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CHA P. his friendship as hollow and precarious. But no

sooner did the death of Francis II. put an end to 1562. Philip's apprehensions with regard to Mary's suc

cession, than his animosity against Elizabeth began
more openly to appear; and the interests of Spain
and those of England were found opposite in every
negotiation and transaction.

The two great monarchies of the continent,
France and Spain, being possessed of nearly equal
force, were naturally antagonists; and England,
from its power and situation, was entitled to sup- :
port its own dignity, as well as tranquillity, by.
holding the balance between them. Whatever in
cident, therefore, tended too much to depress one
of these rival powers, as it left the other without
controul, might be deemed contrary to the interests
of England; yet so much were these great maxims
of policy over-ruled, during that age, by the dis-
putes of theology, that Philip found an advantage
in supporting the established government and reli-
gion of France; and Elizabeth in protecting faction
and innovation.

The queen-regent of France, when reinstated in authority by the death of her son, Francis, had formed a plan of administration more subtle than judicious; and, balancing the catholics with the hugonots, the duke of Guise with the prince of Condé, she endeavoured to render herself necessary to both, and to establish her own dominion on their constrained obedience. But the equal counterpoise of power, which, among foreign nations, is the source of tranquillity, proves always the ground of quarrel between domestic factions; and if the animosity of religion concur with the frequent occasions which present themselves of mutual injury, it is impossible, during any time, to preserve a firm concord in so delicate a situation. The constable,

Montmorency, e Haynes, vol. i. p. 280, 281.283, 284. f Davila, lib.ii.

Civil wars of France.

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Montmorency, moved by zeal for the ancient faith, CHA P.

XXXIX. joined himself to the duke of Guise: The king of Navarre, from his inconstant temper, and his jealousy of the superior genius of his brother, embraced the same party: And Catharine, finding herself depressed by this combination, had recourse to Condé and the hugonots, who gladly embraced the opportunity of fortifying themselves by her countenance and protection. An edict had been published, granting a toleration to the protestants; but the interested violence of the duke of Guise, covered with the pretence of religious zeal, broke through this agreement; and the two parties, after the fallacious tranquillity of a moment, renewed their mutual insults and injuries. Condé, Coligni, Andelot, assembled their friends, and flew to arms: Guise and Montmorency got possession of the king's person, and constrained the queen-regent to embrace their party : Fourteen armies were levied and put in motion in different parts of France:h Each province, each city, each family was agitated with intestine rage and animosity. The father was divided against the son; brother against brother; and women themselves, sacrificing their humanity as well as their timidity to the religious fury, distinguished themselves by acts of ferocity and valour.i Wherever the hugonots prevailed, the images were broken, the altars pillaged, the churches demolished, the monasteries consumed with fire: Where success attended the catholics, theyburned the bibles, re-baptized the infants, constrained married persons to pass anew through the nuptial ceremony: And plunder, desolation, and bloodshed attended equally the triumph of both parties. The parliament of Paris itself, the seat of law and justice, instead of employing its authority to compose these fatal quarrels, published an edict by which it put the sword into the hands of the enraged


multitude, & Davila, lib, iii. h Father Paul, lib. vii.

i Ibid.

CHA P. multitude, and empowered the catholics every where XXXIX.

to massacre the hugonots:k And it was during this 1562. period, when men began to be somewhat enlighten

ed, and in this nation, renowned for polished manners, that the theological rage, which had long been boiling in men's veins, seems to have attained its last stage of virulence and serocity.

Philip, jealous of the progress which the hugonots made in France, and dreading that the contagion would spread into the Low Country provinces, had formed a secret alliance with the princes of Guise, and had entered into a mutual concert for the protection of the ancient faith, and the suppression of heresy. He now sent six thousand men, with some supply of money, to reinforce the catholic party; and the prince of Condé, finding himself unequal to so great a combination, countenanced by the royal authority, was obliged to dispatch the Vidame of Chartres and Briguemaut to London, in order to crave the assistance and protection of Eli

zabeth. Most of the province of Normandy was Havre de possessed by the hugonots: And Condé offered to Grace put put Havre de Grace into the hands of the English; sion of the on condition that, together with three thousand men English.

for the garrison of that place, the queen should likewise send over three thousand to defend Dieppe and Rouen, and should furnish the prince with a supply of a hundred thousand crowns.

ELIZABETH, besides the general and essential interest of supporting the protestants

, and opposing the rapid progress of her enemy the duke of Guise, had olher motives which engaged her to accept of this proposal. When she concluded the peace at CateauCambresis, she had good reason to foresee that France never would voluntarily fulfil the article which regarded the restitution of Calais ; and many subsequent incidents had tended to confirm this suspicion. Considerable sums of money had been expended on

the k Father Paul, lib. vii. Haynes, p. 391. Forbes, vol. ii. p. 48.

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the fortifications; long leases had been granted of CHAP. the lands; and many inhabitants had been encouraged to build and settle there, by assurances that Calais should never be restored to the English. TM The queen therefore wisely concluded, that, could she get possession of Havre, a place which commanded the mouth of the Seine, and was of greater importance than Calais, she should easily constrain the French to execute the treaty, and should have the glory of restoring to the crown that ancient possession, so much the favourite of the nation.

No measure could be more generally odious in France, than the conclusion of this treaty with Elizabeth. Men were naturally led to compare the conduct of Guise, who had finally expelled the English, and had debarred these dangerous and destructive enemies from all access into France, with the treasonable politics of Condé, who had again granted them an entrance into the heart of the kingdom. The prince had the more reason to repent of this measure, as he reaped not from it all the advantage which he expected. Three thousand English immediately took possession of Havre and Dieppe, under the command of sir Edward Poinings; but the latter place was found so little capable of defence, that it was immediately abandoned. The siege of Rouen was already formed by the catholics, under the command of the king of Navarré and Montmorency; and it was with difficulty that Poinings could throw a small reinforcement into the place. Though these English troops behaved with gallantry," and though the king of Navarre was mortally wounded during the siege, the catholics still continued the attack of the place, and carrying it at last by assault, put the whole garrison to the sword. The earl of Warwic, eldest son of the late duke of Northumberland, arrived soon after at Havre with

another m Forbes, p. 54. 257. n Ibid. vol. ii. p. 199. Ibid. p. 161.




CHAP. another body of three thousand English, and took

on him the command of the place.

It was expected that the French catholics, flushed with their success at Rouen, would immediately have formed the siege of Havre, which was not as yet in


condition of defence; but the intestine disorders of the kingdom soon diverted their attention to another enterprise. Andelot, seconded by the negotiations of Elizabeth, had levied a considerable body of protestants in Germany; and having arrived at Orleans, the seat of the hugonots' power, he enabled the prince of Condé and the admiral to take the field, and


progress of their enemies. After threatening Paris during some time, they took their march towards Normandy with a view of engaging the English to act in conjunction with them, and of fortifying themselves by the farther assistance which they expected from the zeal and vigour of Elizabeth. P The catholics, commanded by the constable, and under him by the duke of Guise, followed on their rear; and, overtaking them at Dreux, obliged them to give battle. The field was fought with great obstinacy on both sides : And the action was distinguished by this singular event, that Condé and Montmorency, the commanders of the opposite armies, fell both of them prisoners into the hands of their enemies. The appearances of victory remained with Guise; but the adıniral whose fate it ever was to be defeated, and still to rise more terrible after his misfortunes, collected the remains of the army; and inspiring his own unconquerable courage and constancy into every breast, kept them in a body, and subdued some considerable places in Normandy. Elizabeth, the better to support his cause, sent him a new supply of a hundred thousand crowns; and offered, if he could find merchants to


lend p Forbes, p. 320. Davila, lib. iii.

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