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graphic, piquant manner as

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motion for the first time. “Nothing,” the large, quite in the style of Lablache, with queen writes, “could have succeeded better. small but fine features a charming, amusing, Still I own I felt anxious, as we passed along clever, and honest old man who is an universal through the multitude of people, who, after favourite.” He was very much against the all, were very close to us. I felt, as I walked emperor's going to the Crimea. He hoped, on the emperor's arm, that I was possibly a however, that the council of war which had protection to him.” been held at Windsor had had some effect on But the queen had herself introduced her him. Of Prince Albert the marshal said, “Le guests to her people, and with a grace and Prince votre époux a été bien net,” and had confidence peculiarly her own. On the night always brought people back to the point when before the visit to Sydenham a state visit they digressed. The emperor also told the was paid to Her Majesty's Theatre to hear queen that if it had not been for Prince the opera of Fidelio. Not only the house Albert nothing would have been done. but the streets, which had been illuminated,

An orchestral concert closed the evening. were crammed with a multitude who cheered In concluding her record of the day the queen and who pressed to get near the carriage. says of the emperor, “His maqners are par- The emperor, who seems to have had, or to ticularly good, easy, quiet, and dignified—as have assumed, that kind of superstition which if he had been born a king's son and brought seeks for or easily discovers small omens, noup for the place."

ticed that the letters formed by the gas jets and It is certain that the hospitalities of Windsor coloured lamps made the word “N. E. V. A.” were given with infinite tact, grace, and sim- As the party entered the royal box the enthuplicity. It was that most complimentary re- siastic crowd in the house broke into tumulception which at once introduces the guests tuous applause; and the queen, taking the into the confidence of family life, and this emperor by the hand, led him forward bowgave greater zest to the pomp and ceremony | ing to the people, and as it were presented of those public occasions, when the imperial him, while Prince Albert led forward the guests were, so to speak, received by the people empress. There can be no doubt that Naof England. They were greeted with great | poleon III. was greatly gratified and affected enthusiasm not only at the Windsor review by the incidents of his visit. “I tender to but at the Crystal Palace, where about twenty your majesty the feelings which one enterthousand persons had assembled in the grounds tains for a queen and a sister, respectful devoto see the royal and imperial party, who from tion and tender friendship,” he wrote in the the balcony beheld the spectacle of a vast and queen's album where he had inscribed his loyal multitude, whose evidently hearty wel- signature. After his return to France he recome moved even the usually impassive en- peated this sentiment with equal emphasis peror and greatly affected his wife. Of course and in happy phraseology when he wrote :there were not wanting certain apprehensions “Though I have been three days in Paris I that the visit of Napoleon III. to this country am still with your majesty in thought; and I might become an opportunity for an attempt feel it to be my first duty again to assure you by some assassin among the refugees known how deep is the impression left upon my mind to be in London. The queen with all her by the reception, so full of grace and affeccourage felt a little nervous. On returning to tionate kindness, vouchsafed to me by your the Palace after luncheon the royal visitors majesty. Political interest first brought us found it filled with people, who lined the into contact; but to-day, permitted as I have avenue of the nave, and cheered them enthu- been to become personally known to your siastically as they passed along towards the majesty, it is a living and respectful sympathy balcony, whence they were to see the foun- by which I am, and shall be henceforth, bound tains play, the upper series of which had to your majesty. In truth, it is impossible to just been completed and were now put in live for a few days as an inmate of your home EFFECT ON THE CZAR OF THE NEWS OF ALMA.


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without yielding to the charm inseparable from | Napoleon III., his nephew, before the coffin the spectacle of the grandeur and the happi- of England's bitterest foe; I, the grandness of the most united of families. Your daughter of that king who hated him most, majesty has also touched me to the heart by and who most vigorously opposed him, and the delicacy of the consideration shown to the this very nephew, who bears his name, being empress; for nothing pleases more than to see my nearest and dearest ally! The organ of the

person one loves become the object of such the church was playing 'God save the Queen' flattering attentions."

at the time, and this solemn scene took place There are good reasons for dwelling at some by torch-light and during a thunder-storm. length on these particulars, for they indicate Strange and wonderful indeed! It seems as one of the most important changes which ever if in this tribute of respect to a departed and took place in the history of the country. It dead foe, old enmities and rivalries were has been seen that in these pages no favour- wiped out, and the seal of Heaven placed able view is taken either of the character


that bond of unity which is now happily of Napoleon the Third, of the means by established between two great and powerful which he attained to the throne of France, or nations. May Heaven bless and prosper it!" of his national policy in other respects; but There is no need to describe that return even apart from the enormous advantage visit of the queen and the prince consort with which it gave him, his desire to maintain a their two elder children. Enough to say that it frank and complete alliance with England was throughout characterized by magnificent was sincere. He declared that he was carry- hospitality and a generous welcome not only ing out the policy which would under simi- on the part of the imperial hosts but on that lar circumstances have been adopted by his of the French people. The concord of the two uncle, and that he had always looked for- nations appeared to be complete, the alliance ward, even when his fortunes were darkest, to to be firmly established. Much had happened the opportunity of forming an alliance be- even during the few months that had elapsed tween the two nations as one of his most since the first success of the armies in the hopeful and encouraging ambitions. Be this Crimea.

may, there was genuine emotion on both sides when the imperial guests departed from On the czar the news of the defeat of his

had been a singularly agreeable troops on the Alma had a terrible effect. He and yet a strangely suggestive visit. A grand had expected that the attempt to invade the ball in the Waterloo Room at Windsor, where Crimea would be disastrous to the assailants, the queen, of course, danced in a quadrille and waited for the pleasing intelligence that with the emperor, is referred to thus in her they had been overwhelmed and driven back majesty's diary :-“How strange that I, the or that they would be taken prisoners. It grand-daughter of George III., should dance was said that he had already given orders for with the Emperor Napoleon, nephew of Eng- the captives, and especially the English, to be land's great enemy, now my nearest and most treated with kindness. Prince Menschikoff intimate ally, in the Waterloo Room, and this could not or dared not send despatches to St. ally only six years ago living in this country Petersburg announcing his failure. An aidean exile, poor and unthought of!” A similar de-camp carried the tidings. The emperor reflection was made on the occasion of the visit had been waiting impatiently for several days of her majesty to the tomb of the first Napo- when it was announced to him that the mesleon at the Hotel des Invalides during the senger was in the ante-room, and he instantly return visit which was made to the emperor ordered him to be brought into his presence. in August, the same year :

By brief word or eager gesture he was ordered “The coffin is not yet there, but in a small to speak. He spoke, “Sire, your army has side chapel de St. Jérome. Into this the em- covered itself with glory, but--" Then peror led me, and there I stood, at the arm of instantly the czar knew that the tale to be

as it



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told was one of disaster. With violent im- in the trenches,' he said, “just fifteen days precations he drove the aide-de-camp from back’- was the principal addition. He sat his presence. The aide-de-camp, however, next to me. I was delighted with him, such understood that he was liable to be again an honest, good man, so sincere and friendly, called in, and in a short time he was ordered and so fond of the English, very enthusiastic, once more to present himself. The czar was talking with much gesticulation. He is short, changed in look. He seemed to be more and wears his hair, which is black, rather composed than he had been, but was pale. long behind, has a red face and rolling eyes, When the aide-de-camp approached, the czar moustaches and no whiskers, and carries his thrust forward his hand as though to snatch head rather high. He praised our troops imat something, and imperatively cried, “The de- mensely, spoke of the great difficulty of the

, spatch!" The aide-de-camp answered, “Sire, undertaking, the sufferings we had all underI bring no despatch.” “No despatch ?" the gone, the mistakes which had been made, and czar asked, his fury beginning to rekindle as most kindly of our generals and troops. I he spoke. “Sire, Prince Menschikoff was said I looked upon him as an old acquaintmuch hurried, and- “Hurried !” inter- ance, from having heard so much of him. He rupted the czar. “What—what do you mean? said, 'I am almost a subject of your majesty, Do you mean to say he was running ?” Again from being a member of the Fishmongers' his fury became uncontrollable, and it seems Company." that it was some time before he was able to Canrobert was a brave and successful solbear the cruel sound of the truth. When at dier and a good general, but not quite equal length the czar came to know what had be- to the entire command of the army. His perfallen his


he gave way to sheer despair; sonal élan and the quickness with which his for he deemed Sebastopol lost, and had no men responded to his orders were, however, longer any belief that the Chersonese was still of incalculable advantage. He was always a field on which he might use his energies." on the look-out, cared nothing for Russian

But Sebastopol was not yet taken. Pro- sharpshooters, and continued to wear his goldbably Nicholas had feared such a movement laced hat and white feathers even when in as Lord Raglan had contemplated, and sup- action. From all accounts it would appear posed that the allied forces, aided by the fleet, that the French troops, both officers and men, would be able to advance and follow up the attended much more to the pomp and circumfirst success.

stance of war than the English did, and their Marsbal St. Arnaud, acting on sealed orders camp was on the whole more gay and was which he had taken out with him, had before provided with more amusements than ours. his death transferred the command of the Canrobert had an opportunity of distinguishFrench army to General Canrobert, who had ing himself at the battle of Inkerman, and he already done distinguished service in Africa succeeded; though, as he afterwards said, and with those Zouaves, who were among the most as both English and French officers agreed, it active and conspicuous of the troops in the was truly the soldiers' battle, won by sheer Crimean campaign. Canrobert, a dashing sol- hard fighting and without much exhibition dier with plenty of personal courage and great of, or even occasion for, brilliant tactics or promptitude, was very popular with our army. skilful generalship. Both tactics and generalThe queen, who met him while she was in ship might better have been displayed before Paris after he had relinquished the command the engagement, and the result would then to General Pelissier, describes him with her have been far more successful, the defeat inusual graphic touch :

flicted on the enemy complete and irretriev"A large dinner party. General Canrobert, able. only just returned from the trenches—'I was We have already seen that the news of the

victory of the Alma was received in England, i Kinglake.

and especially in London, with enormous en



thusiasm. In the churches it was alluded to “The position occupied by the enemy," along with thanksgivings for the abundant wrote Lord Raglan in one of his despatches, harvest; it was mentioned with triumph at “is not that of a fortress, but rather that of the theatres; and at those “monster prome- an army in an intrenched camp on very strong nade concerts” which had just then become ground, where an apparently unlimited numpopularized in London by M. Jullien. The ber of heavy guns amply provided with gunword Alma in gigantic letters was seen above ners and ammunition are mounted.” Opposed the great orchestra which he had erected to this were the allied armies exposed, unproat Covent Garden Theatre; and the Allied tected by any reserve or covering force, their Armies' Quadrilles, the national and patriotic very existence staked on capturing a place airs, and the spirited warlike music which which seemed to be impregnable, having occupied half the programme were nightly within it an army almost as numerous as that applauded by immense audiences. But the of the assailants; while outside lay another campaign in the Crimea was only beginning. arny more numerous still, under the comThe place which in 1780 had been nothing mand of the Russian general Prince Menschimore than an insignificant Tartar village koff. But we had beaten that army, and named Akhtiar was now the enormous strong. Sebastopol was before us. Every day's delay bold of Sebastopol. Commenced by Catherine, gave the enemy more time to pile defences continued by Alexander, and completed by and to call countless troops to swell the ranks Nicholas, it was an imposing fortified city, of the host to which we were opposed; every the chief naval arsenal of the Russian Empire, day would increase the impatience of the a mile long and three-quarters of a mile broad, people of France and England that Sebastopol occupying for its site the peninsula on the south had not been taken by a coup de main. Cobside of the roadstead and rising in the form of den was not altogether wrong when in Januan amphitheatre from the shore. Its quays, ary, 1856, at the time that the “four points” magazines and storehouses were of vast strength for concluding a peace were being debated, and solidity. It possessed a complete system he said that the expedition to the Crimea of docks constructed with great skill and at had been a leap in the dark; that ministers, enormous expense, of solid masonry, and sup- generals, admirals, and anı bassadors were all plied with fresh water by an aqueduct twelve equally ignorant of the strength of the fortress miles long, formed of immense blocks of stone. and the numbers of the enemy they were Six large batteries on the south and four on going to encounter. Cobden argued that acthe north defended it--the former mounting cording to the evidence of the Sebastopol from 50 to 190, and the latter from 18 to 120 Committee (of which we shall presently have guns each. To these were added a number of to speak) Lord Raglan could obtain no inforsmaller batteries. Even before the commence- mation; Sir John Burgoyne believed that ment of the war the port was guarded by 850 none of the authorities with the British army pieces of artillery, 350 of which could be when it landed had any knowledge of the brought to bear upon a single ship entering subject; and that Admiral Dundas could get the hay; but during the siege which was now no intelligence from the Greeks, who were commenced enormous additions were made to hostile, and the “Turks knew nothing." Our the defences. Those on the land side of the authorities guessed the number of the Russian stronghold, which had been less fortified, as forces in the Crimea variously at from 30,000 an invasion had scarcely been dreamed of, to 120,000 men. “In this state of ignorance," were rapidly multiplied; and were protected wrote Cobden, “Lord Raglan, under a mild by earthworks, renewed daily according to the protest which threw the responsibility on the changes of attack, and so armed that at the government at home, set sail from Varna for commencement of the siege 25,000 rounds the invasion of Russia. Yet whilst confeswere fired npon us before our batteries opened sedly without one fact on which to found an upon them.

opinion, the most confident expectations were

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formed of the result. Lord Aberdeen and while, though the batteries of the allies poured Mr. Sidney Herbert state that it was the upon the town such a dreadful hail of bombs, general belief that Sebastopol would fall by a rockets, and heavy balls as had never before coup de main. Sir John Burgoyne was in been known in any siege, the Russians rehopes we should have taken it ‘at once until plied with almost equal vigour. At an early he saw it, and then he altered his opinion.' period of the day the explosion of a powderAnd according to Admiral Dundas, “two- magazine in the French works crippled the thirds of the people expected to be in Sebas- attack from that line, and left the Russian topol in two or three days.'»

batteries free to concentrate their fire on the On the arrival of the allied troops at Bala- British, who were engaged in an attempt to klava the investment of Sebastopol was com

demolish one of the batteries called the Redan, menced by the formation of a line of earth- which they eventually exploded though withworks, those of the English being in charge of out entirely silencing it. It was evident that Sir Colin Campbell with the 93d Highlanders the Russians did not intend their apparently and 3000 Turkish irregulars. The French impregnable fortress to be taken; but they works were more extensive, of greater strength, had evidently less confidence since their recent since they occupied better ground, and the pos- defeat and the obvious determination of the session of the Woronzoff road gave more facili- allies. A striking proof both of the caution ties for constructing them. The English bat- of the Russians and of their intention to preteries overlooked Sebastopol, those of the sent an obstinate resistance had already been French were level with its defences, and the witnessed. At the entrance to the harbour lines had to be extended from the inlet of the they had sunk five ships of the line and two sea called the harbour of Balaklava, where the frigates, and these added to the shallow water English vessels lay (the French anchoring in formed an obstacle with which the vessels of the Bay of Kamiesch),to the encampment of the the allied fleet were unable to contend. When allied forces, a high bare plateau sloping gradu- the seven ressels weighed anchor it was thought ally on the north to Sebastopol and on the west that they were about to go out and try conto Cape Chersonese. From our shipping at clusions with the investing fleet; but while the Balaklava harbour, all the provisions, ammuni- English were looking on, the ships began tion, and military stores for our army had to slowly to sink at their moorings, and within be conveyed to the camp, an operation which half an hour they lay at the bottom with took some days, especially as the great siege- nothing visible but the tops of their masts, guns had to be got into position, and the Rus- effectually barring the entrance for many a sian batteries were already at work pouring a

month to come. heavy fire upon the besiegers. On the 17th of Our attempts to storm the Russian strongOctober (1854) the allies made a tremendous hold had failed, and it was necessary to conand simultaneous attack by sea and land, but tinue the siege, and to continue it with inwithout any very successful result. The at- sufficient means for making any effectual tempt to enter by the mouth of the harbour demonstrations. Two English and six French was partly frustrated by the shallowness of ships of the line had been so damaged by the the water on each side which prevented the fire from the Russian forts that they had to ships from acting in concert. The fortifica-. be sent home for repairs. Our losses were tions, too, were so strong that they resisted 44 killed and 266 wounded; that of the even the tremendous fire brought to bear upon French 30 killed and 164 wounded; while it them, and such damage as was inflicted was was estimated that the enemy had lost 500 speedily repaired. It was much the same with

The allies had plied their batteries the land attack. The system of earthworks, with vigour, but with little effect, except to which was now for almost the first time strike fortifications which resisted the light brought into operation, gave remarkable faci- ordnance with which we were alone provided. lities for rapid repairs and changes of position, | Our artillery was inferior in calibre to that of


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