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applied to a species of water-fowl; colin, (a French form of the proper name Nicolas,) applied to a species of partridge or quail; martin, (a proper name derived from the god Mars,) applied to a species of swallow ; renard, (Germ. Reinhard, a Christian name,) a name, applied to the
; fox in poetry and fable; reineke, (another form of Renard,) applied first in German to the fox, and then in German and English to a celebrated ancient Flemish poem. This usage is more common in other dialects; comp. Scottish Lowrie, (as if little Laurence,) applied to the fox; Germ. petz, (as if little Peter,) applied to the bear; and French bertrand, applied in poetry to the ape.
These different senses, as they fall in different spheres, are easily distinguished from each other in actual usage.
Form-words suffer frequent transitions of meaning, either by passing from one column to another; or by passsing from one row or series to another; see the Table of Correlative Particles, as given in grammatical works.
Demonstratives sometimes become relatives ; as, that, demonst. and relat.; as, demonst. and relat. Interrogatives are often used as relatives; as, who, what, where, when. Interrogatives are sometimes used as indefinites ; as, what, where, how. The construction, and especially the intonation, makes the meaning clear. These different meanings should constitute distinct articles in a dictionary.
Adverbs of inanner are employed to express intensity; as, so, how, as.
Prepositions, originally denoting place, pass to the notation of time, con lition, causality, etc. as, from, for. In these different uses of prepositions, there is a great economy of language.
When words are transferred from one part of speech to another, without internal change of vowel, and without suffixes or prefixes, the change of meaning should be succinctly stated, and the words should appear as distinct articles.
Derivative verbs in English are sometimes formed from substantives, and adopt that meaning which most readily presents itself.
1. Signifying to be the thing denoted by the noun of subject; as, to barber, to be a barber; to tailor, to be a tailor.
2. Signifying to do the action denoted by the noun; as, to dream, to hunger, to thirst, from the nouns, dream, hunger, thirst.
3. Signifying to act upon the thing denoted by the noun in some ohvious manner; as, to fish, to catch fish; to glaze, to set glass; to graze,
to eat grass.
4. Signifying to use the thing denoted by the noun in some obvious
manner; as, to butter, to fire, to fodder, lo house, to ship, from the nouns, butter, fire, fodder, house, ship.
5. Signifying to use the instrument denoted by the noun; as, to hammer, to mouth, to plow, from the nouns, hammer, mouth, plow.
Note 1. In this derivation the final consonant of the stem is sometimes softened, or the accent is transferrred to the final syllable. Thus (1.) f is changed into v; as, to calve from calf; to halve from half; (2.) s is changed into z; as, to glaze from glass; to graze from grass ; to house from house ; to prize from prise ; (3.) th is changed into dh; as, to breathe from breath; to mouth from mouth ; and (4.) the accent is transferred to the final syllable; as, to aug-ment from aug'ment; to col-league' from colleague ; to con-fine' from con' fine ; to con-sort from con'sort ; to fer-ment from fer'ment ; to tor-ment from tor’ment.
Note 2. The same derivative may be taken in two or more of the acceptations given above; as, to graze, to eat grass, see No. (3.) and to supply with grass, see No. (4.)
Derivative verbs are formed also from adjectives, and have a transitive signification; as, to blue, to make blue; to dull, to make dull; to even, to make even; to warm, to make warm; from adverbs; as, to out, to cast out; and from interjections ; as, to huzza or hurrah, to cry huzza or hurrah.
When the same English word belongs to different parts of speech, and of course forms as many distinct articles in the dictionary, these articles should be arranged genealogically, that is, according to the order of their development. For example, the five or six different uses of the term right may be adjusted thus.
Right, adj. (from root of Eng. reach,=Lat. V reg, Gr. v 'opsy; with participial suffix t, comp. Lat. rectus, which is formed in an analogous manner;) properly strained, stretched, straight, whence many secondary or derived significations.
Riget, subst. (the neuter adjective, used substantively,) what is right or just, rightness, justice.
Right, adv. (with loss of adverbial termination, comp. Anglo-Sax, rihte, adv. from riht, adj.) as if rightly, with rightness.
Right, verb trans. (from adjective right,) to make right, as, for example, an injured person.
Righr, verb intrans. (from adjective right,) to become right, as a ship rising with her masts erect.
Right, interj. (from adjective right,) as if, by an ellipsis, for it is Twelve YEARS OF A SOLDIER'S LIFE IN India.* _This is a book of stirring adventure. We remember nothing in veritable biography that so much resembles romance. It is the story of the brief but brilliant career in India of one of Dr. Arnold's Rugby boys, a contemporary and friend of “Tom Brown,” at that well known school, where be is still remembered, and where his feats of activity still live in the traditions of the place. From Rugby, Hodson went to Trinity College, Cambridge, and after taking his degree in 1844, entered the service of the East India Company. His first campaign took him to the Sutlej, and gave him a "rough baptism of war;" but it served to give bim also experience, to make him friends, and to bring him to notice as a bold, intelligent, and reliable officer, who was never weary, and never dispirited; who was equal to any service, and always ready for duty. For such there is never wanting work to do. So, in the interval between the first and second Sikh war, he was employed in every kind of responsible service. First he was sent to superintend the building of a great asylum for the children of English soldiers, among the hills, with a carte blanche to do whatever he pleased, and to draw for whatever funds he wished. Appointed to the command there, we find hin with “ upwards of a thousand most unwilling laborers,” that he had collected and got into working order, surveying and making a military road through desert and forest, to Ferozepore. Then he was appointed to an important "civil” position, as " Assistant" to the Resident at Lahore, and was set to administer justice in all manner of cases, civil, criminal, and revenue, in the Lahore courts. In all these positions he was gaining a knowledge of Indian character, and an experience in managing the natives, which fitted him to be the famous partisan leader that he afterwards proved himself to be on the breaking out again of hostilities. There he found bis fit place! He was second in command of the “Guides," a body of irregular cavalry, whose business it is to scour the country backwards and forwards, to be everywhere, and know everything that is going on among the wild tribes upon the frontier. Soon, by a series of brilliant exploits, “ by successful stratagem, and midnight surprise, and many a desperate contest,” he made his name a terror to the enemy, while his soldiers idolized him as a leader. But the war was at last ended, and the Punjaub was annexed. Then came his next step in promotion, which was to the command of the “Guides," and a wild frontier district was handed over to him, of which he was made military and civil chief. There he settled down, with his newly married wife, in his own words, "the happiest and most fortunate man in the service.” It was, however, no life of ease that was before him. He was to rule a whole province, and “ do justice and judgment among a people that had never known what justice and judgment were.” And 50 years were spent in the discharge of most responsible duties, which required ceaseless activity and unremitting toil.
* Twelve Years of a Soldier's Life in India. Being extracts from the letters of the late Major W. S. R. Hodson, B. A. Including a personal narrative of the siege of Delhi, and capture of the King and Princes. Edited by his brother, the Rev. George H. Hopson, M. A. Boston: 1859. Ticknor & Fields. 12mo. pp. 444. For sale by T. H. Pease.
Our space has not allowed us to follow the fortunes of Hodson, or portray his character with any degree of particularity. It must suffice
say with his biographer, " though his lot was cast in camps, he was not a mere soldier; though he spent his life as a hanger-on on the outskirts of civilization, he had a keen appreciation of the refinements and elegancies of civilized life ; though in India, he remembered that he was an Englishman; and, though living among the heathen, he did not for get that he was a Christian."
We pass on to the terrible days of the “Sepoy Mutiny," in 1857, when the time came for such men as Hodson to show to the world their real value. He was attached to the army before Delhi, and then as the commander of the “Irregular Horse," and as the responsible head of the Intelligence Department he displayed a heroism, and rendered services, with "his invincible and almost ubiquitous body of cavalry," which have made bis name prominent among the heroes of that little band who struggled so valiantly for the maintenance of the British rule in India. According to the London Times, he "fought everywhere and against any odds, with all the spirit of a Paladin of old.”
We hasten to the two most remarkable exploits of bis career,—the capture of the old King, and the capture of the Princes.
"The siege of Delhi was ended. A mere handful of Englishmen, for half the time numbering less than three thousand, set themselves down in the open feld, in the worst days of an Indian summer, without regular communications, without proper artillery, and last and worst of all, without able leading, and had taken a city larger than Glasgow, garrisoned by an army trained by Englishmen, and numbering at first 20,000, in another ten days 37,000, and at last 75,000 men, supplied with all but exhaustless munitions of war, and in the midst of a nation in arms.
The very day after possession was taken of Delhi, Captain Hodson received information that the King and his family had taken refuge with a large force only a few miles from the gates of the city, in the tomb of Huma
yoom. He immediately reported it to the general commanding, and asked whether he might lead a detachment in pursuit; as with the King at liberty, and heading so large a force, their victory was next to useless, and they might themselves be besieged instead of besiegers. General Wilson replied that he could not spare a single European. He then volunteered to lead a party of the Irregulars, but this offer was also refused. Meanwhile, messengers had come in from the favorite Begum, who offered to use her influence with the King to surrender, on condition that he and his family should be restored to their palace and their honors, with several other equally modest demands. The message was treated, of course, with contemptuous denial. General Wilson, however, allowed Captain Hodson to go to the King, and offer him his life and freedom from personal indignity, and make what other terms he could. He immediately started with but fifty of his own Irregulars,—he the only European of the party. The risk was such as no one can judge of who has not seen the road. It led through the ruins of the old city of Delhi, and the whole country about swarmed with rebels who still had arms in their hands. Hodson reached the Tomb, sent in a peremptory demand to the King to come out, offering him only his own life and the lives of two or three of his family. To his astonishment, the King came out, and surrendered to him his arms, doubtless impressed with the idea that there was a large force at hand. Hodson immediately assured him that if any attempt at rescue was made, he would shoot him down like a dog, and surrounding him with his men, immediately took the road to Delhi. The march was necessarily at a foot pace, and Hodson, with his handful men, was followed and surrounded by thousands during the return march, any one of whom could have shot him in a moment. But as his orderly said, the influence of his calm and undaunted look upon the crowd was wonderful, and they seemed paralyzed at the fact of one white man (for they thought nothing of his fifty black sowars) carrying off their King alone.”
Wonderful as this adventure was, it was surpassed by his seizure of the three Princes, a few days after. He had learned where was their retreat, and with a hundred of his Irregulars, accompanied by but one European, his lieutenant, he left Delhi. Six miles from the city he found them surrounded by 6,000 of their Mussulman armed followers. He demanded an unconditional surrender. Strange to tell, they gave
their arms to him, fancying, undoubtedly, as the King's life had been spared, theirs would be. Hodson immediately closed up bis men about them, and began to move towards Delbi, the thousands of their followers thronging after, with arms in their bands. Hodson called to them to lay down their arms. There was a murmur. He reiterated his command, and pointing his carabine, said, “The first man that moves is a dead man." The effect was instantaneous, and wonderful as it seems, they commenced doing so.
Says Mr. Dowell, his lieutenant :
“There we stayed for two hours, collecting their arms, and I assure you, I