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assembled on the borders of England ; but this ex-CHA P. pedient served only to hasten his sentence and execution.° Morton died with that constancy and resolution, which had attended him through all the various events of his life; and left a reputation, which was less disputed with regard to abilities than probity and virtue. But this conclusion of the scene happened not till the subsequent year.

ELIZABETH was, during this period, extremely Spanish anxious on account of every revolution in Scotland; both because that country alone, not being separated from England by sea, and bordering on all the catholic and malcontent counties, afforded her enemies a safe and easy method of attacking her; and because she was sensible, that Mary, thinking herself abandoned by the French monarch, had been engaged by the Guises to have recourse to the powerful protection of Philip, who, though he had not yet come to an open rupture with the queen, was every day, both by the injuries which he comvitted and suffered, more exasperated against her. That he might retaliate the assistance which he

gave to his rebels in the Low Countries, he had sent under the name of the pope, a body of seven hundred Spaniards and Italians into Ireland; where the inhabitants, always turbulent, and discontented with the English government, were now more alienated by religious prejudices, and were ready to join every invader. The Spanish general, San Josepho, built a fort in Kerry; and, being their besieged by the earl of Ormond, president of Munster, who was soon after joined by lord Gray, the deputy, he made a weak and cowardly defence. After some assaults, feebly sustained, he surrendered at discretion; and Gray, who çommanded but a small force, finding himself in


Spotswood. p. 312.

p Digges, p. 359. 370.



CHA P. cumbered with so many prisoners, put all the

Spaniards and Italians to the sword without mercy, and hanged about fifteen hundred of the Irish: A cruelty which gave great displeasure to Elizabeth.

When the English ambassador made complaints of this invasion, he was answered by like complaints

of the piracies committed by Francis Drake, a bold Sir Francis seaman, who had assaulted the Spaniards in the place Drake.

where they deemed themselves most secure, in the new world. This man, sprung from mean parents in the county of Devon, having acquired considerable riches by depredations made in the isthmus of Panama, and having there gotten a sight of the Pacific Ocean, was so stimulated by ambition and avarice, that he scrupled not to employ his whole fortune in a new adventure through those seas, so much unknown at that time to all the European nations." By means of sir Christopher Hatton, then vicechamberlain, a great favourite of the queen's, he obtained her consent and approbation; and he set sail from Plymouth in 1577, with four ships and a pinnace, on board of which were one hundred and sixtyfour able sailors. He passed into the South Sea by the Straits of Magellan, and attacking the Spaniards, who expected no enemy in those quarters, he took many rich prizes, and prepared to return with the booty which he had acquired. Apprehensive of being intercepted by the enemy, if he took the same way homewards, by which he had reached the Pacific Ocean, he attempted to find a passage by the north of California; and failing in that enterprise, he set sail for the East Indies, and returned safely this year by the Cape of Good Hope. He was the first Englishman who sailed round the globe; and the first commander in chief: For Magellan, whose

ship 9 Camden, p. 475. Cox's Hist. of Ireland, p. 368.

Camden, p. 478. Stowe, p. 689. s Camden, p. 478. Hakluyt's Voyages, vol. iii. p. 730. 748. Purchas's Pilgrim, vol. i. p. 46.



ship executed the same adventure, died in his pas- CH A P, sage. His name became celebrated on account of so bold and fortunate an attempt; but many, apprehending the resentment of the Spaniards, endeavoured to persuade the queen, that it would be more prudent to disavow the enterprise, to punish Drake, and to restore the treasure. But Elizabeth, who admired valour, and was allured by the prospect of sharing in the booty, determined to countenance that gallant sailor: She conferred on him the honour of knighthood, and accepted of a banquet from him, at Deptford, on board the ship which had atchieved so memorable a voyage. When Philip's ambassador, Mendoza, exclaimed against Drake's piracies, she told him that the Spaniards, by arrogating a right to the whole new world, and excluding thence all other European nations, who should sail thither, even with a view of exercising the most lawful commerce, naturally tempted others to make a violent irruption into those countries.' To pacify, however, the catholic monarch, she caused part of the booty to be restored to Pedro Sebura, a Spaniard, who pretended to be agent for the merchants wilom Drake had spoiled. Having learned afterwards, that Philip had seized the money, and had employed part of it against herself in Ireland, part of it in the pay of the prince of Parma's troops, she determined to make no more restitutions.

THERE was another cause, which induced the queen to take this resolution: She was in such want of money, that she was obliged to assemble a parliament, a measure, which, as she herself openly declared, she never embraced, except when constrained by the necessity of her affairs. The parliament. 16th Jan besides granting her a supply of one subsidy and ment. two fifteenths, enacted some statutes for the security of her government, chiefly against the attempts of

the Camden, p. 480.



CHAP. the catholics. Whoever, in any way, reconciled

any one to the church of Rome, or was himself re-
conciled, was declared to be guilty of treason; to
say mass was subjected to the penalty of a year's
imprisonment, and a fine of two hundred marks;
the being present was punishable by a year's impri-
sonment, and a fine of one hundred marks: A fine
of twenty pounds a month was imposed on every
one who continued, during that time, absent from
church. To utter slanderous or seditious words
against the queen was punishable, for the first of-
fence, with the pillory and loss of ears; the second
offence was declared felony: The writing or print-
ing of such words was felony even on the first of-
fence". The puritans prevailed so far as to have
farther applications made for reformation in reli-
gion": And Paul Wentworth, brother to the mem-
ber of that name who had distinguished himself in
the preceding session, moved, That the commons,
from their own authority, should appoint a general
fast and prayers: A motion, to which the house
unwarily assented. For this presumption, they
were severely reprimanded by a message from the
queen, as encroaching on the royal prerogative and
supremacy; and they were obliged to submit, and
ask forgiveness.

The queen and parliament were engaged to pass these severe laws against the catholics, by some late discoveries of the treasonable practices of their priests. When the ancient worship was suppressed, and the reformation introduced into the universities, the king of Spain reflected, that, as some spe. cies of literature was necessary for supporting these doctrines and controversies, the Romish communion must decay in England, if no means were found to give erudition to the ecclesiastics; and for this reason, he founded a seminary at Douay, where the catholics sent their children, chiefly such as

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23 Eliz. cap. 1. * D'Ewes, p. 302.

w Ibid. cap. 2.
Y Ibid. p. 284, 285.

were intended for the priesthood, in order to re-CHAP. ceive the rudiments of their education. The cardi- XLI. nal of Lorraine imitated this example, by erecting 1581. a like seminary in his diocese of Rheims; and though Rome was somewhat distant, the pope would not neglect to adorn, by a foundation of the same nature, that capital of orthodoxy. These seminaries, founded with so hostile an intention, sent over every year a colony of priests, who maintained the catholic superstition in its full height of bigotry; and being educated with a view to the crown of martyrdom, were not deterred, either by danger or fatigue, from maintaining and propagating their principles. They infused into all their votaries an extreme hatred against the queen, whom they treated as an usurper, a schismatic, a heretic, a persecutor of the orthodox, and one solemnly and publicly anathematised by the boly father. Sedition, rebellion, sometimes assassination, were the expedients by which they intended to effect their purposes against her; and the severe restraint, not to say persecution, under which the catholics la-boured, made them the more willingly receive, from their ghostly fathers, such violent doctrines.

THESE seminaries were all of them under the direction of the jesuits, a new order of regular priests erected in Europe, when the court of Rome perceived that the lazy monks and beggarly friars, who sufficed in times of ignorance, ivere no longer able to defend the ramparts of the church, assailed on every side, and that the inquisitive spirit of the age required a society more active and more learned, to oppose its dangerous progress. These men, as they stood foremost in the contest against the protestants, drew on them the extreme animosity of that whole sect; and, by assuming a superiority over the other more numerous and more ancient orders of their own communion, were even exposed to the envy of their brethren: So that it is no wonder, if

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