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made by Friedrich Müller as to the development of the languages of the Mediterranean races. The linguistic familics of the nations dwelling chiefly in the basin of the Mediterranean are Basque, Caucasian, Hamito-Semitic and Indo-Germanic languages. "The languages of these four families," says Friedrich Müller, "are, as is generally accepted by the most competent linguists, not mutually related. If we therefore see that the Mediterranean race includes four families of people in no way related to one another, the inference is obvious that, as each language must be traceable to a society, the single race must have gradually fallen into four societies, of which each independently created its own language. A further inference is, that the race, as such, does not acquire a language; for, were this the case, race and language would now be coextensive, which is not the case.
"We must therefore assume that at the time when the various nations of the Mediterranean race were one,— the time when man belonged to no nation, but merely to a race, mankind was destitute of language. Müller considers 3000 years approximately sufficient for the period elapsing between the divergence of the race into still speechless societies, and the epoch at which they formed nations, separated and characterized by languages; a period which might seem to many, estimated as far too short. If the ancient civilized people of Egypt be now added on, and the period of its conjectured migration from Asia computed, "the year 6,500 before the commencement of our chronology seems to be the earliest epoch at which we may speak of a HamitoSemitic primæval people in the north of Europe." There
fore a Mediterranean race already existed 12,000 years ago. But what space of time was requisite to enable primitive man to separate into races, is entirely beyond computation, and the more so as not the slightest trace of him has hitherto been found.
With the invariable testimony of Geology that the periods of the terrestrial strata imperceptibly merged into one another, and that, especially from the Tertiary, through the Diluvial period, to the present age, continuity has been only locally interrupted, the question of the "fossil man," formerly looked upon as cardinal, has assumed another aspect. In Europe, man lived with the mammoth and the rhinoceros with a bony nasal partition (Elephas primogenius, Rhinocerus tichorhinus). It has been asserted that European man existed as early as the upper Tertiary age, but the evidence is disputable. Such remains as we have of this oldest man known to us, display a high grade of development, and certainly belong to the period at which man had already found in language the implement wherewith gradually to free himself from the dross of his lowly origin. Whether the primitive man be found or not, his origin is certain.
REFERENCES AND QUOTATIONS.
1 Luthardt, Apologetische Vorträge. 7 Vortrag. P. 129. 2 Philosophia quaerit, theologia invenit, religio possidet veri
3 Tageblatt der Naturforscher-Versammlung in Leipzig, 1872. P. 12. The discourse was also printed separately. * A. Fick, Physiologie, 1860.
Any one who wishes to be more deeply instructed in the problem of sensation, as an universal primary characteristic of the constituent elements of matter, may be referred to the very lucid and interesting work, "Das Unbewuste vom Standpunkt der Physiologie und Descendenztheorie" (Berlin, 1872). Published anonymously.
L. Geiger, Ueber den Ursprung der Sprache. (Stuttgart, 1869.) P. 207.
7 Rollet, Ueber Elementartheile und Gewebe und deren Unterscheidung. Rollet, Untersuchungen, etc. 1871.
8 Karl Ernst v. Bär, Ueber Entwickelungsgeschichte der Thiere, Beobachtung und Reflexion, 1828.
9 Ib. I. 223.
10 Ib. I. 230, &c.
11 Credner, Elemente der Geologie, 1872. P. 253.
12 Agassiz, Essay on Classification, 1858. "It exhibits everywhere the working of the same creative Mind, through all times, and upon the whole surface of the globe."
13 Rütimeyer, Beiträge zur Kenntniss der fossilen Pferde. Verhandlung der naturforschenden Gesellschaft in Basel, 1863. III. 642.
14 The passages are from an occasional address-Oratio de ellure habitabili-contained in the Amonitates academicæ. 66 Initio
rerum ex omni specie viventium unicum sexus par fuisse creatum, suadet ratio."
Ib. Non multum a veritate me aberratum confido, si dixerim, omnem continentem terram fuisse in infantia mundi aquis submersam et vasto oceano obtectam, præter unicam in immenso hoc pelago insulam, in qua commode habitaverint animalia omnia et vegetabilia læte germinaverint."
16 Tot numeramus species, quot ab initio creavit infinitum ens." 17 Geoffroy St. Hilaire wrote to Cuvier: "Venez jouer parmi nous le rôle de Linné, d'un autre lêgislateur de l'histoire naturelle.” 18 Ossements fossiles.
19 L. Agassiz, An Essay on Classification, 1859. P. 253:
"As representatives of Species, individual animals bear the Closest relations to one another; they exhibit definite relations also to the surrounding element, and their existence is limited within a definite period.
"As representatives of Genera these same individuals have a definite and specific ultimate structure, identical with that of the representatives of other species," etc. See also P. 261 :
Branches or types are characterized by the plan of their struc
Classes, by the manner in which that plan is executed, as far as ways and means are concerned;
"Orders, by the degrees of complication of that structure; Families, by their form, as far as determined by structure; “Genera, by the details of the execution in special parts; and, "Species, by the relations of individuals to one another, and to the world in which they live, as well as by the proportions of their parts, their ornamentation,” etc.
20 Haeckel, Generelle Morphologie der Organismen (Berlin, 1866). II. 323, &c.
L'espèce est “la réunion des individus descendant l'un de l'autre et des parents communs, et de ceux qui leur ressemblent autant qu'ils se ressemblent entr'eux." Cuvier, Le Règne Animal.
2 O. Schmidt, Die Spongien der Küste von Algier, 1868, and Versuch einer Spongienfauna des atlantischen Gebietes, 1870.
Haeckel, Die Kalkschwämme. Eine Monographie in Zwei Bänden, Text und einem Atlas mit 60 Tafeln Abbildungen (Berlin, 1872).
* Hilgendorf, Ueber Planorbis multiformis in Steinheimer Süsswasserkalk. Monatsbericht des Berliner Akademie aus dem Jahre 1866. P. 474, &c.
25 Waagen, Die Formenreihe des Ammonites subradiatus. Beneke's Beiträge, 1869. Vol. 2.
Zittel, Die Fauna der ältern Cephalopoden führenden Tithonbildungen. Paläontologische Mittheilungen, 1870.
Neumayr, Jurastudien. Jahrbuch der geologischen Reichsanstalt, 1871.
L. Würtenberger, Neuer Beitrag zum geologischen Beweise der Darwin' schen Theorie, 1873.
26 Darwin, The Variation of Plants and Animals under Domestication 1868.
Lehrbuch der Naturphiloso
27 L. Oken, Die Zeugung, 1805. phie, 1809-11, Pt. 3.
23 I have borrowed the following account from my essay: "Wae Goethe ein Darwinianer?" (Was Goethe a Darwinist ?) Gratz, Leuschner and Lubinsky, 1871.
Also another small work of mine: "Goethe's Verhältniss zu den organischen Naturwissenschaften" (Berlin, 1852). To the passages given in the text, which might make Goethe appear as a Darwinist, I may add the following from Eckermann's "Gespräche mit Goethe" (3 Ed. p. 191). Thus man has in his skull two empty cavities. The question why? would not go far, whereas the question how? teaches me that these cavities are remains of the animal skull, which in those inferior organisms exist to a greater degree, and are not entirely lost even in man, notwithstanding his higher elevation."
29 A somewhat depreciative opinion of Goethe's importance in this sphere is pronounced by V. Carus in his "Geschichte der Zoologie" (München, 1872). The reader may compare : "How little, notwithstanding his repeated study of anatomy, he had gained a true insight into the structure of animals, as determined by law, is testified by his Introduction to Comparative Anatomy. He finds no other means of harmonizing the dry details of descriptive anatomy, and the morphology which vaguely hovered before him, but by indicating the idea of a primitive type for animals, which he is, however, unable to define or to render in any way palpable by more general indications. His whole idiosyncrasy