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CHA P. the peace between the nations: That though these
places were not entered by force, but put into Elizabeth's hands by the governors, these governors were rebels; and a correspondence with such traitors was the most flagrant injury that could be committed on any sovereign: That in the treaty which ensued upon the expulsion of the English from Normandy, the French ministers had absolutely refused to make any mention of Calais, and had thereby declared their intention to take advantage of the title which had accrued to the crown of France: And that though a general clause had been inserted, implying a reservation of all claims, this concession could not avail the English, who at that time possessed no just claim to Calais, and had previously forfeited all right to that fortress.b The queen was nowise surprised at hearing these allegations; and as she knew that the French court intended not from the first to make restitution, much less after they could justify their refusal by such plausible reasons, she thought it better for the
present to acquiesce in the loss, than to pursue a doubtful title by a war both dangerous and expensive, as well as unseasonable.
ELIZABETH entered anew into negotiations for espousing the archduke Charles; and she seems, at this time, to have had no great motive of policy, which might induce her to make this fallacious offer: But as she was very rigorous in the terms insisted on, and would not agree that the archduke, if he espoused her, should enjoy any power or title in England, and even refused him the exercise of his religion, the treaty came to nothing; and that prince, despairing of success in his addresses, married the daughter of Albert, duke of Bavaria.
Haynes, p. 587.
Camden, p. 406.
Ibid. 407, 408.
Character of the puritans—Duke of Norfolk's con
spiracy— Insurrection in the North— Assassina-
- French affairs-Massacre of Paris, French affairs—Civil Wars of the Low Countries—A parliament.
the yoke of papal authority, no one proceeded with so much reason and moderation as the church of England; an advantage which had been derived partly from the interposition of the civil magistrate of the pain this innovation, partly from the gradual and slow steps by which the reformation was conducted in that kingdom. Rage and animosity against the catholic religion was as little indulged as could be supposed in such a revolution: The fabric of the secular hierarchy was maintained entire: The ancient liturgy was preserved, so far as was thought consistent with the new principles: Many ceremonies, become venerable from age and preceding use, were retained : The splendour
of the Romish worship, though removed, had at least given place to order and decency: The distinctive habits of the clergy, according to their different ranks, were continued : No innovation was admitted, merely from spite
CH A P. and opposition to former usage: And the new re
XL.ligion, by mitigating the genius of the ancient su1568. perstition, and rendering it more compatible with
the peace and interests of society, had preserved itself in that happy medium which wise men have always sought, and which the people have so seldom been able to maintain.
But though such in general, was the spirit of the reformation in that country, many of the English reformers, being men of more warm complexions and more obstinate tempers, endeavoured to push matters to extremities against the church of Rome, and indulged themselves in the most violent contrariety and antipathy to all former practices. Among these, Hooper, who afterwards saffered for his religion with such
extraordinary constancy, was chiefly distinguished. This man was appointed, during the reign of Edward, to the see of Glocester, and made no scruple of accepting the episcopal office; but he refused to be consecrated in the episcopal habit, the cymarre and rochette, which had formerly, he said, been abused by superstition, and which were thereby rendered unbecoming a true christian. Cranmer and Ridley were surprised at this objection, which opposed the received practice, and even the established laws; and though young Edward, desirous of promoting a man so celebrated for his eloquence, his zeal, and his morals, enjoined them to dispense with this ceremony, they were still determined to retain it. Hooper then embraced the resolution, rather to refuse the bishopric, than clothe himself in those hated garments; but it was deemed requisite, that for the sake of the example, he should not escape so easily. He was first confined to Cranmer's house, then thrown into prison till he should consent to be a bishop on the terms proposed: He was plied with conferences, and reprimands, and arguments: Bucer and Peter Martyr, and the most celebrated foreign
reformers, were consulted on this important ques- C H A P. tion: And a compromise, with great difficulty, was
XL. at last made, that Hooper should not be obliged to 1568. wear commonly the obnoxious robes, but should agree to be consecrated in them, and to use them during cathedral service; a condescension, not a; little extraordinary in a man of so inflexible a spirit as this reformer.
The same objection which had arisen with regard to the episcopal habit, had been moved against the raiment of the inferior clergy; and the surplice, in particular, with the tippet and corner cap, was a great object of abhorrence to many of the popular zealots. In vain it was urged that particular habits, as well as postures and ceremonies, having been constantly used by the clergy, and employed in religious service, acquire a veneration in the eyes of the people, appear sacred in their apprehensions, excite their devotion, and contract a kind of mysterious virtue, which attaches the affections of men to the national and established worship : That in order to produce this effect, an uniformity in these particulars is requisite, and even a perseverance, as far as possible, in the former practice: And that the nation would be happy, if, by retaining these inoffensive observances, the reformers could engage the people to renounce willingly what was absurd or pernicious in the ancient superstition. These arguments, which had influence with wise men, were the very reasons which engaged the violent protestants to reject the habits. They pushed matters to a total opposition with the church of Rome: Every compliance, they said, was a symbolising with Antichrist.” And this spirit was carried so far by some reformers, that, in a national remonstrance made afterwards by the church of Scotland against these habits, it was asked, “ What
Burnet, vol. ii. p. 152. Heylin, p. 90.
f Strype, vol. i.
& Ibid. p. 416.
CHA P. " has Christ Jesus to do with Beliel? What has
“ darkness to do with light? If surplices, corner
caps, and tippets have been badges of idolaters " in the very act of their idolatry ; why should the “ preacher of Christian liberty, and the open re“ buker of all superstition, partake with the dregs " of the Romish beast? Yea, who is there that " ought not rather to be afraid of taking in his hand,
or on his forehead, the print and mark of that “ odious beast ?”' f But this application was rejected by the English church.
There was only one instance in which the spirit of contradiction to the Romanists took place universally in England: The altar was removed from the wall, was placed in the middle of the church, and was thenceforth denominated the communiontable. The reason why this innovation met with such general reception was, that the nobility and gentry got thereby a pretence for making spoil of the plate, vestures, and rich ornaments which belonged to the altars.3
THESE disputes, which had been started during the reign of Edward, were carried abroad by the protestants, who fled from the persecutions of Mary; and as the zeal of these men had received an increase from the furious cruelty of their enemies, they were generally inclined to carry their opposition to the utmost extremity against the practice of the church of Rome. Their communication with Calvin and the other reformers, who followed the discipline and worship of Geneva, confirmed them in this obstinate reluctance; and though some of the refugees, particularly those who were established at Frankfort, still adhered to king Edward's liturgy, the prevailing spirit carried these confessors to seek a still farther reformation. On the accession of Elizabeth, they
f Keith, p. 563. Knox, p. 402.