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the Romans, besieges and takes Jerusalem with great slaugh ter. Antigonus made prisoner, and carried to Rome. His death procured by Herod 254


HYRCANUS, at the invitation of Herod, returns to Jerusalem. He is put to death on a charge of treason by that jealous prince. Aristobulus, grandson of Hyrcanus, invested with the high-priesthood. Herod soon after procures his death. Mariamne, the wife of Herod, having incurred his displeasure, is falsely accused, condemned, and executed. Alexandra, her mother, is put to death shortly after. A conspiracy formed against Herod is discovered, and the conspirators executed. Judea afflicted with a grievous famine and pestilence. The temple at Jerusalem rebuilt by Herod with prodigious cost and labour. Herod causes Alexander and Aristobulus, his two sons by Mariamne, to be condemned and executed, on a charge of conspiring against his life. The birth of our blessed Lord and Saviour. The arrival of the eastern magi. The slaughter of the male infants at Bethlehem. The miserable death of Herod. His dominions divided by his last will between his three sons, Archelaus, Antipas, and Philip 271


ARCHELAUS goes to Rome, to procure his establishment in the kingdom by the emperor. The Jews are deluded by false Messiahs. Archelaus obtains half his father's dominions; the other half is divided into two tetrarchies, of which, one is governed by Herod Antipas, and the other by Philip. Archelaus becomes cruel and tyrannical. The people complain to Augustus, who banishes him to Vienne, in France, and reduces his dominions into a Roman province. Coponius the first governor of Judea. The death

of the emperor Augustus. He is succeeded by Tiberius. Pontius Pilate, the fifth Roman governor, is sent into Judea. The Jews suffer much under his government. Jesus Christ is delivered up to be crucified. His death, resurrection, and ascension. The death of Philip the tetrarch. His character. Vitellius made governor of Syria. Caiaphas deposed from the high-priesthood. A disturdance breaks out, which proves the ruin of Pilate. Caligula succeeds Tiberius in the empire. He banishes Pilate to Vienne. His character described



AGRIPPA raised to be king over all Philip's dominions. He is publicly insulted at Alexandria. Herod and Herodias his wife banished to Lyons. The emperor assumes divine honours, and orders his image to be set up in the temple at Jerusalem. The Jews oppose it. Agrippa pleads their cause with the emperor, and gains his suit. Claudius succeeds Caligula, and completes the honour and sovereignty of Agrippa. To ingratiate himself with the Jews, Agrippa sets about persecuting the Christians. He puts the apostle James to death. He gives audience to the ambassadors of Tyre and Sidon, and makes an oration to them, which is highly applauded by the people. He is immediately struck with death, and expires in great agony




CUSPIUS Fadus appointed president of all Agrippa's dominions. Cassius Longinus made governor of Syria. Frequent tumults in Judea. The emperor Claudius sends Felix to be governor of Palestine. Claudius dies. He is succeeded by Nero. Felix causes Jonathan the high-priest to be assassinated. Other murders are committed with impunity. A certain Egyptian Jew raises an insurrection.

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Felix suppresses it. The apostle Paul brought before Felix. Annas the high-priest deposed by Agrippa. Felix removed from being governor. Porcius Festus succeeds him. Paul brought before Festus. Festus dying, Nero sends Albinus in his room, who grievously oppresses the people. He is succeeded by Gessus Florus, who proves more tyrannical than his predecessor. Astonishing presages and appearances in the air



THE rebellion of the Jews, occasioned by the oppressions of Florus. Agrippa endeavours to prevent the war. Twenty thousand Jews are massacred at Cæsarea, and fifty thousand at Alexandria. Jerusalem encompassed with armies. The Christians escape to Pella. Josephus sent into Galilee to wait for the Romans. Florus removed from his government. Vespasian sent in his room. He gathers together all the Roman forces, and, being joined by his son Titus, marches to Galilee. Josephus deserted by his soldiers. Vespasian marches to Gadara, and takes it. He advances to Jotapata. Josephus enters the city, and valiantly defends it



THE desperate resistance of the besieged. A description of the battering ram used by the Romans. The Jews betrayed by one of their own countrymen. The city taken by stratagem, and the inhabitants put to the sword. Josephus escapes the general massacre. His speech on the sin of suicide. He delivers himself up to Vespasian, who keeps him a close prisoner. Vespasian proceeds to Tiberias, Tarichea, Gamala, and the mountain Itaburium, all of which he takes. Giscala besieged and taken by Titus. The governor John escapes to Jerusalem. The campaign ends

with the total reduction of the province of Galilee. The death of Nero. The short reigns of Galba, Otho, and Vitellius. Vespasian chosen emperor. He sets Josephus at liberty



THE Jews are divided into factions. The Idumeans are are let into the city. A dreadful massacre. Titus approaches with his army, accompanied by Josephus. The three factions join to oppose him. Titus, having battered. down the first and second wall, prepares to attack the third. He sends Josephus to entreat the Jews to yield, and spare their city and temple. They pay no regard to his entreaties. Many of the people escape to the Roman camp. The seditious continue the most unheard-of cruelties. Jerusalem filled with rapine and murder. The Jews break into the camp of the Romans, and are repulsed. Titus surrounds the city with a wall. A dreadful famine and pestilence in Jerusalem. Titus again entreats the Jews to surrender, which they obstinately refuse. The temple destroyed by the Romans. The seditious, retiring to the king's palace, are driven from thence by Titus, who becomes master of all the city



TITUS bestows great rewards on his soldiers. He goes to Cæsarea Philippi, where he proclaims all sorts of pastimes. The captive Jews forced to fight with each other. Titus returns to Cæsarea. Simon, the general of the Jews, being presented to him in chains, is reserved for his triumph. A dreadful fire at Antioch. The Jews accused as the authors of that calamity. Great rejoicings on Titus's arrival at Rome. The senate decrees a triumph. A description of it. Some strong castles remain untaken in Judea

Vespasian sends Lucius Bassus, as lieutenant-general, into Judea, who takes the castle and garrison of Herodium and Macheron. Three thousand Jews slain in the forest of Jardes. The Romans advance to the last castle, called Massada, the inhabitants of which destroy themselves, to avoid falling into the hands of the enemy. Many Jews suffer in Egypt. A dreadful massacre of the Jews at Cyrene. The emperor gives orders for all the lands in Judea to be sold. Josephus highly honoured by the emperor, and his works deposited in the public library. Conclusion 349

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