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superior body. On this occasion the version of the Psalter by Tate and Brady was sanctioned, and a number of hymns was added to the collection already in use. According to a canon of the last Convention, a pastoral letter from the House of Bishops to the members of the Church was drawn up by them, and read to the House of clerical and lay deputies.
The period had now arrived when the Church was to rise from its depressed condition, and to occupy a lofty stand in the cause of pure and undefiled religion. The greater part of those clergymen who had entered its ministry, supported by the laws or the beneficence of England, had now quitted the stage, and their places had been supplied by those who were not only sons of the soil, but who had been trained up under the influence of a church relying solely upon its own resources. The infidelity and lukewarmness which had prevailed during the latter part of the preceding century, were now rapidly giving way throughout the continent; and many persons of powerful intellect and devoted spirit, were added to the ranks of the ministry.
Hitherto all persons desirous of preparing for the ministry of the Church had laboured under great disadvantages. Few colleges were under episcopal control, and even there, theological education was neglected. The candidates were therefore compelled to pursue their studies under the direction of clergymen encumbered with parochial duties, or to resort to the institutions of dissenting denominations. Accordingly, about the year 1814, Bishop Hobart, of New York, issued proposals for the establishment of a divinity school, under the superintendence of himself and his successors. The deputies to the General Convention from South Carolina were also instructed to propose a similar scheme. The subject was for some time under consideration; and finally, in 1817, it was resolved to establish a theological seminary at New York for the benefit, and under the control of the entire church. In the same year, the diocese of North Carolina was admitted into union with the General Convention, and measures were adopted to organize the Church in the state of Ohio. The Rev. Philander Chase was consecrated to the episcopate of the latter diocese in 1819, and the Rev. J. S. Ravenscroft to that of the former in 1823. New Jersey had been provided with a bishop, the Rev. Dr. Croes, as early as 1815; and from this period, the advancement of the Church proceeded with almost unexampled rapidity. In 1814, the number of clergy was little more than 240, but in the course of twenty years it was more than trebled; and the increase of congregations was in an equal proportion.
The destitute state of the western country led to the formation of a missionary association in Pennsylvania about the year 1818. By this association, several missionaries were maintained in Pennsylvania and Ohio, and some churches were planted. In a few
years this society assumed a more extended form, and, under the auspices of the General Convention, became known as the Domestic and Foreign Missionary Society of the Protestant Episcopal Church.' For many years its operations were extremely limited, and it was not until 1830 that it produced any considerable benefit. In the mean time, the General Theological Seminary received a constant accession of students; and a second institution of the same kind was established at Alexandria, designed especially to promote the interests of religion in Virginia, and other southern dioceses. Bishop Chase also proceeded, in 1824, to England, in the hope of obtaining assistance towards the foundation of a seminary of sacred learning in Ohio. His efforts were successful, and he returned with between 20 and 30,000 dollars, the fruits of the benevolence of British Christians. He erected an extensive building at the centre of his diocese, and in 1831 he had the satisfaction of beholding nearly 200 inmates of Kenyon College and Theological Seminary.' Unhappy difficulties having arisen, he determined on resigning his episcopal jurisdiction in Ohio, together with the presidency of the institution which he had founded. The General Convention of 1832, after a protracted debate, concluded on permitting his resignation; and the Rev. Dr. M'Ilvaine was consecrated to the vacant episcopate. At the present time the number of clergy in Ohio is between thirty and forty. Kenyon College has recently received from England further donations, amounting to about 12,000 dollars, besides many valuable books. In Kentucky and Tennessee, the increase of the church has been even more rapid than in Ohio. In 1825 there was but one officiating clergyman in the former state. In 1832 it contained eight clergymen, and in the same year the Rev. B. B. Smith was consecrated bishop. In 1834 the Theological Seminary of the diocese of Kentucky was incorporated; in the following year it received great pecuniary assistance from eastern episcopalians, and at the present time the number of students in that institution is not far from twenty. The clergy in the diocese now amount to eighteen.*
* While this sheet was passing through the press, a transatlantic correspondent informed us that Bishop Kemper, the missionary bishop for Missouri and Indiana, had 20,000 dollars collected for him in the autumn of 1836, in the city of New York, during the severe pecuniary pressure under which the commercial part of the citizens laboured; and that preparations are making for a theological seminary in Missouri. "O!" our correspondent adds, "if the original founders of the Society for propagating the Gospel could look down from heaven, and see the principles for which they toiled, rearing institutions to correct and save men in this far-off spot, they must be gladdened with the joy of angels over the repenting. But yesterday, as it were, this was all a wilderness! Now a tide of population is rolling into the Mississipi valley, which will
So late as 1832 there were but three clergymen in Tennessee. There are now in that diocese about fourteen, with Bishop Otey at their head.
In the eastern states also the progress of the Church has been rapid and steady. The church in Vermont had become in 1832 sufficiently strong to separate from the eastern diocese, of which it had formed a part; and, accordingly, in the same year the Rev. Dr. Hopkins was elected and consecrated its bishop. It is highly probable that, in the course of a short time, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, and Maine, will also be provided with their respective prelates, and that the bishopric of New York will be divided into two dioceses.
The organization of the American Episcopal church, Mr. Colton informs us, is as follows:-
"A general triennial convention, constituted in two houses, viz. the house of bishops, and the house of clerical and lay deputies, is invested by a constitution adopted in 1789, and since amended, with powers of general legislation, supervision, and control-legislation being supposed to involve the last two attributes. The body however is purely legislative. Every bishop is ex-officio a member of the upper house; and the lower house is composed of a representation of the clergy and laity from each diocess, not exceeding four of each class. The deputation of any one diocess can at will divide the lower house on any question, by requiring the clerical and laical votes to be declared separately--the decision to be based on a majority of suffrages in each order, provided such a majority comprehend a majority of the diocesses representedthe votes of each diocess, and of each order separately, be they more or less, counting as one in a case of division. There must be a concurrence of both houses for authenticated acts. Consequently, either house may be a check upon the other; and the laity of the lower house may be a check upon the clergy of the same house, and mediately upon the house of bishops.
"The bishops of the several diocesses are elected according to rules adopted by the convention of each diocess, and are consecrated by a bishop, with at least two to assist him. No bishop can perform episcopal functions in another diocess, without the consent of the bishop thereof; or in case of vacancy of the episcopal chair, he must be authorized by invitation. Bishops and clergymen are amenable to the court erected by the convention of each diocess for the trial of their own bishop and their own clergy, in case of delinquency. At the trial of a bishop there must always be one or more of the episcopal order in court. A sentence of degradation on a bishop, presbyter, or deacon, can only be pronounced by a bishop.
"The convention of the diocess of New-York is composed of the bishop, who is ex-officio president; of the clergy who have pastoral charge, or who may be missionaries; of clergy who are officially con
soon make a mighty nation, and a nation which will vie with the greatest in Europe. I can give you no conception of it."
nected with literary institutions; and of lay delegates, of one or more, from the vestry of each congregation. The clergy and laity of the Convention deliberate in one body on all questions that come before them. The votes of the clergy count one for each; of the laity, one for each congregation represented; and a majority of the votes of the two orders jointly are decisive, except when any five voices shall require the two orders to vote separately, when a majority of each is necessary to a decision. The choice of a bishop is always by division, as aforesaid."
What Mr. Colton has here described, as the practice in the diocese of New York, is substantially the same in every diocese. After the annual Convention is opened, the Bishop delivers his charge; the clergy and delegates then proceed to consider the affairs of the church, and make such new canons (in subordination to the general canons of the whole church), as are necessary. In addition to the annual visitation of his diocese, the Bishop of New Jersey holds convocations with his clergy, somewhat analogous to the conferences formerly held in the diocese of Salisbury by Bishop Burnet, and in that of London by Bishop Compton. These fraternal unions of the clergy, under their canonical head, have been attended with the most beneficial effects.
At the triennial Convention of the bishops, and clerical and lay delegates of the Protestant Episcopal church, in 1835, the general report of the state of the dioceses (for which we regret that we have not room) exhibits a delightful view of the growing prosperity of the Church; and the annual reports of a few dioceses for the present year, which we have had an opportunity of seeing, contain additional evidence of that prosperity. The House of Bishops now consists of sixteen members, including a missionary bishop for the extensive states of Missouri and Indiana; and the clergy, who about twenty years since did not exceed 250, amount very nearly to 800. Among them are many who were either formerly ministers of other communions of Protestants, or were educated for that purpose; but who, constrained by the preponderating force of the evidence from Scripture, ecclesiastical history, and antiquity, in favour of episcopacy, have deliberately embraced the communion and ministry of the American church. In looking over the list of her clergy, we observe the names of at least three, who were at one time dissenting ministers in this country, viz.:
The Rev. James Sabine, rector of Christ Church, Bethel, in the diocese of Vermont, author of a summary of Ecclesiastical History, published at London twenty-eight or thirty years ago.
The Rev. Thomas S. Brittan, rector of St. Paul's Free Church, Brooklyn, New York, who formerly officiated in London. His Apology for conforming to the Protestant Episcopal Church, contains a succinct statement of scriptural and patristical evidence,
confirmed by ecclesiastical history, in favour of episcopacy, as well as liturgies, and of the excellency in particular of the American liturgy, which is substantially that of our own Church. The length of this article forbids us to give any extracts from his publication on these topics; but we cannot withhold the following remarks, which he has introduced on the practical effects of dissent. Having stated that he was educated in England among the Congregationalists or Independents, he adds:
"At a very early age my mind had imbibed the strongest and most obnoxious prejudices against episcopacy, which, as I advanced in years, became more deeply rooted. I had been accustomed to hear tales of the haughty temper, the bitter spirit, the persecuting disposition of the Anglican church-to hear of the gross ignorance in spiritual things, and of the ungodly lives of her clergy; so that I could not, in my mind, dissociate the ideas of episcopacy from those of heresy and sacrilegious ambition. I had learned to regard the Established Church as the beast in the Apocalypse, of which it is said, it had horns like a lamb, but it spake like a dragon.' I regarded it as a system of spiritual tyranny only-an engine of state policy, by which the tools of party were to be rewarded; in fine, as an iron rod in the hands of bigotry, by which it attempted to crush and destroy all who had the honesty or the courage to think for themselves.
"This prejudice, by a natural consequence, (strange as to some it may appear,) extended itself to its ritual, its ceremonies, and even its sanctuaries; these were often the objects of my ridicule and derision. The official garments of its clergy, the formulary of its devotions, and even its most solemn observances, were regarded as worse than unmeaning; as partaking of the nature of an impious mockery of the Almighty. I looked upon its sacred edifices with much of the same class of feelings with which I should have regarded a pagan temple; and though, in my boyhood, curiosity led me sometimes to visit them, that I might gaze upon their Gothic architecture, admire their painted windows, and feel what was imposing in their structure, whose 'dim religious light' rendered them so suitable to aid devotion; yet I always felt as if by so doing I had contracted a sort of guilt, that I had been treading upon forbidden ground.
These sentiments continued till, in my twentieth year, I had become a student preparing for the office of the ministry. During the first year of this my novitiate, I went with several of my compeers to witness the ordination of a young friend over a Congregational church in London: after the charge had been delivered by one minister to the pastor, a second minister (as is the custom,) addressed a charge to the people. In the course of his sermon he admonished them of the evils of divisionlamented the numerous quarrels and separations constantly oc