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a strong desire that the prince should visit that far enough west to be alle to do so. Не city. This visit, also, was included in the pro- speaks with knowledge, for his time has been gramme of the prince's journey, which was, passed chiefly amongst the Mahrattas and however, to be only that of a private gentle- Rajpoots, who are the best and proudest blood nian, and in no sense an affair of state. The in India. I asked him if there was anything prince was to travel as Lord Renfrew, and insulting in the word. He said, Not quite was to be accompanied by the Duke of New- that; but that it implied the same sort of castle, secretary of state for the colonies.

contemptuous superiority on the part of one Prince Alfred also started on a long voyage Indian who used it towards another, as would to another colony, the Cape of Good Hope, by be implied by an Englishman who should call way of Rio Janeiro. He left England in the an Irishman a ‘Paddy,' or address a Scotchspring of 1860, and was expected to reach man as 'Sawney.'” Capetown, and there to lay the first stone of The prince, referring to the obstacles to the the breakwater in the harbour at about the adoption of every name proposed, humorously same time that his brother was performing wrote to Sir Charles Wood :similar duty in Canada.

“It is unfortunate that we get no further Among the numerous questions in which with the appellation of the order than from the prince and the queen were concerned at one difficulty into another, and I might be this tiine, was the institution of a proposed inclined to give it the sign and name of a new order or decoration for distinguished ser- house at Töplitzthe sign being gilt figures vice in India. Not only was it exceedingly of men rowing against a rock, with the title difficult to decide on a design and motto, of

of The Golden Impossibility.” Not till which the prince sketched several, but there some time afterwards was the difficulty solved, was still more difficulty in adopting a name and on the 23rd of February, 1861, the iustifor the decoration, though several were pro

tution of “ The Most Exalted Order of the posed. It was agreed that the order should Star of India,” set the question at rest. be a star, but the question was what star? To It may be mentioned in connection with illustrate the important critical nature of the military affairs, that early in May, 1860, it discussion, we may quote a letter from Lord was decided by a resolution of the cabinet to Canning, urging that the title “Eastern Star," discontinue supporting a separate European which was most liked, could not be adopted. army for India, and that instead of two forces

"The Hindustani for the “Eastern Star," there should be only one imperial army, takhe wrote, “is Poorbeah Sittara.' Poorbeah' ing its turn of duty throughout the British has, as you probably know, become a sort of Empire, in all its home provinces and foreign generic name given to our Sepoys, from their dependencies, including India. This resolution being mostly men from Behar and Oudh- was afterwards strenuously opposed in parliaEastern provinces; and during the mutinies ment, but was passed in the autumn session. it grew to be used somewhat as ' Pandy' was The winter of 1859 had been wet, cold, used, as a familiar name for the mutineers. and unhealthy, but on the return of spring This, however, is not the point. That asso- the weather was more cheering. There were ciation is already passing away. But 'Poor- 18,000 men at Aldershot, where the queen beah,' for the very reason that it means · East- and the prince were frequent visitors, and ern,' and that in India the further any person

held a review in the first week of May. or thing comes from the East, the less is the But of more significance still was the rapid respect shown to either, has been a term of growth of the Volunteer force, which consisted disparagement time out of mind. Long be- at that time of 124,000 men, already well fore mutinous Sepoys were heard of, an Indian drilled, and a large number of them possessing resented being called a 'Poorbeah.' The term such remarkable skill with the rifle that it was, and-as Frere assures me-still is eagerly recalled the ancient fame of the English bowrepudiated by every one who comes from



The prince was engaged daily in fulfilling one great public demonstration in which both a multitude of claims on his strength and queen and the prince necessarily took the leisure. Writing from Osborne to the princess leading part. On the 234 of that month the royal he speaks of the delightful air and first great Volunteer review was held in Hyde rural aspects of the place, to which one might | Park. Her majesty and the royal party abandon one's self, but that “one's feelings arrived on the ground at four o'clock, the remain under the influence of the treadmill of queen entering the park in an open carriage never-ending business. The donkey in Caris- with the King of the Belgians, the Princess brook, which you will remember, is my true Alice, and Prince Arthur, Prince Albert ridcounterpart. He, too, would rather munch ing by the side of the carriage and followed thistles in the castle moat, than turn round by a brilliant cortége. Her majesty drove in the wheel at the castle well; and small along to the extreme left of the line of volunare the thanks he gets for his labour.

teers on the Bayswater Road, and thence “I am tortured, too, by the prospect of two along the whole front to the extreme right at public dinners at which I am, or rather shall Albert Gate. The royal stand was about the be, in the chair. The one gives me seven, the centre of Park Lane, and in front of this the other ten toasts and speeches, appropriate to whole 21,000 men marched past in companies, the occasion, and distracting to myself. Then taking two hours to pass. The various corps I have to resign at Oxford the Presidency of then took up their original positions, and the the British Association, and later in the sea- line advanced in battalion columns with salvoes son to open the Statistical Congress of all of cheering for her majesty as they moved nations. Between these come the laying the onward. Of the vast force assembled, 15,000 foundation-stone of the Dramatic College, the belonged to London and 6000 to the provinces, distribution of the prizes at Wellington Col- the City of London sending 1800 men, and lege, &c. &c.; and this, with the sittings of Manchester about 2000. By eight o'clock the my different commissions, and Ascot races whole body of volunteers had got entirely the delectable, and the balls and concerts of clear of the park without accident, and after the season all crowded into the month of admirably executing the few movements which June, over and above the customary business, could alone be effected by so large a number which a distracted state of affairs in Europe within the allotted space. and a stormy Parliament ... make still more At the Trinity House dinner, where he preburdensome and disagreeable than usual.” sided the same evening, the prince said :

This letter does not exhaust the special en- “We have witnessed this day a scene which gagements which awaited the prince on his will never fade from the memory of those who return to Windsor Castle. He had, as a do- had the good fortune to be present-the remestic as well as a public duty, to settle all presentatives of the independence, education, the details of the visit of the Prince of Wales and industry of this country, in arms, to testify to Canada, and to draw up memoranda of the their devotion to their country, and their

1 tone to be taken in replying to addresses, readiness to lay down their lives in its defence. according to the conditions and circumstances The Volunteer force exceeds already 130,000 of the different places where they were likely men; and to what extent this country is capto be presented. Then there were meetings able of exerting itself in real danger is shown and correspondence with the promoters of the by the number of volunteers, which in 1804 forthcoming International Exhibition of 1862, reached the extraordinary figure of 479,000! and there were the duties of hospitality to We are apt to forget, however, that, in conobserve amidst a numerous assembly of guests, trast with every other country of the world, including the King of the Belgians and his all our services are composed exclusively of second son, and the young Prince Louis of volunteers: the navy, coast-guard, coast volHesse-Darmstadt and his brother.

unteers, army, militia, yeomanry, constabuBefore the end of June, however, there was lary. May the noble and patriotic spirit

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which such a fact reveals remain ever unim- by Arthur's Seat, and also commanded by the paired! And may God's blessing, of which great breadth of slope westwards which terminthis nation has seen such unmistakable evi- ates in the picturesque ridge of Salisbury Crags. dence, continue to rest upon these voluntary “A nobler arena for such a display could not services !”

be imagined,” says one account of the scene; Congratulatory references were everywhere "and the enthusiasm of the multitudes, which heard, and the Volunteer force was soon after- covered every inch of ground on slope, and peak, wards almost likely to be impaired by the and crag, from which it could be seen, made manifestations of popularity which it enjoyed. even more exciting a spectacle that abounded in On the 2d of July the first meeting of the features peculiarly fitted to satisfy the eye and National Rifle Association was held at Wim- to quicken the imagination. Of all the cities bledon. The weather was brilliant, which, of Europe none presents so many points as after such a dreary season, was a delightful Edinburgh for giving effect to holiday movechange, and a brilliant assembly had gathered ment and display. The spot, moreover, on to witness the proceedings.

which the review took place was not merely The first shot at the targets was fired by dear to Scotchmen from the associations of histhe queen;

and Mr. Whitworth had so ad- tory and romance, but it has in itself more feajusted one of his rifles as to secure a good score tures of mingled beauty and grandeur than any for her majesty at the 400 yards range. An other in the 'gray metropolis of the North.' address was presented to the queen on her “The gathering was a truly national one. arrival at the camp by Mr. Sidney Herbert From all parts of the country vast multitudes as president of the association, after which flocked to Edinburgh to testify their loyalty her majesty, accompanied by the prince, ad- to the queen, and the hold which the Volunteer vanced to a tent, in which the rifle had been movement had upon their hearts. As the fixed which was to open the competition. A English counties had sent the flower of their touch of the trigger was followed by the flutter local corps to the review in Hyde Park in of the red and white flag before the target, an June, so now came a goodly array of the best intimation that the “ bull's-eye” had been bit, blood and bone and sinew from nearly every and that her majesty, in accordance with the county in Scotland to swell the general muster. rules of the association, had scored three From the Orkneys, “placed far amid the points.

melancholy main,' from Caithness, from InverFor six successive days the competition for ness, from Aberdeen, from the hills of Argylethe prizes for the best shooting continued.shire, from the banks of Loch Tay, from the The number of volunteers who entered for the straths and upland pastures of the valley of regulated prizes was 292, while 494 competed the Tay, from Forfarshire, Fifeshire, and for those open to all comers. The first queen's Stirlingshire came the picked men of each prize of £250 with the gold medal of the district. Nithsdale, Annandale, Galloway, association was won by Mr. Ross of the 7th Roxburghshire, and Selkirkshire sent their York, who, in the determining contest, made contingents from the south, swelled by troops eight points at 800, seven at 900, and nine at from Tynemouth, Alnwick, Sunderland, and 1000 yards. About £2000 was taken for ad- Whitehaven ; while Glasgow and the West of mission to the camp.

Scotland furnished about one-third of the At the beginning of August, the court entire force of at least 22,000 men, of whom moved to Balmoral, taking Edinburgh in the 18,000 or more were Scottish corps, who came way for the purpose of holding a review of together on that day to salute their sovereign the Scottish volunteers.

under the windows of the ancient palace of The scene of the review (on the 7th of Holyrood." August) was Holyrood Park, a long level space In the morning the queen and prince had stretching eastward from Holyrood Palace at visited the Duchess of Kent,who was staying at the base of the steep ascent which is crowned Cramond House, a small cheerful house looking across the Firth of Forth, and her royal | just previously been forined, and for which highness was present at the review.

the prince strongly advised that boys should “Mama arrived,” says her majesty's diary, be trained : about a quarter to three, and waited with “What I have never understood is, that us, looking at the splendid scene-- Arthur's the admiralty does not try to raise and train Seat covered with human beings, and the for the service more boys, who are most volunteers with bands marching in from every easily got, cheap to keep, and make much direction on to the ground close in front of better sailors for the royal navy when grown the palace. We waited long, watching every- up than men entered in the ports, and who thing from the window.” Soon after half- have been brought up in the merchant service,

. past three the queen came upon the ground and may have contracted every vice of indisin an open carriage and four, in which were cipline. We actually require on an average seated with her the Duchess of Kent, the 4000 boys a year, and we have only 1880 in Princess Alice, and Prince Arthur. The our school ships (this number including even Princess Helena, Princess Louise, and Prince the novices !). If we had a reserve of 5000 Leopold followed in the next carriage. The boys these would almost supply the navy in Prince Consort rode on the right side of the peace time. And if an equal number of men queen's carriage, and the Duke of Buccleuch, who have served in the navy were placed in as lord-lieutenant of the county and captain the naval reserve, when these boys grow up of the Royal Body-guard of Scottish Archers, and take their places, we should soon have an on the left. As her majesty passed along the efficient reserve force, not requiring any further lines of the volunteers, who stood at the salute, training, and most valuable to the merchant the whole assembled multitudes that crowned service from the previous training received in the slopes of the great natural amphitheatre the royal navy." of the adjoining hills broke into acclamations. The court was back at Osborne in Sep“The effect," wrote a spectator, “of the cheer- tember, and the queen, the prince, and the ing on the hill-side was not less than sublime. Princess Alice prepared for a long-contemPeal after peal broke forth in thunder, carried plated journey to Coburg. The voyage from away by the strong wind, to be again and Gravesend to Antwerp was made in the royal again renewed.”

yacht. They had scarcely entered the railway The marching past lasted an hour and ten carriage at Antwerp when a telegram from minutes, and the men then advanced in line Priuce Ernest (Prince Albert's brother) ancheering

nounced the serious illness of the dowager “We came home,” the queen writes," at Duchess of Coburg, who had been joyfully near six, so delighted that dear Mama could anticipating their coming. The visit could be present on this memorable and never-to-be- not be put off, and at Verviers another teleforgotten occasion. She had not witnessed gram gave intelligence of her death. The anything of the kind for long (the distribution journey was naturally a sad one, since, though of the Crimean medals in 1854, and of the the health of the duchess had been so feeble Victoria Cross in 1857, excepted), and had not that she was not expected to live long, her driven with me on any similar occasion for death was sudden and unexpected. There were, above twenty-six years !”

however, so many dear associations at Coburg, Alas! The shadow of sorrow followed ly and the presence there of Prince Ernest and of its deep reality was soon to fall within the the princess royal, with her husband Prince royal circle by the sickness and death of that Frederick William and their boy, the queen's mother so revered and well beloved. There first grandchild, now seen for the first time, was much to do even during the holiday at made the reception deeply affecting. The Balmoral, and we find the prince writing to space in these pages will not suffice for dwellLord Palmerston on the subject of the coast ing upon the incidents of that visit to the volunteers and the naval reserve, which had scenes of the prince's early days; nor Deed we



describe them at length, for the narrative has gone out in the Euryal us, and while on board been written in simple, touching, but graphic served strictly as a midshipman, had been language by the queen herself in her journal, received at Cape Town with much enthufrom which it has been partly transcribed into siasm, and had re-embarked in company withi the Life of the Prince Consort.

the governor, Sir George Grey, on his tour Prince Albert had had a narrow escape at through the colony, where he everywhere exCoburg in consequence of the horses of a car- perienced the loyalty and hearty good-will of riage in which he was being driven alone tak- the people. The Prince of Wales, who arrived ing fright and dashing onward to a spot where at Plymouth on the 15th on board H.M.S. a bar had been placed across the road to divide Hero, had reached Canada amidst great popit from the railway line. The prince leaped ular rejoicings and an enthusiastic welcome, out only just in time, and though shaken and which was in no way diminished when he left sustaining some grazes and contusions, was the British possessions and continued his journot seriously hurt, and at once endeavoured to ney, as Lord Renfrew, in the United States of assist the driver, who had been badly injured America. Nothing could have exceeded the by the collision. Two of the four horses broke enthusiastic hospitality of the American people away and galloped towards Coburg, where and their demonstrative pleasure at the prethey were seen by Colonel Ponsonby, the sence of the heir to the British crown in prince's equerry, who immediately obtained a the cities of the great republic from Chicago carriage, and with Dr. Baly and another to Cincinnati, Washington, New York, and doctor drove along the road to the scene of Boston. Everywhere arrangements were made the disaster.

for his reception, but at first there was an During the latter part of the visit, and on observance of the fact that the queen had the homeward journey, the queen suffered represented the visit to be a private one. In greatly from illness, brought on by a severe Chicago and Cincinnati the streets were filled cold, and aggravated by the inclement weather with enormous crowds, whose demonstrations which prevailed for a great portion of the time were quiet and respectful; and the municipal of their stay. To mark her sense of gratitude and other authorities exhibited genuine and to Almighty God for the escape of the prince courteous hospitality. At Washington the from imminent peril her majesty afterwards prince accompanied the president to the home established a trust called the Victoria Founda- and the rial-place of Washington at Mount tion by investing 12,000 florins (a little over Vernon, and the prince planted a chestnut by £1000) in the names of the burgomaster and the side of the tomb. In New York the chief clergyman of Coburg as trustees for the reception had broken out of the bounds of a distribution of the interest of the fund on the

general, but at the same time not an officially Ist of October in each year among a certain national, welcome; and Boston, the city of innumber of young men and women of exemplary tellectual culture, was almost as demonstrative. character belonging to the humbler ranks, the Mr. Charles Sumner, writing from the latter money being intended to apprentice or other city to Mr. Evelyn Denison, speaker of the wise to assist the young men to pursue some House of Commons, said:industrial occupation, or to assist the young “You will have heard something of the women either by enabling them to earn their uprising of the people to welcome the prince. livelihood or to furnish a marriage dowry. But I doubt if any description can give you

an adequate idea of its extent and earnestThe two princes had been expected back in At every station on the railway there England by the end of October, but adverse was an immense crowd, headed by the local winds were blowing, and Prince Alfred did

authorities, while our national flags were not arrive in Portsmouth till the 9th of No- blended together. I remarked to Dr. Acland vember, the birth-day of the Prince of Wales, that it'seemed as if a young heir long absent who was still absent. Prince Alfred, who had was returning to take possession.' 'It is more


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