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ligious prejudice. It is worth notice that, in | from, the various countries in 1880 was as folspite of the former denunciation of the Queen's | lows:- United States, 140,052; British North Colleges by the priesthood, the percentage of America, 16,214; Australasia, 18,274; all other Roman Catholic students in the three colleges parts, 5995. Compared with the previous year, of Belfast, Cork, and Galway, increased between the increase to the United States alone was 1871 and 1881 by 76.1 per cent; in Cork alone, 68,000, while the reduction to Australasia was the number of Roman Catholic students rose more than 50 per cent upon the figures of the from 88 to 179.

previous year. In 1876 and 1877 between 60

and 70 per cent of the whole excess of emigraIn 1880 there left our shores for the United tion was to Australasia. In 1880 it was less States, 69,081 English, 14,471 Scotch, and than 10 per cent of the whole. 83,018 Irish; for British North America, 13,541 The emigration of persons of Irish origin, English, 3221 Scotch, and 4140 Irish; for Aus- which had fallen very low between 1875 and tralasia, 15,176 English, 3059 Scotch, and 5949 1879, suddenly rose in 1880 to 93,611, or 12,000 Irish; for all other places, English, 14,047; in excess of the annual average of the previous Scotch, 1305; Irish, 531. The grand total is ten years. The proportion of Irish emigrants 227,542, compared with 164,274 in 1879. to the total from the United Kingdom, which Including foreigners, 332,294 individuals left had fallen to about 25 per cent, rose to 41 per our shores, 281,560 as steerage, and 50,734 as cent. The figures being:- English emigrants, cabin passengers. Of the former 156,150 sailed 111,845, or 49 per cent of the whole; Scotch, from Liverpool, 26,058 from London, 19,068 22,056, or 10 per cent; Irish, 93,641, or 41 per from other English ports; 26,310 from Glas- cent. gow; and 53,914 from Londonderry and Cork, The Roman Catholic Church is still, as it all of whom went to America, in the proportion always has been, the dominant religious comof 17 to the Republic to 1 to the Dominion. munity in Ireland. Its members, according

The total of those who went to British to the census of 1882, numbered 3,960,891, or North America was 29,340; to Australia and 76:54 per cent of the whole population. ProNew Zealand, 25,438; to the East Indies, 4527; testant Episcopalians numbered 639,574, or to the British West Indies, 1543; to the Cape 12:36 per cent; Presbyterians, 470,734, or 9:10 and Natal, 9803; to British possessions in Cen- per cent; and Methodists, 48,839, or a little tral and South America, 2203; and 2166 to all less than 1 per cent. The proportion of other British possessions.

Roman Catholics to the population has deThe proportion of male to female emigrants clined since 1861 more than one per cent, and was nearly 5 to 3, namely, 203,294 to 129,000; still shows a slight tendency to decline. The but among British subjects only, the relations proportion of Episcopalians shows a progresof the sexes were somewhat different, and in sive but very small tendency to rise, and the round numbers there were 13 males to 9 same may be said of the Methodists. The profemales. The Irish took most women with portion of Presbyterians to the population is them, which is an indication of a more per- a little smaller than in 1871, but larger than manent separation from the mother country, in 1861. The decline in the Roman Catholic their relations being 48 men to 45 women; the population is believed by the census commisEnglish were 7 to 4, and the Scotch 13 to 8. sioners to be due entirely to emigration. The Of the 188,950 adults of British origin of both Roman Catholics are most numerous among sexes, 19,971 men and 25,239 women were the poorest of the people, and it is the poorest married, the explanation of the excess being who have contributed the largest proportion that the surplus women were going out to join of emigrants. their husbands; 92,470 were single men, 51,197 In 1881 and 1882 emigration, and especially were spinsters; and there were also 38,592 chil- Irish emigration, continued. The enemies of dren under twelve years

Ireland in parliament who recommended sediThe excess of emigrants to, over immigrants tion, and those outside who recommended

of age.

PROGRESS OF THE COUNTRY.

329

a

dynamite, made life and property insecure. separate property, and subjecting her to the law The obstructors of legislation prevented the of bankruptcy if she engages in trade, the act employment of labour, and perpetuated the proceeds in the second clause in these words: misery of the country.

“Every woman who marries after the comWe cannnot pass from our references to the mencement of this act shall be entitled to have important measures of the ten years under re- and to hold as her separate property, and to view without dwelling for a moment on the dispose of in manner aforesaid, all real and bill which makes employers liable to pay da- personal property which shall belong to her mages for injuries sustained by work-people at the time of marriage, or shall be acquired in their service in consequence of carelessness by or devolve upon her after marriage." or neglect of persons in authority over them: A woman married before the commencethe Ground Game Bill, which permits far- ment of the act is entitled to all the property mers to kill hares and rabbits on their farms: which shall accrue to her after that date. and the Burials Bill, permitting any persons When a married couple are living apart, either to bury their dead in the churchyards of the of them is subject to criminal proceedings for district where there is no public cemetery. interfering with the property of the other, just

One of the most beneficial and equitable as if they had never been married. A married measures, however, is the Married Women's

woman may accept any trust, or become exeProperty Bill, by which at last protection is cutrix or administratrix, without the consent given to women against the rapacity and of her husband. cruelty of worthless husbands.

The Married Women's Property Act of Let us, in conclusion, devote a few minutes 1870, with an amending statute (correcting an to those evidences, which may give us hope for inadvertence) of 1874, secured to a married the future maintenance of commercial and woman for her absolute use the wages which social prosperity. she earned by her own labour and the profits The progress of the country cannot be of her own skill in literature, art, or other

doubted. Our wealth does not diminish, and employment. Deposits in savings banks, pro- there are signs that it continues to increase. perty to which she became entitled as next of Our commerce is maintained, though some of kin, and pecuniary legacies not exceeding two the conditions of trade have altered, and are hundred pounds, were also made her own and likely to ergo many further changes. The placed at her own disposal. This significant amount of revenue derived from customs and assertion that the marriage should not be held excise has remained at about the same figure to annihilate the individual rights of a woman during the past three years, that from excise was greatly extended and simplified by the having increased during the year 1882, when act of 1882. The very first sub-section pro- the figures were-customs, £19,275,268; excise, vides that “a married woman shall ... be £27,170,798; as compared with £19,210,465, capable of acquiring, holding, and disposing and £25,372,183 for the year 1881. . by will or otherwise of any real or personal The total income for the year 1882 amounted property as her separate property in the same to £85,921,532, which shows a small increase manner as if she were a feme sole, without the on the previous year, and an increase of four intervention of any trustee.” The same section and a half millions on that of 1880. There goes on to declare that she may enter into con- was little opportunity, however, for that retracts without the intervention of her husband, trenchment which it is the professed aim of and abolishes the rule whereby, if she brings the Liberal government to promote; for rean action at law, or is sued by some one else, trenchment can only be achieved by the adopher husband must be "joined for conformity." tion of the two other watchwords which have

After providing that any contract entered yet to be translated into action—"peace” and into by a married woman shall be presumed, “reform.” Of the eighty-five and a half niilunless the contrary be expressed, to bind her | lions of revenue, about twenty-nine and a half

a

millions went to pay the interest of debt, account how the world has developed within chiefly incurred by the cost of former wars the last forty years. There are the enlarged and provision against war; and an equal sum territory and production of North America, for the payments for maintaining the present the advance of South America, the practical army and navy, and for the legacy, left by the opening of Africa west and south, the growth previous government, of the remaining liabili- of the Australian colonies, and the increase in ties for the Afghan and South African wars Indian produce by the construction of rail-£535,000 and £500,000 respectively. In ways. Then, as Mr. Clarke reminded his 1878 there was £3,500,000 for our share in hearers, there are the opening up of the the Russian-Turkish war; in 1879 and 1880, Pacific World, the discovery of gold in Califor the war in South Africa, £4,744,920; and, fornia and Australia, the cargoes from the west in 1881, for the Afghan war, £500,000. This coast of South America, Peru, and Chili of brings us to the conclusion that at present guano, nitre, wheat, and copper. If nothing debt and war, including provisions for pro- else had occurred, the vast expansion of trade tection against invasion, cost about sixty-nine in the Pacific must have produced great effects, per cent of the whole revenue, and that about and at least doubled the trade of the world. sixty-five per cent of that revenue is derived Forty years ago steam played but an inconfrom customs, excise, and income-tax-above siderable part in foreign trade. Sailing ships, a million and a half being derived from what or steamers with wooden hulls, were made is called house-tax-an impost inflicted on the with the timber of the United States, Canada, tenant in place of the window-tax, which in Norway, and Russia, and were fitted with the 1851, as a tax on light, was repealed, and the hemp of Russia and other countries. Our house-duty substituted.

materials for ship equipment were chiefly imAnother sign of the national enterprise to ported from abroad, and we had to pay the which reference may be made is the advance foreigner for them, while the foreigner had of our shipping and carrying trade. As Mr. great advantages for engaging in the same Hyde Clarke, who spoke at a meeting of the enterprise. Now, the hulls are made of iron British Association, well said, it is impos- and steel, the rigging and cables also, the sible to form any true estimate of our im- engines are of metal, and a chief working ports and exports and of our national industry material is coal. As all these articles, so without taking this powerful element into ac- far as we are concerned, are of home procount. The total tonnage entered and cleared duction, we no longer have to import them, we of ports in the foreign trade alone, shows as :- no longer have to pay a tax for acquiring them, 1850, 14,000,000 tons; 1860, 24,000,000 tons; and we turn to account the products of our 1870, 36,000,000 tons; 1880, 58,000,000 tons. own soil. The foreigner is seldom able to Thus the increase in thirty years was fourfold. compete with us. The Americans, who have The same result is obtained if vessels with the advantage of home timber, have lost that cargoes are alone taken. If we take the Eng- resource, and their home iron is produced lish tonnage engaged in this trade we find- under less favourable circumstances. Thus, 1850, 9,000,000 tons; 1860, 14,000,000 tons; by the addition and application of steam in 1870, 25,000,000 tons; 1880, 41,000,000 tons. iron and steel vessels, the economical conditions The amount of foreign tonnage engaged in of ourshipping trade have been greatly altered, this trade increased only fourfold. It must and inasmuch as the trade of the world has be noted also that our steam tonnage largely expanded, so do we obtain not only our share increased in this epoch. Thus we have to deal of the increase of this trade, but a share enwith two leading classes of facts—first, the hanced by our possession of advantages in the increase of our shipping trade; second, the new mode of carrying. development of our steam marine. In con- Even an outline of the increase of those sidering the nature of the growth of our trade material advantages which promote national and that of other countries we must take into and social progress, not only in England but

PROGRESS OF THE COUNTRY.

331

throughout the civilized world, would not be and in 1881 5,294,436, whereas in 1840 the complete without reference to the amazing population was estimated at 8,155,521, and development of the means of transit and of increased in remarkably uncertain proportions communication; and from a table of railway till 1846, when the decrease commenced, which mileage published in 1882 it would appear

that has continued chiefly through emigration in Germany comes first with 21,500 miles, fol- fits and starts, but during the years from 1845 lowed by Great Britain, 18,200; France, 17,200; to 1854 at a great rate, afterwards in less proRussia, 14,600; Austria, 12,000; Italy, 5500; portion till 1875, when the decrease on the preSpain, 4900; Sweden, 4600; Belgium, 2500; vious year was 5350. In 1876, however, there Switzerland, 1565; Holland, 1435; Denmark, began a definite increase on the population of 1160; Roumania, 920; Turkey, 870; Portugal, 1875 of 12,124, and in the following year a 660; and Greece, six miles. As for the re- further increase of 17,288. In 1879 and 1880 ceipts of British railway companies their total the increase was maintained at above 12,000 in 1869 was only £41,000,000; but it was for each year, but fell again in 1880 to 226, £62,962,000 in 1880, £64,338,000 in 1881, and and in 1881 had been replaced by a decrease was still increasing. The receipts from third- of 32,663, a diminution which is somewhat class passengers, which specially illustrated significant as illustrating the results of that the condition of the working-classes, increased kind of agitation which stimulates to crime from £7,000,000 in 1869 to £15,000,000 in and outrage and removes the safeguards of 1880.

society. The whole population of the United In Great Britain there were 26,465 miles Kingdom in 1871 was 31,513,412, and in 1881 of telegraphic lines, as compared with 59,090 34,788,814. miles in Russia, 43,650 miles in France, The population in the large towns has in31,015 in Austria-Hungary, and 14,265 miles creased. Birmingham had increased from in Germany—Germany coming first with the 340,000 to 400,000; Liverpool, from 493,000 total length of wires, having 159,910 against to 552,000. Manchester had only slightly in134,465 miles in Russia, 125,265 in France, creased; but Salford had increased from 124,000 and 121,720 in England. But the total num- to 176,000; Bristol, from 182,000 to 206,000; ber of messages in 1881 showed for England Leeds, from 259,000 to 309,000; Leicester, 29,820,445; France, 19,882,628; Germany, from 95,000 to 122,000; Nottingham, from 16,312,457; Austria-Hungary, 8,729,321; and 129,000 to 186,000; and Coventry, from 41,000 Russia only 7,298,422.

to 47,000. The ratable value of Birmingham, In England the gross amount received and Liverpool, and other towns has also greatly the gross amount expended in respect of the increased. post-office telegraph service from the date of The number of electors in 1880–81 was the transfer to the government to the 31st 2,399,370 in England, 138,440 in Wales, March, 1880, were remarkable. The gross 310,218 in Scotland, and 229,461 in Ireland, amount received from 1870 to March 31, making a total of 3,077,489.

The assess1880, was £11,592,160, 18s. 3d.; and the gross ments in counties, boroughs, and univeramount expended £9,920,597, 98. 7}d. In the sities amounted to £418,223,601 English, year 1880 the gross amount received was £14,631,847 Welsh, £54,782,336 Scotch, and £1,469,795, 68. 6d. The capital account £34,222,230 Irish, or a total of £521,860,014. amounted to £10,529,577.

There has been an increase in the foreign The computed population of England and trade, export and import, of the United KingWales in 1871 was 22,760,359. In 1881 it was dom, as shown by the entries and clearances 25,798,922. The increase from 1840 to 1881 in the British ports, of 60 per cent in the ten had been 10,068,109. In Scotland there were years from 1870 to 1880. The volume of our 3,666,375 persons in 1871, and 3,695,456 in trade has been continually increasing. 1881, an increase of 1,094,764 since 1840. In The total real value of imports and exports Ireland in 1871 the population was 5,386,708, from and to our colonial possessions was in 1865, £121,387,551; in 1875, £161,074,982; in of sufficient magnitude to mark emphatically 1881, £178,220,832, exclusive of bullion and the date of the removal of the remaining respecie. Our foreign exports and imports re- straints upon food supply. It must be remempresented in 1865, L189,903,861; in 1875, bered, too, that the increase in national pros2655,551,900; in 1881, £694,105,264, which perity has been accompanied by that steady was nearly three millions less than the totals and compatible increase of population which of 1880.

is itself sometimes an evidence of wellbeing. The real value of goods imported in 1875 One glance may be taken at the vast extent was £373,939,577; in 1880, £111,229,565; and and the constantly increasing commercial relain 1881, £397,022,489; the value of British tions of that colonial empire the contemplation produce exported in 1875 was £223,465,963; of which seems to dwarf the physical and and of foreign and colonial produce exported, numerical proportions, while it enhances our £58,146,360. In 1880 the figures were sense of the vigour and intense vitality of the £223,060,446 and £63,354,020; and in 1881, portion of the realm in which we live. £234,022,678 and £63,060,097.

From the North American colonies to the In the forty-one years from 1840 the in- teeming provinces of British India, from the crease of the value of goods imported had West India Islands to Africa, Fiji, and the risen in 1881,540 per cent, the increased value Australias, the computation is made from year per head of the population being £11, 78. 4d. to year, and may be regarded as approximately as against £2, 78. O{d. The value of British accurate when it recounts that the British produce and manufactures exported had risen Empire, including the United Kingdom, confrom £51,308,740 to £231,022,678, or 356 per sists of an area of 7,926,737 square miles, cent, and the proportion per head from £1, with a population of 240,753,111, a revenue of 188. 9d. to £6, 148. These figures are very £181,332,505, an expenditure of £189,153,411,

£ full of suggestion. They mean a vast acces- a debt of £1,069,699,974; imports, including sion of comfort, a much larger supply of food, bullion and specie, of £191,345,959 value, exa remarkable improvement in the condition ports of £393,078,218 value, and a total of

, a of the labouring population. They also sug- shipping, inwards and outwards, but excluding gest that with increasing freedom of com- the coasting trade, of 56,541,708 tons, of which merce trade has increased, and that the na- 44,469,846 tons is British. tional ledger shows under the head of foreign traffic the gigantic total of more than fourteen With these stupendous figures this record thousand millions sterling for the twenty-eight may well close, for from the seeming dry years from 1854 to 1881 inclusive.

bones of such statistics there should arise in One more word on this subject. Since the re- the imagination of the reader a great living maining shilling duty and some other restric- nation-a nation which has held a foremost tions were removed from foreign grain in 1870, place in the councils of the world, and has the proportion of food brought here from abroad

gone

forth from the small island which is its has vastly increased. In the twenty-one years central home, not only conquering and to from 18-19 to 1869 the importations were about conquer, but to increase and multiply and to 583,000,000 cwt. of wheat and wheat flour, replenish the earth. 110,000,000 cwt. of barley, 109,000,000 cwt. This “land of old and wide renown, where of oats, 183,000,000 cwt. of maize, and a total, freedom slowly broadeus down from precedent including large quantities of peas and beans, to precedent,” has too often followed bad traof 1,046,123,490 cwt.

In the twelve years

ditions, and yielded to unwise counsel in its from 1870 to 1882 the figures were about relations to the world. It has gone out to 677,000,000 cwt. of wheat and wheat flour, fight when it might have made peace by 132,500,000 cwt. of barley, 143,500,000 cwt. bravely refusing to draw from the scabbard a of oats, 331,000,000 cwt. of maize, and a total sword of which all men knew and many had of 1,331,701,083 cwt., a proportionate increase felt the smiting power; it has sometimes inter

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