaguers had superseded the law of parliament. The leaders of the Land League, he declared, had demoralized the Irish people —a statement received, of course, with considerable protests from the Home Rulers. The Irish party had commenced to carry out threats of obstruction, and the house had sat twenty-two hours. The next sitting lasted for forty-one hours, during which motions for adjournment were made over and over again by the Home Rulers, and rejected by the house.
The tactics of exasperation were continued, and were borne with exemplary patience until they grew beyond endurance, when it became necessary to adopt those rules of procedure without which the Land Leaguers would have coerced the House of Commons as they and their followers had coerced honest and law-abiding people in Ireland. Premeditated efforts to delay and frustrate the business of the country were diversified by premeditated insults to the prime minister, and shameless accusations against members of the government, or anyone who ventured to differ from the extreme Irish party.
The reports of all the commissions, with one exception, agreed that it was of vital importance to establish a court for the purpose of dealing with the differences between landlord and tenant, and for the protection of tenants against arbitrary increase of rent. But it was also necessary to maintain the right of assignment or sale of tenant-right, the old law of the country recognizing the right of the tenant to sell whatever interest he possessed in his tenancy, which by the act of 1870 had become something considerable; so that the commissioners had recommended a recognition of it, and that it might be enforced without injustice to the landlord. The cardinal feature of the bill, then, would be the court, to which, however, an appeal would not be com
pulsory but optional. This court, which would be charged at the rate of 3} per cent, and also act as a land commission and regulate all repayable in thirty - five years. Advances the proceedings of the local courts, would con- might be made for agricultural improvements sist of three members, one of whom must al- for the reclamation of waste lands : when ways be a judge or an ex-judge of the Supreme state aid was met by a corresponding outlay Court, and it would have power to appoint of private capital, or in cases where there was assistant commissioners and sub-commissioners a baronial guarantee, the Treasury would adto sit in the provinces. Every tenant would be vance three-fourths of the cost of projected entitled to go to the court to have fixed for his improvements. Advances to be determined holding a “judicial rent,” which would en- by parliament were also to be made to assist dure for fifteen years, during which there could emigration. The result of the bill would be to be no eviction of the tenant except for specific restrain the increase of rent by certain rules, breach of certain specific covenants or non- to regulate compensation for disturbance, to payment of rent.
There would be no power establish the right of the tenant to sell his inof resumption on the part of the landlord terest, to prevent evictions except for default, during this time, and his remedy would have and to forbid resumption by the landlord to take the form of a compulsory sale of the except for grave
and reasonable causes, which tenant-right. After the fifteen years had might be brought in question before the court. expired application might be made to the We need not follow the distracting and court for a renewal of tenancy toties quoties. protracted debates and obstructions amidst The conditions as to eviction would remain if which the bill went through committee, and, the tenancy were renewed, but the landlord with several modifications, became law. It would have a pre-emption of the tenant's passed at last; and though Lord Salisbury enright if the latter wished to sell. The court, deavoured to introduce changes which would in fixing the rents, would control the un- have made some of the clauses in favour of limited growth of rental and of tenant-right. the tenant nugatory, and other alterations of a There were other provisions of the bill which cancelling character were proposed, the measure protected tenants and extended the advan- was at last completed, and at the outset began tages of the rules of the court even to those to work well, in spite of the efforts of agitators who were under the Ulster custom, or who to discredit the courts and the government. did not choose to apply to the court itself. Of the recent horrible assassinations in
By the second part of the bill the Land Phænix Park, Dublin, and the attempts to Commission would be enabled to realize a destroy life or property by dynamite, nothing scheme for supplying landlords ready to sell will be said here. Those who advocate, proand tenants desiring to purchase their hold- mote, or cause them may profess to be repreings. In such cases the commissioners would sentative Irishmen, but they are doing their have power to advance, to tenants intending worst to remove Ireland from the sympathy to purchase, three-fourths of the purchase- or the regard of mankind. money, or one
ne-half of the purchase - money when the tenant agreed to pay a price to the In noticing offences against the law, and espelandlord and to hold from himn at a fee farm cially crimes of violence, it should be remarked rent. The rest of the purchase-money might that according to the statistics issued the numbe borrowed elsewhere, and purchasing ten
ber of indictable offences within the last ten ants would be indemnified against encumbered years in England, Wales, and Ireland indi. estates or defective titles. The Land Commis- cate a slight increase of crime in recent years, sion could purchase an estate and resell it in both absolutely and relatively to population. small lots to the tenants if three-fourths of The number of crimes reported to have been them, paying not less than three-fourths of committed was uniformly smaller in Ireland the total rent, desired to become holders. than in England and Wales. The ten years Advances for this and other purposes were to
from 1871 to 1880 included five years of great
prosperity of trade and high wages, and five ! 2.27 in Ireland. Drunkenness was worst in years of decline of trade and lower wages. Ireland, being 16:60 per thousand, against The average of the two periods of five years 6:77 in England and 7.26 in Scotland. But had been, per 1000, England and Wales from for drunkenness and small crimes the criminal 1875, 1.98; Ireland, 1:36; from 1876 to 1880, statistics were favourable to Ireland. What England and Wales, 2:09; Ireland, 1:37. In- aggravated the state of crime in Ireland was dictable offences were thus shown to have the recurrence of political offences, and agrabeen greater in number during the five good rian crime was seldom absent from Irish years. As to Ireland, the larger number of criminal jurisprudence; but no criminal was crimes at the commencement and end of the brought to justice although the offences were periods 1871-72 and 1879–80 was clearly due often grave. In lawlessness and drunkenness to the relations between landlords and tenants. Dublin and Edinburgh were much worse than Although during the last ten years there had Middlesex. Generally the agricultural counbeen a slight increase of crime, the number of ties had less crime than the manufacturing persons committed for trial had diminished in
and mining counties. The deposits in savingsevery part of the United Kingdom, which bank, &c., as a rule showed greater where points to the fact that the graver crimes had crime and drunkenness were least. The bulk diminished in number. In Scotland and Ire- of criminals were illiterate. It was not easy land the proportion of committals was uni- to define to what extent drunkenness was the formly greater than in England and Wales. direct or indirect cause of crime. On an average of ten years the percentage of convictions was 78 per cent in England In education Ireland compares unfavourand Wales, 76 per cent in Scotland, and ably with England and Scotland. One quarter 55 per cent in Ireland; in 1880 the propor- of the population is unable to read and write. tion in Ireland was only 50 per cent. This | The progress in education made in the last is suggestive, especially as in Ireland the fifty years has, however, been great, for in proportion of convictions in cases of offences 1841 the proportion of illiterates to the popuagainst property was considerably greater lation was 53 per cent. In 1851 it had fallen than in offences against the person. In Eng- to 47, in 1861 to 39, in 1871 to 33, and in 1881 land, in 1880, 72 persons were apprehended to 25. The eastern and northern provinces for murder; of these 13 were discharged stand on an equality in regard to education, for want of evidence or want of prosecution, the proportion of illiterates in each being 20 or 18 per cent of the whole, and 59 committed per cent, but Leinster has made rather the for trial, or 82 per cent. In Ireland in the greater progress, the proportion there having same year 53 persons were apprehended for been 44 in 1841, while in Ulster it was but murder; 37, or 69 per cent, were discharged 40. In Munster there are 29 persons out of for want of evidence, and 16, or only 30 per every 100 unable to read or write, and in Concent, committed for trial. Of 61 committed naught 38. Forty years ago the percentage for trial in England, 28, or 46 per cent, were of illiterates in the western province was as convicted; of 35 committed for murder in Ire- high as 72. The untaught are distributed land, only 3, or 83 per cent, were convicted.
among the religious denominations in the folIn proportion to the population the offences lowing proportions :-- Roman Catholics, 30:1 against public order were 5:13 to the thousand per cent; Episcopalians, 10:9; Presbyterians, in Scotland against 1:16 in England. The and Methodists, 5.5. The greatest prooffences against morals were in the proportion gress as regards primary education seems to of 0-21 to the thousand in England, against have been made among the Roman Catholics. 0:04 in Ireland. Offences against the person But the number of Protestant Episcopalian were 11:58 to the thousand in Scotland, against children attending the National Schools has 2•82 in England; and the offences against pro increased in ten years by 54 per cent, and this perty 66 per thousand in Scotland, against is regarded as a proof of the subsidence of religious prejudice. It is worth notice that, in | from, the various countries in 1880 was as folspite of the former denunciation of the Queen's | lows:- United States, 140,052; British North Colleges by the priesthood, the percentage of America, 16,214; Australasia, 18,274; all other Roman Catholic students in the three colleges parts, 5995. Compared with the previous year, of Belfast, Cork, and Galway, increased between the increase to the United States alone was 1871 and 1881 by 76.1 per cent; in Cork alone, 68,000, while the reduction to Australasia was the number of Roman Catholic students rose more than 50 per cent upon the figures of the from 88 to 179.
previous year. In 1876 and 1877 between 60
and 70 per cent of the whole excess of emigraIn 1880 there left our shores for the United tion was to Australasia. In 1880 it was less States, 69,081 English, 14,471 Scotch, and than 10 per cent of the whole. 83,018 Irish; for British North America, 13,541 The emigration of persons of Irish origin, English, 3221 Scotch, and 4140 Irish; for Aus- which had fallen very low between 1875 and tralasia, 15,176 English, 3059 Scotch, and 5949 1879, suddenly rose in 1880 to 93,611, or 12,000 Irish; for all other places, English, 14,047; in excess of the annual average of the previous Scotch, 1305; Irish, 531. The grand total is ten years. The proportion of Irish emigrants 227,542, compared with 164,274 in 1879. to the total from the United Kingdom, which Including foreigners, 332,294 individuals left had fallen to about 25 per cent, rose to 41 per our shores, 281,560 as steerage, and 50,734 as cent. The figures being:- English emigrants, cabin passengers. Of the former 156,150 sailed 111,845, or 49 per cent of the whole; Scotch, from Liverpool, 26,058 from London, 19,068 22,056, or 10 per cent; Irish, 93,641, or 41 per from other English ports; 26,310 from Glas- cent. gow; and 53,914 from Londonderry and Cork, The Roman Catholic Church is still, as it all of whom went to America, in the proportion always has been, the dominant religious comof 17 to the Republic to 1 to the Dominion. munity in Ireland. Its members, according
The total of those who went to British to the census of 1882, numbered 3,960,891, or North America was 29,340; to Australia and 76:54 per cent of the whole population. ProNew Zealand, 25,438; to the East Indies, 4527; testant Episcopalians numbered 639,574, or to the British West Indies, 1543; to the Cape 12:36 per cent; Presbyterians, 470,734, or 9:10 and Natal, 9803; to British possessions in Cen- per cent; and Methodists, 48,839, or a little tral and South America, 2203; and 2166 to all less than 1 per cent. The proportion of other British possessions.
Roman Catholics to the population has deThe proportion of male to female emigrants clined since 1861 more than one per cent, and was nearly 5 to 3, namely, 203,294 to 129,000; still shows a slight tendency to decline. The but among British subjects only, the relations proportion of Episcopalians shows a progresof the sexes were somewhat different, and in sive but very small tendency to rise, and the round numbers there were 13 males to 9 same may be said of the Methodists. The profemales. The Irish took most women with portion of Presbyterians to the population is them, which is an indication of a more per- a little smaller than in 1871, but larger than manent separation from the mother country, in 1861. The decline in the Roman Catholic their relations being 48 men to 45 women; the population is believed by the census commisEnglish were 7 to 4, and the Scotch 13 to 8. sioners to be due entirely to emigration. The Of the 188,950 adults of British origin of both Roman Catholics are most numerous among sexes, 19,971 men and 25,239 women were the poorest of the people, and it is the poorest married, the explanation of the excess being who have contributed the largest proportion that the surplus women were going out to join of emigrants. their husbands; 92,470 were single men, 51,197 In 1881 and 1882 emigration, and especially were spinsters; and there were also 38,592 chil- Irish emigration, continued. The enemies of dren under twelve years
Ireland in parliament who recommended sediThe excess of emigrants to, over immigrants tion, and those outside who recommended