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But these things, though they be true and right, yet are not contradictory to the present case.
24. (1.) Evaristus, it is clear, forbade translations and removes from church to church, "ambitus causa," for ambition or covetousness, and therefore it is by him expressly permitted in their proper cases and limits; that is, "in inevitabili necessitate, aut apostolica, vel regulari mutatione," 'when there is inevitable necessity,' or the command and authority of a superior power: and yet upon perusal of the decree I find, that Evaristus's intent was, that a bishop should not thrust his church from him by way of divorce and excommunication, and take another: as appears not only by the corresponding part of the decree, viz., " that neither must the church take in another bishop or husband upon him to whom already she is espoused;" but by the expression used in the beginning of it, "Dimittere ecclesiam episcopus non debet;" and it is compared to the adultery of a man that puts away his wife, and marries another; and also it appears more yet by the gloss, which seems to render the same sense of it, and wholly discourses of the unlawfulness to excommunicate a church or a city, lest the innocent should suffer with the criminal; for when a church is excommunicated, though all those persons die upon whom the sentence fell, yet the church is the same under other persons their successors; and therefore all the way it does injustice, by involving the new-arising innocents, and at last is wholly unjust by including all and only innocent persons. But which way soever this decree be understood, it comes not home to a prohibition of our case.
25. (2.) As for Eusebius, it is a clear case he imposed upon the good Emperor, who knew not the secret cause of Eusebius's denial to remove from Cæsarea to Antioch. For he having engaged the Emperor before time to write in his behalf, that he might be permitted to enjoy that bishoprick, was not willing to seem guilty of levity and easiness of change. But that was not all, he was a secret favourer of the Arians, and therefore was unwilling to go to that church, where his predecessor Eustathius had been famous for opposing that pest.
(3.) To that of St. Jerome out of the Nicene council, I answer, That the prohibition is only of such, as without
authority, upon their own head, for their own evil purposes, and with injury to their own churches, did it; and of covetousness it is, that St. Jerome notes and reproves the practice: to despise our charge because it is poor, is to love the money more than the souls, and therefore this is not to be done by any one of his own choice; but if it be done by the command or election of our superior, it is to be presumed it is for the advantage of the church in matter of direct reason, or collateral assistances, and therefore hath in it no cause of reproof.
26. And to this purpose the whole affair is very excellently stated by the fourteenth canon of the apostles; "A bishop must not leave his own parish or diocess, and invade that of another man, nisi forte quis cum rationabili causa compellatur, tanquam qui possit ibidem constitutus plus lucri conferre, et in causa religionis aliquid profectus prospicere."" If there be a reasonable cause, he may; and the cause is reasonable, if by going he may do more good or advantage to religion: but of this he is not to be judge himself, but must be judged by his superiors; "et hoc non à semetipso 'pertentet, sed multorum episcoporum judicio, et maxima supplicatione perficiat;"" he must not do it on his own head, but by the sentence and desire of the bishops."
27. There needs no more to be added to this, but that if a greater revenue be annexed to another charge, and that it be' in rem ecclesiæ,' that the more worthy person should be advanced thither, to enable his better ministries by those secular assistances, which our infirmity needs, there is nothing to be said against it, but that if he be the man he is taken for, he knows how to use those advantages to God's glory, and the good of souls, and the services of the church; and. if he does so, his intentions are to be presumed pure and holy, because the good of souls is the principal.
28. Upon the supposition of these causes, we find that the practice of the ancient bishops and clerks in their translations was approved. Origen did first serve God in the church of Alexandria, afterward he went to Cæsarea, to Antioch, to Tyre: and St. Gregory Nazianzen changed his episcopal see eight times. Nay, the apostles themselves did so : St. Peter was first bishop of Antioch, afterward of Rome: and the necessity and utility of the churches called St. Paul
to an ambulatory government and episcopacy, though at last he also was fixed at Rome, and he removed Timothy and Titus from church to church, as the need and uses of the church required. But in this, our call must be from God, or from our superiors, not from levity or pride, covetousness or negligence. Concerning which, who please further to be satisfied, may read St. Athanasius's epistle to Dracontius, of old; and of late, Chytræus in epistolis p. 150 et 678.' and Conradus Porta in his Formalia.' This only; If every man were indispensably tied to abide where he is first called to minister, then it were not lawful for an inferior minister to desire the good work of a bishop; which because it is not to be administered in the same place or charge, according to the universal discipline of the church for very many ages, must suppose that there can be a reasonable cause to change our charges, because the Apostle commends that desire which supposes that change.
29. These being the limits and measures of the rule, it would be very good if we were able to discern concerning the secrets of our intentions, and the causes of actions. It is true, that because men confound their actions and deliberations, it will be impossible to tell, in many cases, what motive is the principal ingredient. "Sed ut tunc communibus magis commodis, quam privatæ jactantiæ studebamus, cum intentionem adfectumque muneris nostri vellemus intelligi; ita nunc in ratione edendi veremur, ne fortè non aliorum utilitatibus, sed propriæ laudi servisse videamur." It is hard for a wise and a gallant man, who does public actions of greatest worthiness deserving honour, to tell certainly whether he is more pleased in the honours that men do him, or in the knowledge that he hath done them benefits. But yet in very many cases, we may at least guess probably which is the prevailing ingredient, by these following measures; besides those which I have noted and applied to the special case of undertaking the calling ecclesiastical.
Signs of Difference, whereby we may in a mixed and compli cated Intention, discern which is the principal Ingredient. 30. (1.) Whatsoever came in after the determination was made, though it add much the greater confidence, and r Gierig, vol. 1. p. 35.
Vide Rule of Holy Living, chap. 1. sect. 2.
makes the resolution sharper and more active, yet it is not to be reckoned as the prevailing ingredient; for though it add degrees, yet the whole determination was perfected before. The widow Fulvia was oppressed by Attilius; she complains to Secundus the lawyer. He considers whether he should be advocate for his friend Attilius, or for the oppressed Fulvia; and at last determines on the side of piety and charity, and resolves to relieve the widow, but with some abatement of his spirit and confidence, because it is against his friend; but charity prevails. As he goes to court he meets with Caninius, who gloriously commends the advocation, and by superadding that spur made his diffidence and imperfect resolution confident and clear. In this case the whole action is to be attributed to piety, not to the love of fame; for this only added some moments, but that made the determination.
31. (2.) When the determination is almost made, and wants some weight to finish it, whatsoever then supervenes and casts the scales, is not to be accounted the prevailing ingredient, but that which made most in the suspension and time of deliberation, and brought it forward. It is like buying and selling: not the last maravedi that was stood upon, was the greatest argument of parting with the goods; but that farthing added to the bigger sum, made it big enough; and a child's finger may thrust a load forward, which being haled by mighty men stands still for want of a little assist
32. (3.) That is the prevailing ingredient in the determination which is most valued, not which most pleases; that which is rationally preferred, not that which delights the senses. If the man had rather lose the sensual than the intellectual good, though in that his fancy is more delighted, yet this is the stronger and greater in the divine acceptance, though possibly in nature it be less active, because less pleasing to those faculties, which whether we will or no, will be very much concerned in all the intercourses of this life. He—that keeps a festival in gratitude and spiritual joy to do God glory, and to give him thanks, and in the preparation to the action is hugely pleased by considering the music, the company, the festivity and innocent refreshments, and in his fancy, leaps at this, but his resolution walks on by that,—hath
not spoiled the regularity of his conscience by the intertexture of the sensual with the spiritual, so long as it remains innocent. For though this flames brightest, yet the other burns hottest, and will last longer than the other. But of this there is no other sign, but that first we be infinitely careful to prescribe measures and limits to the secular joy, that it may be perfectly subordinate to, and complying with, the spiritual and religious: and secondly, if we are willing to suppress the light flame, rather than extinguish the solid fire.
33. (4.) Then the holy and pious ingredient is overpowered by the mixture of the secular, when an instrument towards the end is chosen more proportionable to this, than to that. Cæcilius, to do a real not a fantastic benefit to his tenants, erected a library in his villa, and promised a yearly revenue for their children's education, and nobler institution: and thus far judgment ought to be made, that he intended piety rather than fame; for to his fame, plays and spectacles would (as the Roman humour then was) have served better; but when in the acting his resolution he praised that his pious purpose, and told them he did it for a pious, not a vainglorious end, however the intention might be right, this publication was not right: but, when he appointed that anniversary orations should be made in the praise of his pious foundation, he a little too openly discovered what was the bigger wheel in that motion. For he that serves a secret piety by a public panegyric, disorders the piety by dismantling the secret: it may still be piety, but it will be lessened by the publication; though this publication be no otherwise criminal, than because it is vain. "Meminimus, quanto majore animo honestatis fructus in conscientia, quam in fama, reponatur. Sequi enim gloria, non appeti, debet: nec si casu aliquo non sequatur, idcirco quod gloriam meruit, minus pulchrum est. Ii vero, qui benefacta sua verbis adornant, non ideo prædicare, quia fecerint, sed ut prædicarent, fecisse creduntur";" which is the very thing which I affirm in this particular. If the intermediate or consequent actions, serve the collateral or secular end, most visibly it is to be supposed, that this was the greater motive, and had too great an influence into the deliberation.