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entitled Egypt's Place in History. He had House of Commous, were not forgotten when been recalled to Prussia or had resigned be- he had retired to the seclusion of the home, cause of his opinions on the policy of the king where his presence was ever welcome and in relation to the Russian war, but he was where his tender and affectionate nature found greatly esteemed by men of all parties in fitting companionship in his sister's family. England.

He had been eminently successful, and his But a larger gap than either of these was great ability and indefatigable energy had left in the public and literary ranks in Eng- enabled him to achieve high distinction in land by the sudden death of Lord Macaulay whatever he attempted. Probably it would not on the 28th of December, 1839. This loss, have added to his fame if he had lived to which was felt throughout the country, carry his voice to the House of Peers, which may be said to have cast a shadow on the would, however, have been graced by his inclosing days of the year, for his books, and tellect; and though it is to be deplored that especially his History of England from the his history remained uncompleted, it is not a Accession of James the Second, was known mere fragment, but a shapely and finished proand read all over England, and some of his duction, a monument of his genius. Macaulay poems had been listened to with delight when was never married, and the wealth which he they were recited before large audiences. had acquired went to his relatives; but during His prodigious memory and his philosophical his life he was one of the most generous of mode of thought were allied to a strong im- men, and few distressed representatives of the agination and to the power of striking poetical literary craft applied to him in vain for asexpression. Few men have united so much sistance. It is certain, on the contrary, that of the genius of the poet to the plodding in- because of the natural goodness of heart which dustry and research of the antiquarian. The could spare some pity for their distresses, he latter quality enabled him to seek the material consciously helped some who were incompefor his vivid pages in musty parliamentary tent, and should never have taken upon themrecords— long closed correspondence — time- selves the profession of letters. worn ballad-sheets, and even stained and We have already seen something of the irayed broadsheets relating to events that early correspondence between Mr. Gladstone. might otherwise have been forgotten, since and the brilliant reviewer in their early days, they were never popularly depicted until he and we may therefore fitly refer here to a few drew them with a vigorous hand. It has been of the words used by the former when, in 1876, contended that Macaulay only wrote history in a review of The Life and Letters of Lord from the Whig side; and it can scarcely be Macaulay, by his nephew George Otto denied that while he draws the misdeeds of Trevelyan, M.P., he has to speak of the man the other party in strong dark outlines, he whose own achievements had by that time sublimates some of the faults of his political almost become historical. Mr. Gladstone predecessors and somewhat idealizes their pro- says: fessed principles. Yet his remarkable power “Lord Macaulay lived a life of no more than of illustration and the charming lucidity which fifty-nine years and three months. But it was characterizes his style will always cause his an extraordinarily full life, of sustained exerhistory to hold a high place among all classes tion; a high table-land, without depressions. of readers. It was not, however, as an author If in its outer aspect there be ånything wearialone that Macaulay was sorely missed. The some, it is only the wearisomeness of reiterated place he had occupied in parliament and in splendours, and of success so uniform as to be the arena of politics could not easily be filled. almost monotonous. IIe speaks of himself as Failing health had compelled him to resign idle; but his idleness was more active, and the representation of Edinburgh and to aban- carried with it hour by hour a greater expendon public speaking; but his superb achieve- diture of brain-power, than what most men ments as a speaker, both in and out of the regard as their serious employments. He might

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well have been in his mental career the spoiled was not inconsiderable, but it was confined to child of fortune; for all he tried succeeded, all his earlier manhood. The general outline of he touched turned into gems and gold. In a his career has long been familiar, and offers happy childhood he evinced extreme precocity. neither need nor scope for detail. After four His academical career gave sufficient, though years of high parliamentary distinction, and not redundant, promise of after celebrity. The his first assumption of office, he accepted a new golden age he imparted to the Edinburgh lucrative appointment in India, with a wise Review, and his first and most important, if view to his own pecuniary independence, and not best, parliamentary speeches in the grand a generous regard to what might be, as they crisis of the first Reform Bill, achieved for had been, the demands of his nearest relations him, years before he had reached the middle upon his affectionate bounty. Another term point of life, what may justly be termed 'an of four years brought him back, the least immense distinction.

Indian, despite of his active labours upon the For a century and more, perhaps no man in legislative code, of all the civilians who had this country, with the exceptions of Mr. Pitt ever served the Company. He soon re-entered and of Lord Byron, had attained at thirty-two parliament; but bis zest for the political arena the fame of Macaulay. His parliamentary seems never to bave regained the temperature success and his literary eminence were each of his virgin love at the time of the Reform of them enough, as they stood at this date, to Bill. He had offered his resignation of office intoxicate any brain and heart of a meaner during the debates on the Emancipation Act, order. But to these was added, in his case, at a time when salary was of the utmost iman amount and quality of social attentions portance to him, and for a cause which was such as invariably partake of adulation and far more his father's than his own. This he idolatry, and as, perhaps, the high circles of did with a promptitude and a manly unconLondon never before or since have lavished sciousness of effect or merit in the act which on a man whose claims lay only in himself, were truly noble. Similar was his dignified and not in his descent, his rank, or his posses- attitude when his constituents of Edinburgh sions. Perhaps it was good for his mental committed their first and last fault in rejecting and moral health that the enervating action him on account of his vote for Maynooth. of this process was suspended for four years. This was in 1817. At the general election in Although after his return from India in 1839 1852 they were again at his feet, as though it could not but revive, he was of an age to the final cause of the indignity had been only bear it with less peril to his manhood. IIe to enhance the triumph of his re-election. seems at all times to have held his head high Twice at least in the House of Commons he above the stir and the fascination which excite arrested the successful progress of legislative and enslave the weak. His masculine intelli- measures, and slew them at a moment's notice gence, and his ardent and single-minded devo- and by his single arm. The first of these occation to literature, probably derived in this sions was the Copyright Bill of Serjeant Talrespect essential aid from that depth and fourd in 1841; the second, the bill of 1853 for warmth of domestic affections which lay excluding the Master of the Rolls from the nearer yet to the centre of his being.

House of Commons. But, whenever he rose He was, indeed, prosperous and brilliant; a to speak, it was a summons like a trumpetprodigy, a meteor, almost a portent, in literary call to fill the benches. He retired from the history. But his course was laborious, truth- House of Commons in 1856. At length, when ful, simple, independent, noble; and all these in 1857 he was elevated by Lord Palmerston in an eminent degree. Of the inward battle to the peerage, all the world of letters felt of life he seems to have known nothing: his honoured in his person. The claims of that, mind was, so to speak, self-contained, coherent, which he felt to be indeed his profession, acand harmonious. His experience of the out- quired an increasing command on him as the ward battle, which had reference to money, interests of political action grew less and less.


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Neither was social life allowed greatly to inter- the cheapest. No one can measure the elevafere with literary work, although here, too, his tion of Macaulay's character above the mertriumphs were almost unrivalled. Only one cenary level without bearing in mind that for other attraction had power over him, and it ten years after 1825 he was a poor and conwas a life-long power—the love of his sisters; tented man, though ministering to the wants which about the mid-point of life came to of a father and a family reduced in circummean his sister Lady Trevelyan.

stances; though in the blaze of literary and “As there is nothing equally touching, so political success; and though he must have there is really nothing more wonderful in the been conscious from the first of a gift which, memoirs, than the large the immeasurable by a less congenial and less compulsory use, abundance of this gushing stream. It is not would have rapidly led him to opulence. Yet surprising that the full reservoir overflowed of the comforts and advantages, both social upon her children. Indeed he seems to have and physical, from which he thus forebore, it had a store of this love that could not be is so plain that he at all times formed no misexhausted, for little children generally; his anthropic or ascetic, but on the contrary : simplicity and tenderness vying all along in very liberal and genial, estimate. It is truly graceful rivalry with the manly qualities, which touching to find that never, except as a miniin no one were more pronounced. After some ster, until 1851, when he had already lived forewarnings, a period of palpable decline, fifty years of his fifty-nine, did this favourite which was brief as well as tranquil, brought of fortune, this idol of society, allow himself him to his end.

the luxury of a carriage. “To the literary success of Macaulay it would “It has been observed, that neither in art be difficult to find a parallel in the history of nor letters did Macaulay display that faculty recent authorship. For this and probably all of the higher criticism which depends upon future centuries we are to regard the public certain refined perceptions and the power of as the patron of literary men, and as a patron subtle analysis. His analysis was always abler than any that went before to heap both rough, hasty, and sweeping, and his percepfame and fortune on its favourites. Setting tions robust. By these properties it was that aside works of which the primary purpose he was so eminently 001 Tiros, not in the vulgar was entertainment, Tennyson alone among the sense of an appeal to spurious sentiment, but writers of our age, in point of public favour, as one bearing his reader along by violence, and of emolument following upon it, comes as the river Scamander tried to bear Achilles. near to Macaulay. But Tennyson was labor- Yet he was never pretentious; and he saiil iously cultivating his gifts for many years frankly of himself that a criticism like that of before he acquired a position in the eye of the Lessing in his Laocoon, or of Goethe on Hamnation. Macaulay, fresh from college in 1825, let, filled him with wonder and despair." astonished the world by his brilliant and inposing essay on Milton. Full-orbed he was In the first days of January, 1861, intelliseen above the horizon; and full-orbed, after gence arrived of the death of the King of thirty-five years of constantly-emitted splen- Prussia, whose illness, accompanied by mental dour, he sank beneath it.

disorder, had long precluded him from taking · His gains from literature were extraor- any part in the government of the country. dinary. The cheque for £20,000 is known to His brother, who had been appointed princeall.

But his accumulation was reduced by his regent, came to the throne with the title bounty; and his profits would, it is evident, of King William I., and our princess royal have been far larger still had he dealt with thereupon became Crown-princess of Prussia, the products of his mind on the principles of -and afterwards, of Germany. economic science (which, however, he heartily The relations between our own royal family professed), and sold his wares in the dearest and that of Prussia naturally increased the market, as he undoubtedly acquired them in serious feelings with which the death of King


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Frederick William was regarded by the Queen have to take note; but the royal family was and Prince Albert, especially at a time when to some extent separated, and amidst many they were mourning the sickness or the loss domestic claims and an unflagging attention of some of those eminent servants of the state to public business the health of Prince Albert on whose loyalty and ability they had so fre- became precarious, and he frequently suffered quently been able to rely.

from attacks of illness, against which he bore Sir James Graham was dead. On the 14th of up with patient courage, but which were suffiDecember the Earl of Aberdeen, who had been cient to cause great uneasiness to the queen so intimately associated with the royal family, and to others who anxiously watched his unhad passed away. Sir Sidney Herbert, who ' remitting labours. had been raised to the House of Lords with the In March, 1860, arrangements were made title of Lord Herbert of Leigh, had been for for the visit of the Prince of Wales to Canada, some time suffering from the same illness of in fulfilment of a promise made to a deputawhich he died in the following August. As the tion which came here during the Crimean war year went on the other names were absent from asking the queen to visit ber American posthe earthly roll-call of those who were loved, sessions. Her majesty could not accede to a respected, or admired. On the 6th of June request which would involve so long a voyage, Cavour, suffering from typhoid fever, had and it was then proposed that one of the been bled to death by Italian doctors, who princes should become governor-general. They could not depart from their old traditions, and were both too young for such a proposition to the news telegraphed from Turin sent a shock be entertained; but it was agreed that as soon through Europe; for the affairs of Italy had as the Prince of Wales was old enough, he reached a crisis, in which it was believed only should visit the Dominion. This intention his strong guiding hand and inimitable state- was about to be carried out in the autumu, craft could be of immediate avail. We shall when the visit would be signalized by his royal have to return to the events which had pro- highness laying the foundation-stone of the duced that impression, and had caused Prince new Canadian parliament-house at Ottawa, Albert, on receiving the intelligence of the and opening the great railway bridge across death of the minister, to write in his diary the St. Lawrence at Montreal. the words, “Ein ungeheurer Verlust für Ita- When it was known in America that the lien” (an immeasurable loss for Italy). heir to the English throne was about to visit There were other losses nearer to the royal Canada, the president

, Mr. Buchanan, addomestic circle in England. Dr. Baly, the dressed a letter to the queen, offering a cordial trusted physician to the prince and the royal welcome at Washington to the prince if he family, was killed in a railway accident be- should extend his visit to the United States, tween London and Wimbledon on the 29th of and assuring her majesty that he would be January. He was the only person seriously everywhere greeted by the American people injured. Soon afterwards, died Sir George in a manner which could not fail to prove Couper, physician to the Duchess of Kent. gratifying to her majesty. This request was These losses occurred during the sorrow ex- answered in the same cordial spirit, and Mr. perienced by the royal household for the death Buchanan was informed by the queen that in April, 1860, of Prince Ernest of Hohenlohe the prince proposed to return from Canada Langenburg, husband of the queen's sister, through the United States, and that it would and president of the upper chamber of Wir- give him great pleasure to have an opportunity temberg.

of testifying to the president in person that Not only were public affairs full of exciting the feelings which had dictated the president's interest during the latter half of 1860 in con- letter were fully reciprocated on this side of sequence of the Franco-Italian alliance, the the Atlantic. At the same time the municischemes of Napoleon III., and other foreign pality of New York sent a message through complications of which we shall presently the American minister, Mr. Dallas, expressing



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a strong desire that the prince should visit that far enough west to be able to do so. He city. This visit, also, was included in the pro- speaks with knowledge, for his time has been gramme of the prince's journey, which was, passed chiefly amongst the Mahrattas and however, to be only that of a private gentle Rajpoots, who are the best and proudest blood man, and in no sense an affair of state. The in India. I asked him if there was anything prince was to travel as Lord Renfrew, and insulting in the word. He said, Not quite was to be accompanied by the Duke of New- that; but that it implied the same sort of cistle, secretary of state for the colonies.

contemptuous superiority on the part of one Prince Alfred also started on a long voyage Indian who used it towards another, as would to another colony, the Cape of Good Hope, by be implied by an Englishman who should call way of Rio Janeiro. He left England in the an Irishman a ‘Paddy,' or address a Scotchspring of 1860, and was expected to reach man as “Sawney."" Capetown, and there to lay the first stone of The prince, referring to the obstacles to the the breakwater in the harbour at about the adoption of every name proposed, humorously same time that his brother was performing wrote to Sir Charles Wood :similar duty in Canada.

“It is unfortunate that we get no further Among the numerous questions in which with the appellation of the order than from the prince and the queen were concerned at one difficulty into another, and I might be this tiine, was the institution of a proposed inclined to give it the sign and name of a new order or decoration for distinguished ser- house at Töplitz—the sign being gilt figures vice in India. Not only was it exceedingly of men rowing against a rock, with the title difficult to decide on a design and motto, of of 'The Golden Impossibility.” Not till

"' which the prince sketched several, but there some time afterwards was the difficulty solved, was still more difficulty in adopting a name and on the 23rd of February, 1861, the instifor the decoration, though several were pro

tution of “ The Most Exalted Order of the posed. It was agreed that the order should Star of India," set the question at rest. be a star, but the question was what star? To It may be mentioned in connection with illustrate the important critical nature of the military affairs, that early in May, 1860, it discussion, we may quote a letter from Lord was decided by a resolution of the cabinet to ('anning, urging that the title “Eastern Star," discontinue supporting a separate European which was most liked, could not be adopted. army for India, and that instead of two forces “ The Hindustani for the “Eastern Star,””

there should be only one imperial army, takhe wrote, “is 'Poorbeah Sittara.' 'Poorbeah' ing its turn of duty throughout the British has, as you probably know, become a sort of Empire, in all its home provinces and foreign generic name given to our Sepoys, from their dependencies, including India. This resolution being mostly men from Behar and Oudh- was afterwards strenuously opposed in parliaEastern provinces; and during the mutinies ment, but was passed in the autumn session. it grew to be used somewhat as . Pandy' was The winter of 1859 had been wet, cold, used, as a familiar name for the mutineers. and unhealthy, but on the return of spring This, however, is not the point. That asso- the weather was more cheering. There were ciation is already passing away. But 'Poor- 18,000 men at Aldershot, where the queen beah,' for the very reason that it means · East- and the prince were frequent visitors, and ern,' and that in India the further auy person

held a review in the first week of May. or thing comes from the East, the less is the But of more significance still was the rapid respect shown to either, has been a term of growth of the Volunteer force, which consisted disparagement time out of mind. Long be- at that time of 124,000 men, already well fore mutinous Sepoys were heard of, an Indian drilled, and a large number of then possessing resented being called a 'Poorbeah.' The term such remarkable skill with the rifle that it was, and--as Frere assures me- -still is eagerly recalled the ancient fame of the English bowrepudiated by every one who comes from



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